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What is Throat Cancer ?
Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop in your throat
(pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. Your throat is a muscular
tube that begins behind your nose and ends in your neck.
Cancer is diseases in which abnormal cells multiply and divide
uncontrollably in the body.
These abnormal cells form malignant growths called tumors.
Throat cancer refers to cancer of the voice box, the vocal
cords, and other parts of the throat, such as the tonsils and the
Throat cancer is often grouped into
Pharyngeal cancer forms
in the pharynx (the hollow
tube that runs from
behind your nose to the
top of your windpipe.
Laryngeal cancer forms
in the larynx (your voice
Pharyngeal Cancer Laryngeal Cancer.
Types of throat cancer
Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the nasopharynx — the part of your
throat just behind your nose.
Hypo pharyngeal cancer (laryngopharyngeal cancer) begins in the
lower part of your throat, just above your esophagus and windpipe.
Glottis cancer begins in the vocal cords.
Supra glottic cancer begins in upper portion of the larynx & includes
cancer that affects the epiglottis(that blocks food from going into your
Symptoms of Throat Cancer
a change in your voice
constant need to clear your throat
persistent cough (may cough up blood)
swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Swelling of the eyes, jaw, throat or neck
Poor nutrition (oropharyngeal)
Diet high in salt (nasopharyngeal)
Diet low in vitamins A and E (hypopharyngeal)
Tobacco use (hypopharyngeal; oropharyngeal)
Excessive alcohol use (hypopharyngeal; oropharyngeal)
Workplace exposure to asbestos and/or other
Sun exposure It increases the risk of skin cancers, UV rays
from the sun can increase the risk of developing cancer of the
lips among those who spend a lot of time in sunlight.
Stages of Throat Cancer
Stage 0: The tumor has not invaded tissue beyond your
Stage 1: The tumor is less than 7 cm and limited to your
Stage 2: The tumor is slightly larger than 7 cm, but still
limited to your throat.
Stages of Throat Cancer
Stage 3: The tumor has grown and has spread to nearby
tissues and organs.
Stage 4: The tumor has spread to your lymph nodes and/or
Treatment of Throat Cancer
There are many types of
surgery for throat cancer
including minimally invasive,
endoscopic, laser, robotic, and
tumor excision to allow normal
function in swallowing and
These are drugs used to
shrink tumors and/or kill
cancer cells after surgery
and/or radiation treatment.
Chemotherapy is often used
in combination with other
Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams from sources such
as X-rays and protons to deliver radiation to the cancer cells,
causing them to die.
1. Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables,
Fresh fruit and vegetables, particularly raw, contain vitamins and anti-
2. Don’t smoke
3. Cut down or stop your alcohol consumption.
4. Cut your exposure to asbestos.
5. Use Cosmetics ,medicines & shampoo carefully to make
sure that none of them contain formaldehyde.
What is Ovarian Cancer?
OVARY: female reproductive
glands produces egg(ova) for
Tumor: Abnormal growth of cells
o Malignant Tumor (Cancerous)
spread to all parts of the body
o Benign (non Cancerous) never
spread beyond the ovary
What is Ovarian Cancer?
The most common type of Ovarian Cancer that starts from
epithelial cells –gland forming cells
* Other common adenocarcinomas are found in the breast, colon, lung,
prostate, uterus, sometimes cervix
Other types of Ovarian Cancer start in the:
“eggs”(germ cell tumors)
body of the Ovary (stromal tumors)
Who develops Ovarian Adenocarcinoma?
15% Genetic Susceptibility known genetic susceptibility
BRCA 1 / 2, HNPCC
Lifetime risk up to 50% of developing Ovarian Cancer
85% spontaneous somatic mutation
Lifetime risk < 2% of developing Ovarian Cancer
Who develops Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?
increased age, (average
age at diagnosis 63
personal history of
Estrogen alone hormone
Having Tubal Ligation
Pregnancy before 35
Birth Control Pills
Low Fat Diet
Different Types of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histology
How does Ovarian Cancer Present?
