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Module 2 assignment rogue

  1. CurriculumCurriculum ImplementatioImplementatio n andn and EnrichmentEnrichment
  2. Objectives: Define curriculum Describe the curriculum development process Knowledge on the two Curriculum Models Discuss the Importance of Curriculum
  3. Lead Teachers in Curriculum implementation Discuss the Importance of Curriculum Enrichment Guide Teachers in Preparing Enrichment Curriculum
  4. What is Curriculum?What is Curriculum?  Hass and Parkay (1993) refers to all “experiences that individual learners have in a program of education whose purpose is achieved goals and related objectives ….. This is planned in terms of a framework for theory and research on past and present professional practice.”
  5. What is Curriculum? cont….  Marsh, 1992 and Farris, 1996a framework that contains the subjects to be taught to a certain group of students and how to teach them
  6. Curriculum Development ProcessOverview: Curriculum de ve lo pm e nt is de fine d as the pro ce ss o f selecting, organizing, executingand evaluatingthe le arning e xpe rie nce s o n the basis o f the needs, abilities, and interest o f le arne rs, and o n the basis o f the nature o f the so cie ty o r co m m unity
  7. Curriculum Dev’t Process cont. Curriculum de ve lo pm e nt be g ins with a m o de l. Fro m that m o de l, content is fo rm ulate d to m e e t the le arne rs’ ne e ds. Base d o n the co nte nt, spe cific instructio nal te chniq ue s and appro ache s are de ve lo pe d. The se are late r translate d into actualle sso n units o n which te ache rs base the ir daily
  8. Curriculum Models:  Ralph Tyler Model (1949) o known as the “objectives, rational, or means-end model (Marsh, 1992) 4 Basic Principles 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? (Determining Learning
  9.  4 Basic Principles, cont…. 2. How can learning experiences be selected which are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives? (Selecting and Creating appropriate Learning Experiences) 3. How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction?
  10.  4 Basic Principles, cont…. 4. How can the effectiveness of the learning experiences be evaluated? (Evaluating the Curriculum)In summary, Tyler’s Model shows that the following consideration should be made:◉ The needs of the students◉ The needs of the society ◉ The demands of the subject/topic
  11. These Needs are screens into….. ◉ Philosophy of Education◉ Psychology of Learning Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy.
  12. B. Kellough & Kellough Model (1996) This model provides additional screens which are strategically positioned to result in the best learning objectives and strategies possible in the context of a particular school’s needs and goals.
  13.  Curriculum developers ask the following questions? o How old are the learners? o What are the learners current skills?o What are the learners current level of understanding? o What are the learners developmental needs?
  14.  Component of Kellough & Kellough Model Needs a. Needs of Students - What competencies do the students need to develop? - What attitudes & value disposition do the students need to develop? - What would be appropriate for the students particular developmental ages and stages
  15. b. Needs of Society - What should these students learn to help them function better in society? - What does society expect of the students in the long term? - What acceptable social values can be taught through the topics chosen? c. Needs of the subject - Is there adequate number of teachers to teach the subjects? - Is there enough resources? - Are instructional materials available?
  16.  Educational Philosophy - refers to the basic principles followed in laying down the subjects to be included in the curriculum and how these subjects will be taught - refers to the theory that may be used to guide the selection of topics and activitiesexample: Those who believe in behavioral theories usually include more activities and experiential approaches to reinforce students knowledge and skills
  17.  Extraneous influences - are factors outside the school International, national, local interest, actions and realities  Educational Plan - Component basically covers the topics to be taught & how instruction to be delivered (Kellough & Kellough, 1996) • Content includes information & activities to be covered• Instruction refers to the teaching strategies to be use
  18.  Educational Plan…. cont..• Scope the depth & breadth of the educational experience • Sequence the order of presentation of the learning experience • Evaluation & Revision results of the plan evaluated for continuous process
  19. Curriculum Implementation defined refers to the actual use of the curriculum or syllabus. The adoption of the curriculum refers to ones intention to use the curriculum, be it school heads or a teacher, but adoption does not indicate whether the curriculum is implemented or not.
