1. CH.1 UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN
•Definition and determinants of personality
•Personality trait theories
•The Johari Window
Emotions and moods
by: Dr. Renu Jain
2. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION
Personality is the aggregate of a person’s feelings, thinking, behaviours and responses to different situations and
rather good looking, well built person that make a person unique.
“ Personality refers to individuals’ characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behaviour, together with the
psychological mechanisms—hidden or not---behind those patterns.”
BARAON and GREENBERG: - “ the unique and relatively stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and emotions shown
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Every person has different personality and there are a lot o factors which contribute to that personality. We call them
determinants or factors of personality.
1. HEREDITY FACTOR: Major determinants. Not only affect the physical features of a person, but the intelligence
level, attentiveness, gender, temperament, various inherited diseases and energy level, all get affected by
them. For eg. Children behave like parents, twins sibling.
2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF PERSONALITY: The environment that an individual lives in (school, college,univ.
And workplace) has a major impact on his personality. The culture and environment establish attitudes, values,
norms and perceptions in an individual . Based on the cultures and traditions, different senses of right and
wrong are formed in individuals. Friends, parents, colleagues, co-workers and bosses , everybody plays a role—
3. PHYSICAL FACTORS OF PERSONALITY: height, weight, color, sex, beauty and body languages. Most of the
physical structures change from time to time, and so does the personality.
4. SITUATIONAL FACTORS OF PERSONALITY: These factors do alter a person’s behaviour and response from time to
time. For eg. A person’s behaviour will be totally different when he is in his office, in front of his boss, when
compared to his hangout with old friends. In this way these factors impact a personality in a significant way.
They often bring out the traits of a person that are not commonly seen.
3. THE MYERS– BRIGGS TYPE
INDICATOR (MBTI)•Most widely used personality assessment instrument in the world developed by Kathering briggs
and Isabel briggs myers.
•Based on 4 preferences:
1. E or I ( Extraversion and Introversion)
2. S or N ( Sensing or Intuition)
3. T Or F ( Thinking or Feeling)
4. J or P ( judgement or Perception)
E= Outgoing, sociable and assertive
I= quiet and shy
S= Practical and prefer routine and order.
N=Unconscious processes and look at a “big picture”
T=Reason and logic to handle problems
F=Rely on their personal values and emotions
J=Control and prefer to be ordered and structured.
P=Flexible and spontaneous.
When you put these 4 letters together, you get your personality code that helps you to identify
the unique aspects of your personality.16 combinations.
For eg: INTJ
The MBTI is widely used in companies like AT &T , apple, GE . One problem is that it forces a
person into either one or another type . No in-between.
Valuable tool for increasing self-awareness and providing career guidance.
4. PERSONALITY TRAITS THEORY
The factors that determine personality are referred to as traits. They are the distinctive and enduring
characteristic of a person which distinguishes one person from the other.
Very difficult to understand and describe personality in a scientific sense, hence recent research has focused
on identifying several general factors.
The ‘BIG FIVE MODEL’ is a prominent outcome o research in this direction.
There are five basic dimensions of personality that underlie many specific traits.
1. EXTRAVERSION-INTROVERSION : It is the degree to which a person is social, outgoing, assertive, talkative
Extroverts are friendly and outgoing individuals who enjoy the company of others and maintain a large number
Introverts tend to be reserved, cautious and have few relationship. They are comfortable being alone.
2. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: Individuals who are high on this dimension are responsible, careful, neat,
organized, self-disciplined and very honest. On the other hand, individuals who are very low on this are
irresponsible, careless, impulsive, disorganized, lacking in self-discipline and unreliable.
3. AGREEABLENESS: Individuals who are high on agreeableness are good-natured, gentle, warm, tactful
and considerate. In contrast who are low on agreeableness are irritable, cold , rude, ruthless, suspicious
and uncooperative. Do not care much for the need of others.
4. EMOTIONAL STABILITY: Emotionally stable individuals are calm, stable, enthusiastic, poised, secure and
are not easily disturbed, free from depression. Who are low on this dimension tend to be nervous, self-
doubting, moody, insecure, sensitive, angry, anxious and depressed.
5. OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE: Who are high on this are imaginative, sensitive, intellectual, original, artistic,
playful, creative and are fascinated by novelty and innovation. In contrast , who are low on openness to
experience are dull, unimaginative, narrow, conventional, and comfortable with the familiar.
These dimensions strongly influence behaviour in the work place.
Highly conscientious employees were more productive.
Extraversion was highly related to job success in managerial and sales positions.
Extroverts and people high on openess to experience do better in training programs.
5. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES /TRAITS
AND THEIR IMPACT ON BEHAVIOUR
Some specific personality attributes /traits that are powerful predictors of behaviour in organizations.
1. LOCUS OF CONTROL: 2 categories; Internals who believe that they are masters of their own fate . Individual
who are raised in families in which effort and achievement are properly rewarded tends to become internals
and they perceive strong link between their efforts and their performance, can handle stressful situations
better and often adjust more readily to international assignments.
Externals who believe that what happens to them in their lives is due to luck or chance. individuals who are
raised in families in which rewards seem to occur in a random manner tends to develop as externals. They are
more compliant and willing to follow commands. They tend to do well in jobs that are well –structured and
routine. Less satisfied with their jobs and have high absenteeism, as they believe that they have little control
over organizational outcomes.
2. SELF –ESTEEM: Self esteem refers to how individuals perceive themselves in terms of their abilities,
competencies, effectiveness, and the like.
People with high self-esteem perceive themselves to be capable, significant, and worthy. These individuals
believe that they are competent, have strong abilities, and are confident of their ability to succeed in a wide
range of situations.
People with low self-esteem tend to perceive themselves as neither competent nor capable. They see
themselves as possessing low ability levels, and thus are less likely to predict success for themselves.
on organizational behaviour:
1. vocational choice--high self esteem-take risks in job selection, choose unconventional job like pilot,
attracted to high status jobs. willingness to expend effort to accomplish task. 2. persistent and commitment--
Perform better, persist longer in the face of adversity and more satisfied with their work. Loyal, committed try
to add much value to the org.
high self esteem make better and effective employees---make effective organization.
It is characterized by the acquisition of power and manipulation of the other people for
purely personal gain. arrogance , lie, cheat and deceive wherever required to achieve
personal goals. better to be feared than loved.
Persons with machiavellianism are called high macs.1.Their goal are of prime importance
and that any method may be used to achieve them.2. They tend to manipulate others in a
ruthless manner.3. Not team players ,contribute only when something in it for them.4.
they are with psychological detachment and little emotion. Not easily influenced by
others but manipulate them.
5.Succeeded in situations where loosely structured and few rules.
Low Macs..sensitive to others. care about fair play, loyalty and other principles.
Managers need to take certain precautions to protect themselves as well as their
colleagues from high mac people :-
Expose them, avoid situations that suit high machs , look to the deeds ,not words and be
It reflects a person’s ability to adjust his behaviour to external, situational factors. Best
possible impression on others. different faces for different people.
High self-monitors tend to do :----
1.Job performance better
2.Career success-willingness to adapt their behaviour to each situation.
3. Relationships- They run the risk of being viewed as unreliable, inconsistent by others.
less stable and less deep relationships
4. Impression management- good at this, takes to generate , positive reaction from other.
7. TYPE A PERSONALITY
Extremely busy, unable to relax, maintain high standards for themselves, frustrated, perfectionists, very ambitious,
very talented and intelligent, more expressive, less hostile enjoy achievement of goals, hard worker, hate failure,
pretty fit, well educated.
TYPE B PERSONALITY
Patient, not concerned with time, relax, plays for fun not to win, never in a hurry, mild mannered, work steadily,
creative, often reflective, calm, quality oriented, enjoy their life.
Differ with regard to their willingness to take risk or chances. These people can take More rapid decisions,
accurate , take less time fo eg. Stock broker..successful. Auditor..unsuccessful
Power and status differences should exist within the org. People high in this tend to be fascinated with power and
toughness. show respect to superiors having more authority, stick to traditional values and critically judge others.
good followers, work reasonable better and deliver results under a directive supervisor.
It refers to the desire to meet standards of excellence, to accomplish difficult tasks and to do better than the
others. People who is strong in this want to excel, accomplish and constantly improve their own performance in
whatever situations they are placed.
MCCLELLAND’s studies identified the following characteristics:
INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT—work hard when they expect credit for their efforts.
MATCHES THEIR ABILITY—Choose occupations that match the abilities.
INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL—believe that they control their destiny. responsible for
success or failure.
MODERATE RISKS—avoid goals that are too easy.. Not take risk that impossible to achieve.
FEEDBACK: Like tasks in which they get continuous feedback.
HIGH EXPECTATION: Managers with high on this motivation very demanding on their employees.
TOTAL INVOLVEMENT: High achiever is totally dedicated and committed to his goal or task.
OPTIMISTIC: Positive approach in life,
Economic growth of a nation is related to the achievement motivation of its people.
8. THE JOHARI WINDOW
Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingram, this model is highly useful in understanding ourselves and
people around us.
