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ORIGINATES FROM THE TERM “VINDAUGA” MEANS
IN EARLY 13TH
CENTURY REFERRED TO AS AN
UNGLAZED HOLE IN THE ROOF.
EARLIER IN ENGLISH TERMED AS “EAGPRYL”
LITERALLY MEANS EYEHOLE.
AN OPENNING IN A WALL OR SOLID SURFACE THAT
ALLOWS THE PASSAGE OF LIGHT ,IF NOT CLOSED OR
SEALED , AIR AND SOUND.
THESE ARE GENERALLY GLAZED OR COVERED IN SOME
OTHER TRANSPARENT MATERIAL.
MODERN STYLE WINDOWS BECAME POSSIBLE AFTER ART
OF INDUSTRIAL GLASS MAKING PROCESS WAS MASTERED.
ADDS TO THE DÉCOR OF THE ROOM AS WELL AS
ENHANCES THE PRIVACY OF THE ROOM.
A single window is the basic
window with a single frame;
it opens either inside or
One sash is movable
(usually the bottom one)
Double-hung windows are probably the most
common type of window. They open by sliding the
bottom half of the window up or sliding the top half
down. Because only half of the window area can be
open at one time, they provide less ventilation than
casement style windows. An advantage of double-
hung windows is they can be used to create air
movement in the home by opening the top portion of
the windows on one side of the house and opening
the lower portion of the windows on the coolest side
of the house. Air will naturally rise out of the higher
opening, pulling cooler air in the lower opening.
windows have weight-
and-pulley systems to
make them easier to
these systems tend to
stick or rattle and it is
hard to stop air from
leaking around the
pulley openings. Newer
models have spring-
tension devices and
work far better.
Has two or more sashes that
overlap slightly but slide
horizontally within the
Awning windows, also
known as hopper windows,
swing open like casements
but are hinged on the top or
bottom rather than on the
side. Some swing inward,
others swing outward.
Because they are easy to
clean and provide more
Rotating windows open by
pivoting around a central
point. They allow good
ventilation because in the
open position, almost the
entire window area is
either side can face in,
cleaning them is easy.
Glass louvers that overlap
one another form the panes
of a jalousie window.
Operated with a crank or
turn-screw, the glass louvers
tilt to open, permitting
fresh air from outside.
Fixed-pane windows do
not open, which means
they do not permit
ventilation or easy
cleaning, but their sealed
edges protect against air
Casement windowCasement window::
A window with a hingedA window with a hinged
sash that swings in or outsash that swings in or out
like a door comprisinglike a door comprising
either a side-hung, top-either a side-hung, top-
hung, or occasionallyhung, or occasionally
bottom-hung sash or abottom-hung sash or a
combination of thesecombination of these
types, sometimes withtypes, sometimes with
fixed panels on one orfixed panels on one or
more sides of the sash.more sides of the sash.
These really consist
of a series of
window can be
treated as a separate
unit or unified into a
These are also called
French doors. They open
out into balconies or
patios. For a softer touch,
a traditional drapery
treatment may be given to
these windows; but the
rods must extend be and
the frame so that the
draperies can be drawn
out of the way of the
Two identical windows
on two adjacent walls
meet at a corner in this
type. Corner windows
can be treated as one
unit or function
separately. Drapes or
vertical blinds should
preferably be drawn
towards the outside to let
in maximum light
These are three-dimensional
windows made by placing
windows on three walls that
meet to form an alcove
protruding outwards. They are
usually large and give the room
an illusion of spaciousness,
beside serving their functional
purpose. These windows can be
treated separately or as one. To
give the effect of one large
window, it is best to treat them
This are made up of a number
of windows and each window
has smaller windows within.
This type of window helps to
reduce the intensity of the
sunlight as a large glass pane
is covered by a little
woodwork. They are similar to
bay window, but here the walls
meet to form a curved alcove.
These are large-paned fixed
windows facing a picturesque
These are high windows set
above eye level. They are
provided basically to let light
These are windows with an
arched top. To treat such
shapely windows, flow with
the curve or bend with the
angle or, best of all, leave
These are windows in the ceiling.
They arc basically there to allow in
sunlight. They are left untreated.
In case some treatment is required,
shades are best.
They are provided in attics
under slanting, gabled roofs,
mainly to illuminate the
rooms towards the middle of
The main horizontal member which forms the top of
the window frame.
You can make standard windows and doors
extraordinary with the creative use of window grids.
Grid patterns placed inside the glazing unit include
5/8" wide flat grids and 1-1/16" wide sculptured pattern
grids. Available for both our vinyl and fiberglass
windows, these internal grids make cleaning a breeze
both inside and out.
Additional grid options are available within our
fiberglass Ultra™ and WoodClad™ Series to produce
the effect of simulated divided lites:
Vintage Grids: Create the look of individual panes of glass on both the exterior and
interior of your fiberglass windows. This option provides the best simulated divided lite
Craftsman Grids: Create the look of individual panes of glass on the interior of your
fiberglass windows, leaving the exterior easier to clean.
Legacy Grids: Create the look of individual panes of glass on the exterior of your
fiberglass windows, leave the interior easier to clean.
