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Chapter_4_6e_Personality_and_Values.ppt

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Chapter_4_6e_Personality_and_Values.ppt

  1. 1. PowerPoint to accompany Chapter 4 Personality and Values
  2. 2. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition After studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. • Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator model. • Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model. • Explain how the major personality attributes predict behaviour at work. • Contrast terminal and instrumental values. • List today’s dominant values in today’s workforce. • Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition What Is Personality? Personality • The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, measurable traits a person exhibits Personality Traits • Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour Personality Determinants • Heredity • Environment • Situation
  4. 4. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Personality Types • Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) • Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) • Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) • Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) • Score is a combination of all four (e.g., ENTJ) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types
  5. 5. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Meyers-Briggs (cont’d) A Myers-Briggs Score • Can be a valuable for self-awareness and career guidance BUT • Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance!
  6. 6. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions • Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive • Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting • Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organised • Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative) • Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
  7. 7. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Measuring Personality Personality Is Measured by: • Self-Report Surveys • Observer-Rating Surveys • Projective Measures • Rorschach Inkblot Test • Thematic Apperception Test
  8. 8. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB • Core Self-Evaluation (Self-Esteem, Locus of Control) • Machiavellianism • Narcissism • Self-Monitoring • Risk Taking • Type A vs. Type B Personality • Proactive Personality
  9. 9. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Core Self-Evaluation: Two Main Components • Self-Esteem • Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves, degree of thinking they are worthy or unworthy as a person • Locus of Control • The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate • Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them • Externals (External locus of control) Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance
  10. 10. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Conditions Favouring ‘High Machs’  Face-to-face interaction with others  Minimal rules and regulations  Whenever lower Machs are distracted Machiavellianism Machiavellianism (Mach) • Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
  11. 11. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Narcissism A Narcissistic Person • Has grandiose sense of self-importance • Requires excessive admiration • Has a sense of entitlement • Is arrogant • Tends to be rated as less effective
  12. 12. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors High Self-Monitors  Receive better performance ratings  Likely to emerge as leaders  Show less commitment to their organisations
  13. 13. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Risk-Taking • High Risk-Taking Managers • Make quicker decisions • Use less information to make decisions • Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organisations • Low Risk-Taking Managers • Are slower to make decisions • Require more information before making decisions • Exist in larger organisations with stable environments • Risk Propensity • Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organisations
  14. 14. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Personality Types: Type A and B Type As • Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly • Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place • Strive to think or do two or more things at once • Cannot cope with leisure time • Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire Type Bs • Do not suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience • Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments • Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost • Can relax without guilt
  15. 15. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Personality Types: Proactive Personality Proactive Personality • Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs • Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles
  16. 16. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organisationally relevant? • Locus of control • Self-monitoring • Self-enhancing • Self esteem • Machiavellianism Discuss with your colleague how each of the traits above would influence a university tutor’s behavior, and where you think your tutor falls with respect to each of them. Chapter Reflection: Personality
  17. 17. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Alison arrives to class and realises that she’s forgotten to bring her assignment. She says: 'Oh no, it’s just not my lucky day today.' Alison is demonstrating ______________. Alison is demonstrating a high external locus of control. Alison believes that things outside of her control determine what happens. If Alison works on a team with you, and you have a very high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think the two of you might have? Discuss with a colleague. Chapter Reflection: Personality
  18. 18. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Julia is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover, she’s at the top of her class. She’s so busy that sometimes, she forgets to stop and eat lunch. Julia can be easily characterised as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality. A Chapter Reflection: Personality
  19. 19. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Julia is also likely to not be very: • Happy? • Fun? • Creative? • Stressed? In general, Type As are rarely creative because they generally don’t allocate the necessary time for new solution development; they usually rely on past experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy. Chapter Reflection: Personality
  20. 20. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Values Definition: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end- state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (i.e. what is right and good) • Terminal Values • Desirable end states • Instrumental Values • The ways/means for achieving one’s terminal values • Value System • A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity • Note: Values vary by cohort
  21. 21. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures • Influence our perception of the world around us • Represent interpretations of 'right' and 'wrong‘ • Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others Importance of Values
  22. 22. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Types of Values—Rokeach Value Survey • Terminal Values • Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime • Instrumental Values • Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values
  23. 23. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). Table 4.1a
  24. 24. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Exhibit 4.2
  25. 25. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, 'The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,' in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44. Exhibit 4.3
  26. 26. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce Exhibit 4.4
  27. 27. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Ethical Climate in the Organisation Ethical Values and Behaviours of Leaders Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behaviour
  28. 28. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition • Power Distance • Individualism vs. Collectivism • Masculinity vs. Femininity • Uncertainty Avoidance • Long-term and Short-term Orientation Values Across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework
  29. 29. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance • The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organisations is distributed unequally. • Low distance: Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth • High distance: Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
  30. 30. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in the group of which they are a part to look after them and protect them Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups vs. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  31. 31. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women vs. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  32. 32. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them • High Uncertainty Avoidance: society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. • Low Uncertainty Avoidance: society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces them.
  33. 33. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasises the future, thrift, and persistence Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasises the present and the here and now vs. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  34. 34. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Achieving Person-Job Fit • Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland) • Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover Personality Types:  Realistic  Investigative  Social  Conventional  Enterprising  Artistic
  35. 35. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations Exhibit 4.5
  36. 36. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, 1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved. Relationships Among Occupational Personality Types Exhibit 4.6
  37. 37. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) • Useful for determining person-organisation fit • Survey that forces choices/rankings of one’s personal values • Helpful for identifying most important values to look for in an organisation (in efforts to create a good fit)
  38. 38. Copyright © Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) –9781442528550/Robbins/Organisational Behaviour/6th edition In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with one another. Country J, according to Hofstede’s Framework, is probably low on what dimension? • Collectivism • Long-term Orientation • Uncertainty Avoidance • Power Distance How would a university in Country J differ from your university? Identify the similarities and differences and discuss with a colleague. Chapter Reflection: Values

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