They observe that there are aspects of our personality that we are
OPEN SELF BLIND SELF
(known to others and self) (Known to others but not to self)
HIDDEN SELF UNKNOWN SELF
(Known to self but not known to others) (Not known to others or self)
1.OPEN SELF: Known to oneself as well as to others. For eg. Person’s gender, height, weight. It in includes
factual information, feelings, motives, behaviours, wants, needs and desires or any other information that a
person intentionally conveys to people.
This is our basic public personality, which may seen as strengths or weakness. This is the self that we choose
to share with others.
When we first meet a new person, the size o window is not very large, process of getting to know on another
continues, the size of this window increases.
2. HIDDEN SELF: Private area, that we know but are kept hidden from others. For eg. Our secret desires, girl
or boy whom you love. Can not be known to others unless we disclose it.
3. BLIND SELF: Others know about us, but we are unaware of. They could be positive or negative behaviour.
For eg. Manager may be rude in the way he talks to his subordinates without being aware about it.
4. UNKNOWN SELF : Nobody knows about us- including ourselves . For eg. When we are placed in a new
situations , we often learn new information that was previously not known to self or others. b ecause we
never exposed those areas of our personality.
9. There are 2 processes that affect the shape of the johri window, they are:
1. SELF DISCLOSURE: It is the extent to which a person is willing to share information about himself
with others, that they would not normally know or discover. Disclosure involves risk and
vulnerability. By sharing information, we become mre intimate with other people.
2. FEED BACK: The willingness of others to give feedback depends on a person’s receptivity to
feedback. If the person reacts in anger or argumentative then others will feel less reluctant to give
Depending upon the level of self-disclosure a person willing to make and the feedback he is willing to
receive, a person may be placed in one of the ollowing 4 categories:
1. THE OPEN-RECEPTIVE PERSON: The open- receptive person has a large public area. Reflecting
someone who is open about himself and receptive to feedback from others. Clear self- image.
The more we operate in the open area, the more we understand each other.
2. THE INTERVIEWER: The interviewer has a large hidden area, reflecting someone who keeps
information to himself. This type of person always asking for information but giving very little
information in return. People around this kind of a person feel defensive. They react to him with
irritation and distrust.
Sharing more information about oneself is the way to decrease the hidden area and increase the open
3. THE BULL-IN-A-CHINA SHOP: such a person has a large blind area, reflecting someone who talks a lot
but does not listen.
Such persons tend to be insensitive to the impact of their behaviour on others. They respond to
feedback with anger an arguments and hence others are reluctant to give them feedback.
4. THE TURTLE: Such person has a large unknown area, reflecting lack if sel-knowledge and
understanding. This type of behaviour tends to be unpredictable . People around them tend to
feel insecure and confused about expectations.
We can reduce the unknown are by sharing information and receiving feedback. The best way to
reduce it is to encounter new and different situaions.
10. BENEFITS OF DISCLOSURE:
RECIPROCITY ; Other person will also disclose personal information.
TRUSE: Mutual disclosure deepens trust in the relationships and helps both people
understand each other better.
RISK OF DISCLOSURE:
UNFAVOURABLE RESPONSE: Other person will not respond favourably to the information.
POWER: Other person will gain power in the relationship because of the information they
possess. Too much self-disclosure can damage the relationship.
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK:
•Always focus on the behaviour not on the person.
•Be specific. Tell the individual precisely what is right in his behaviour.
•Give feedback immediately after the behaviour.
•Give feedback only if the other person wants.
•Give the feedback and leave to the person to decide what he wants to do with it.
WHILE RECEIVING FEEDBACK:
•Do not get angry or upset, when receive negative feedback.
• Allow the person to complete what he is saying. Interruption shows that you are getting
•Thank the person for providing the feedback.
Attitude is understood as belief, feelings and action tendency of a person towards objects, ideas or people.
These feelings could be positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant. They form the mental set that affects how we view
BARON AND GREENBERG: “ Relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs and behavioural intentions towards specific
objects, people, or institutions.”
ELEMENTS/COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES:
1. COGNITIVE COMPONENT: It is the belief or opinion aspect of the attitude. For eg: an employee saying that he finds his
job very boring. ( how we think about some one or something)
2. AFECTIVE COMPONENT: It refers to how we feel ( our liking or disliking) about someone or something. For eg: an
employee saying that he hates his job.
3. BEHAVIOURAL /CONATIVE COMPONENT: It refers to the tendency of a person to behave or act in a certain way. For eg:
an employee says he wants to change his job.