  20. Curriculum Implementation  Laissez-faire Approach • a “let alone” approach, which give the teachers absolute power to determine what they see best to implement in the classroom • allows teachers to teach lessons they believe are appropriate for their class, and in whichever they want to teach such lessons
  21. Curriculum Implementation….cont…  Authoritarian Control • Teachers are directed by authority through a memorandum /orders to follow a curriculum • The school head exercise absolute power in directing teachers to teach certain subjects in specified ways
  22. Curriculum Approaches  Fidelity of use or Fidelity of Implementation • a structured approach to implementation of curriculum is followed carefully • allow or encourage teachers to be creative and unique in teaching some topics  Adaptation to the curriculum or process orientation (Marsh, 1992)
  23. Enrichment Curriculum  CORE CURRICULUM • refers to the essential guide that teachers use to determine the subjects to be taught and how to teach these subjects • also known as the Mastery Curriculum • refers to the knowledge and skills that the students need to develop as part of a standardized learning plan.
  24.  Creating an Enrichment Curriculum• student knowledge, skills & interest • Teachers knowledge, skills & interest • Aspects of the subject not often studied in school• New development in the field • Special knowledge of other community members • Topics in the mastery curriculum studied in greater depth • Lessons, topics and prerequisite skills and knowledge that students have not fully mastered
  25.  Formulating Enrichment Curriculum • Will the enrichment content be delivered as part of a regular course or will it be organized as an elective process? • How much time should be allotted? • Who will handle or teach enrichment content besides the teachers? • What resources will be provided to support enrichment learning?
  26.  Concerns in Formulating Enrichment Curriculum • must include curriculum enrichment strategies • must avoid repetition of activities within subjects or grade levels • have to be likely approved by parents and other community stakeholders • must respond to students special needs • must be sufficiently integrated into mastery curriculum
  27. Principles of Curriculum Enrichment • Each learner is unique • Learning is more fun when students enjoy what they are doing • Learning is more meaningful and enjoyable when content and process are learned in the context of real and present problem• The acquisition of knowledge and skills are enhanced when students construct their own meaning through knowledge and skills application
  28. Curriculum Enrichment Model • Type 1 Enrichment  Enrichment Triad Model (Joseph Rensulli and Sally Reis, 2007) - extends the regular curriculum by providing students a wide range of experiences and activities in order to introduce a variety of exciting areas of interest
  29. • Type 2 Enrichment - covers activities designed for specific students who are interested to develop skills that are beyond what regular curriculum and Type 1 curriculum could offer - The activities focus on thinking and feeling skills necessary to carry out investigation. These include: creative thinking Problem solving Critical thinking Decision making Research skills Affective processes Communication skills How-to-learn skills
  30. Implementing Type 2 Enrichment - by supporting students who want to deal with advanced, differentiated or remedial content - providing or linking them up with school or community resources and activities that will enable them to experience the enrichment that they need - for learners requiring remediation, support might include review lesson, one-on-one tutoring and in some cases home visits
  31. • Type 3 Enrichment - Students investigate real problems as individuals or small groups - Students become producers of knowledge rather than consumers Implementing Type 3 Enrichment - They actively formulating a problem, designing research and presenting a product - Providing opportunities for applying interest, knowledge, creative ideas and task commitment to self-selected problems
  32. Sample of Implementing the “Enrichment Triad Model (TKI-MOE, 2000)Imagine a classroom of students listening to a storyteller (Type 1). During the storytelling, a group of students shows obvious enthusiasm and interest and so spends an additional hour learning storytelling techniques (Type 2). Consequently, one student decides that she’d like to create her own story to share at the city’s storytelling festival (Type 3). In writing the story, she discovers she needs more information about her chosen topic (Type 1), and then considers the design of a costume (Type2).
  33. Theme: A rising tide lifts all ships… The main focus of the Curriculum Enrichment is to apply the pedagogy of education to total school improvement. All students, from struggling learners to our most advanced students do better in an atmosphere that values diversity among fellow students, and a broad range of learning options that are designed to promote high levels of achievement, creative productivity, motivation, and respect for the uniqueness of each student.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. ☞ the curriculum is a grand plan that directs all intended activities in school ☞ for the school to achieve educational success it need a curriculum that is not only well prepared and complete but also address instructional learning needs in the best way possible
  2. How should the curriculum be implemented?
  3. Mastery Curriculum refers to the core knowledge and skills that need to develop as part of a standardize learning plan
  4. Enriched curriculum is really about “enriching the learning environment, learning experiences and the teaching approaches” (Renzulli and Reis, 2007)
  5. This is intended to students who have not fully mastered the lessons, topics or prerequisite knowledge and skills of a certain subjects.