Bloating, Distention, Changes in
Bowel and Bladder Function, Pelvic
/ Abdominal Pain, Decreased
Symptoms persist and increase
Urinating more frequently
Stages of Ovarian Cancer
>70% of women will present with
Advanced Stage Ovarian Cancer
Cancer has spread throughout the abdomen and sometimes
beyond (lungs, liver)
Definition of Longevity
Time from diagnosis to death
Progression Free Interval/ Survival
Interval between Treatment Response to Evidence of Progression
How is Progression defined?
Biochemical - CA125
Imaging -- CT / PET
Assessment of the Disease
Symptoms / Physical Exam / Tumor Marker
Imaging (CT scan)
blood test for elevated levels of a protein called
Laparoscopy is a surgery that uses a thin, lighted
tube put through a cut (incision) in the belly to look
at the abdominal organs or the female pelvic
organs. Laparoscopy is used to find problems
such as cysts, adhesions, fibroids, and infection.
Tissue samples can be taken for biopsy through
the tube (laparoscope).
kill cancer cells as they replicate
Alter how the cancer cell is able to function and replicate
Radiation Therapy – rarely used in ovarian cancer
How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?
Current Approach -- Surgery and
Primary Tumor Reductive Surgery
Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NACT)
Chemotherapy Surgery Chemotherapy
Goal of Surgery remove all visible
Goal of Chemotherapy kill all cancer
How do we treat Ovarian Cancer?
Researchers are working on therapies
that target the way ovarian cancer
grows. A process called angiogenesis
involves the formation of new blood
vessels to feed tumors. A drug called
Avastin blocks this process, causing
tumors to shrink or stop growing (seen in
the illustration here). Avastin is approved
for other cancers, but ovarian cancer
researchers are still testing this therapy,
which can have serious side effects.
Blocks the growth of
blood vessels in a
tumor, starving the
cancer of the nutrition
and oxygen it needs to
•One of the first ‘biologic’
treatments for ovarian
•Effective in several other
cancers (colon, breast,
•Intravenous every 2-3 weeks
•Limited side effects
(symptoms) but significant
potential toxicities (risk to
When women have both ovaries removed, they can no
longer produce their own estrogen. This triggers
menopause, no matter how young the patient. The drop
in hormone levels can also raise the risk for certain
medical conditions, including osteoporosis. It's vital that
women have regular follow-up care after being treated for
ovarian canceMoving On
Women may find that it takes a long time for their energy
to return after treatments end. Fatigue is a very common
problem after treatment for cancer. Beginning a gentle
exercise program is one of the most effective ways to
restore energy and improve emotional well-being. Check
with your health care team to determine which activities
are right for you.
Breast Cancer is a cancer that develops from
breast tissues.In this cancer cells in the breast
grows out of control.
Breast has no muscle tissue
There are muscles underneath the
breasts separating them from the
Female Breast Anatomy
Breasts consist mainly of fatty
tissue interspersed with
There are also less
Each breast has 15 to 20
sections (lobes) arranged like the
petals of daisy
Inside each lobe are many
smaller structures called lobules
At the end of each lobule are tiny
sacs (bulbs) that can produce
Lobes, Lobules and bulbs, are linked
by a network of thin tubes (ducts)
Ducts carry milk from bulbs toward
dark area of skin in the center of the
Ducts join together into larger ducts ending at the nipple, where
milk is delivered
Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining
nourishment are delivered to breast tissue by
the blood in the arteries and capillaries.
Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that
carries white blood cells (that
fight disease) from the breast
tissues into lymph nodes under
the armpit and behind the
Lymph nodes: Filter harmful
bacteria and play a key role in
fighting off infectionA network of vessels
Lymph ductLymph node
Three Types of Vessels
MilkLobules Ducts Nipple
Signs and Symptoms
Most common: lump
or thickening in
Change in color or
appearance of areola
Redness or pitting of skin
over the breast, like the
skin of an orange
Change in size or
contours of breast
type of breast cancer begins in the milk-production ducSome of
the cells begin growing abnormally
These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and may
spread through the breast, to the lymph or to other parts of the
The most common ts, but cancer may also occur in the lobules or
in other breast tissue
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type of non-
invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the
milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or
other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal
organs, and in situ means "in its original place."
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
This means that the cancer started in the cells that line the
lobules of the breast and has spread into the surrounding
breast tissue. Invasive lobular cancer can develop in women
of any age. But it is most common in women between 45 and
55 years old.