Depending on the type of window you purchase, you have multiple options for the type of
hardware you can install. Whether you select our patent pending Positive Action Lock™
for your horizontal slider or single hung window, or select the optional fiberglass window
cam locks, you will be secure in the knowledge that our window hardware meets or
exceeds the toughest forced entry codes in the nation.
4. Weather Stripping
Milgard offers weather stripping to ensure the most efficient, weather-tight seals for your
5. Insulated Glass
A combination of two or more panes of glass with a hermetically sealed air space between
them. Milgard windows come standard with SunCoat® Low-E coating for added energy
efficiency and all around comfort, all year long. Optional argon gas may be used between
panes, further improving thermal performance and energy savings.
6. Upper Sash
A single assembly of stiles (sides) and rails (top and bottom) made into a frame for
holding insulated glass. Single and double-hung windows have two sashes. The top sash
The window frame members forming the top, sides, and
bottom of a window frame.
8. Lower Sash
A single assembly of stiles (sides) and rails (top and
bottom) made into a frame for holding insulated glass.
Single and double-hung windows have two sashes. The
bottom sash is known as the "Lower Sash."
The main horizontal member forming the bottom of the
In essence, window treatments are used to control the
degree to which windows perform their various functions.
They have great design potential as sources of beauty and
Stiff window treatments
There are many types of coverings apart from curtains
that can be used on windows to ensure privacy and block
Blinds are of the following types:
These let in plenty of light when drawn up, yet give complete
privacy when unrolled and let down. Roller blinds are made of
thick fabrics used in conjunction with rollers.
These are made of fabric attached to cords When the cords are
pulled, the blind rises up in accordion
pleats to form a pelmet. They are heavier
and warmer than roll blinds.
Venetian blinds These actually
originated in China, contrary to the
name. They are made of parallel slats of
wood, metal or plastic aligned
horizontally or vertically. They are
popular for their almost complete
control of air, light, and view.
Vertical louvre blinds
These are most effective on a large
floor-to-ceiling window. They work on
the same principal as the venetian
blinds except that they close across the
window rather than down
These are an inexpensive covering for
large windows. They are made from
fine strips of wood held together by
cotton, and let a pleasant, soft light
Shades may be of the following types:
Bamboo and woven wood shades
These were once considered rustic
and informal. They are available in
different weaves nowadays.
Fabric roller shades
These are inexpensive and can
be flexibly adjusted to cover as
much of the window as required
at a particular time.
Types of curtains
Curtains may be used to create various window treatments.
These are also called sheer or net
curtains and are usually made of
cotton or polyester.
Draperies refer to loosely hung
(not taut or stretched) soft
furnishings. These are made of
heavier fabrics and may be
These are usually made of
translucent or opaque fabrics
and are mounted on traverse
Casement curtains These cover
the entire window and have
casings at both top and bottom.
Either one panel can be tied
back to one side or both the
panels can be tied back to the
French cafe curtains
These cover only the lower part
of the window, with the casing
slipped over a tension rod
mounted in the window frame.
Sheer curtains let light
into a room and still
maintain a good level of
privacy. They should be
bought in excessive
width, about double the
width of your window,
to appropriately fold to
cover your window with
the adequate amount of
Curtain headings and accessories
We shall now look at the various headings and accessories
used with curtains.
Pelmets and cornices
Cornices are box-like shapes
used at the top horizontal
portion of the drapery treatment
to hide the poles and other
These are made of fabric that has been pleated, scalloped or ruffled.
They should never exceed one-sixth of the window's height and
should be about 8-12 inches in depth.
These are the appropriate hardware to use where
installations have to be flexible.
Traverse and decorative rods
These are used in conjunction with runners, which are hooked onto
the curtain. They come in many types. The conventional traverse
rod is used with classic pleated draperies that pull away from the
centre to either side.
Curtain rods are a very old curtain-hanging tradition.
They come in many beautiful and durable designs, with
a wide range of length options. Spacers in curtain rods
extend outward from the wall for depth or to
accommodate multiple rods. Both rod-pocket and tab-
top curtains can be difficult to open or close on
telescoping curtain rods. While hidden by many
medium-weight and heavyweight materials, rods are
visible through sheer curtains, and ring-top curtains
often allow the rod to remain visible. Decorative rods
may be best in these instances.
FinialsFinials are decorative ends of curtain rods. They
come in many styles and finishes, with different
shapes, such as scrolls, leaves, fleur-de-lis and
decorated oval or balls. They are available in brushed
silver, copper and poly-resin finish. Because they are
often the part of your window treatment that are
most seen beyond the curtain, it is good to have them
stand out but also to have them complement or
match your other room décor.
Curtain rings are attractive and easily attached to
your curtains or drapes. They slide easily along a
curtain rod without having to pull open a telescope
rod, making it easier to open and close your drapes.
Curtain rings are available in many sizes, shapes and
qualities, so shop around for the style that best meets
your design needs.
Tiebacks are soft loops of fabric, cord, chain or other
material that holds back drapes. They tie around the
drape itself, either centering it or pulling it off to the
side and tying it to a vertical rod. This allows a bigger
view outside and more natural light to enter the
room. Tiebacks are extremely common in curtains
and drapes that do not use rings, since those are hard