Invasive lobular breast cancer does not always form a firm
Invasive Lobular Carconima
Use a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts
Digital mammography replaces x-ray film by solid-state
detectors that convert x-rays into electrical signals. These signals
are used to produce images that can be displayed on a computer
screen (similar to digital cameras)
Mammography can show changes in the breast up to two years
before a physician can feel them
Treatment Of Breast Cancer
Surgery to remove the whole breast, called a mastectomy, or to
remove just the tumor and tissues around it, called a lumpectomy or
breast conserving surgery.
Which uses high-energy waves to kill cancer cells.
uses drugs to kill cancer cells. As these powerful medicines fight
the disease, they also can cause side effects, like nausea, hair
loss, early menopause, hot flashes, and fatigue.
Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower
part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last
several inches of the colon. Together, they're often referred to as
Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous
(benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time
some of these polyps become colon cancer.
Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this
reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent
colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they become
What is colorectal cancer ?
Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or
the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon
cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start.
Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped
together because they have many features in common.
Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out
of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can
become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the
A colon polyp is a small clump of cells
that forms on the lining of the colon.
Most colon polyps are harmless. But
over time, some colon polyps can
develop into colon cancer, which is often
fatal when found in its later stages.
In most cases, it's not clear what causes colon cancer. Doctors
know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells in the colon
develop errors in their DNA.
Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body
functioning normally. But when a cell's DNA is damaged and
becomes cancerous, cells continue to divide — even when new
cells aren't needed. As the cells accumulate, they form a tumor.
With time, the cancer cells can grow to invade and destroy
normal tissue nearby. And cancerous cells can travel to other
parts of body.
Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk. Genetic
syndromes passed through generations of your family can
increase your risk of colon cancer. These syndromes include
familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis
colorectal cancer, which is also known as Lynch syndrome.
Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon
cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when
compared with people considered normal weight.
Smoking. People who smoke may have an increased risk of
Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your risk of colon
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation
or a change in the consistency of your stool, that lasts longer than
Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely
Weakness or fatigue
Unexplained weight loss
Stage 1 ........
Stage I includes cancers that were part of a polyp. If the polyp is removed
completely during colonoscopy, with no cancer cells at the edges (margins)
of the removed sample, no other treatment may be needed.
If the cancer in the polyp is high grade (see Colorectal cancer stages) or
there are cancer cells at the edges of the polyp, more surgery may be
Stage 2 .......
Surgery to remove the section of the colon containing the cancer along with
nearby lymph nodes (partial colectomy) may be the only treatment needed.
But your doctor may recommend adjuvant chemotherapy (chemo after
Surgery to remove the section of the colon with the cancer along with
nearby lymph nodes (partial colectomy) followed by adjuvant chemo is the
standard treatment for this stage. Radiation therapy and/or chemo may be
options for people who aren’t healthy enough for surgery .
Stage 4 colon cancers have spread from the colon to distant organs and
tissues. Colon cancer most often spreads to the liver, but it can also spread
to other places such as the lungs, peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal
cavity), or to distant lymph nodes.
. Chemo is typically given as well, before and/or after surgery. In some
cases, hepatic artery infusion may be used if the cancer has spread to the
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women
It is a disease that develop quit slowly and begins with a
precancerous condition know as dysplasia.
Dysplasia is easily detected in routine pap smear and it is easily
Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour deriving from cel of cervix.
Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour deriving from cells of
cervix uteri, which is the lower part, the neck of the womb,the
female reproductive organ.
Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human
papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual
contact with someone who has it. There are many types of
the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on
the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of
the uterus that opens into the vagina.
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
The most common symptoms and signs of cervical cancer are
abnormal vaginal bleeding,
Increased vaginal discharge
Bleeding after going through menopause
Pain during sex
ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC
Cervical cancer can be diagnosed using a Pap smear or other
procedures that sample the cervix tissue.
Chest X-rays, CT scan, MRI, and a PET scan may be used to
determine the stage of cervical cancer.
Cancer of the cervix requires different treatment than cancer
that begins in other parts of the uterus.
Treatment options for cervical cancer include
Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are vaccines that are
available to prevent HPV.