All 3 components of attitudes are very closely related and sometimes it is difficult to separate one aspect from the other.
1. It is a process of pre-judging.
2. ” Negative attitude towards the members of specific social groups, based solely on their membership.”
3. In simple words, prejudice is the dislike that we have towards a person because he is a member of a particular
group. For eg. If you dislike a person because he is a south indian.
4. It has a damaging impact not only on the people who are victims of it but also on people who hold prejudices.
5. It disturbs the peace in society. For eg. School denying admission to children belonging to a particular community.
6. It may range from ,mild to extreme.
7. In mild- avoiding contact, in stronger level– deprived of equal job and opportunities , extreme—aggressive and
violent behaviour against prejudice group.
“It means that all members of specific groups share certain traits or characteristics.”
They are fixed ideas about members of a particular group. either positive or negative feelings towards a person only on
the basis that the person belong s to a particular group. For eg. If we assume that a person is corrupt only because
he is a politician then we are falling in to the stereotype trap.
12. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE
Besides categorizing things as positive or negative, several other functions:
1. SELF IDENTITY FUNCTION: When we express our attitudes we are in fact expressing
those beliefs and values of ours which give us a unique self- identity.
2. SELF –ESTEEM FUNCTION: When we express these views , we sometimes feel
superior to others. Thus, attitudes help to increase our self-esteem.
3. EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: They protect us from unwanted information about
4. KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: They provide a frame of reference within which an
individual judges people and events. They help us to organise and interpret social
information. Thus, attitudes serve the knowledge function.
5. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT FUNCTION: We always want to make a very good
impression on others and therefore express “the right views.” People generate
arguments that support their ideas. The stronger the need for impression motivation,
the more arguments they will generate, so difficult to change attitudes.
6. ADJUSTMENT/ADAPTIVE FUNCTION: Some attitude serve to enable people attain
particular, desired goals. Holding of certain attitudes may bring about direct
rewards. For eg. Parent hold strong attitude for their child to become engineer,
studying hard to support brings parental approval. Using this helps people to
maximize the rewards and minimize the penalties in their external environment.
13. SOURCES / FORMATION OF
Attitudes are acquired but not inherited.
1. DIRECT EXPERIENCE: Direct experience with an object or a person plays important part in forming the
attitude of a person.
2. VICATIOOUS LEARNING: It occurs from observation learning and then retaining. This means people
form attitude by observing behaviour of others and consequences of that behaviour. For eg. Children
form their attitude at a very early age about others through this learning. For eg. If a child has never
met a very poor person but by hearing that poor cannot send his kid to school may adopt such attitude
towards poor forever.
3. FAMILY AND PEER GROUPS :During childhood parents are the best role model for child. The attitude of
parents towards an object (positive /negative) picked up by the child , even without being told or direct
experience. Attitude towards movie stars, sports personality, are formed during their school or college
time from peer group.
4. ECONOMIC STATUS AND OCCUPATION: Our socio-economic background influences our present and
5. MASS COMMUNICATION: TV, radio, newspaper and magazine feed their audiences large quantities of
information. , so as to cater to the attitude of the audience. We select the form of mass communication
according to our interest , they help us either to validate our opinions or to establish new ones.
BARRiERS FOR CHANGING ATTITUDES
1. ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT: It refers to the prior commitment of people to a particular cause and
their unwillingness to change. For eg. We invest in shares whose price keeps falling ,do not accept it a
2. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: It means two contradictory ideas simultaneously. Attitude and belief are
different . For eg. A belief in animal rights could be interpreted with eating meat and wearing fur. In
company employees desire to leave the job as no use in continue and work hard But his stay and
explanation that org. Is not at all bad.
3. INSUFFICENT INFORMATION: Because of this sometimes people donot want to change their attitude .
14. WAYS OF CHANGING ATTITUDES
Inducing attitude change is not always easy. Certain efforts can make it worthwhile to try.
1. REWARDS AND PERFORMANCE: When the performance of the employees is not
identified or reward, they may develop negative attitude towards organization. Making
reward system closely tied to individual or team performance may help employees
developing positive attitude.
2. CLARITY IN DEFINING ROLES: Having confusion in understanding roles can be the
reason why employees feel negative towards their work. Defining their roles clearly so
that employees can overcome that concern.
3. PROVIDING NEW INFORMATION: Negative attitude are mainly formed owing to lack of
or insufficient information. Workers generally become pro-union because of the
ignorance about the good intentions of the management. One they come to know how
the management care for their welfare of the workers, they change their attitude.
4. USE OF FEAR: Fear (degree of fear) can help change the attitude. Sometime low level of
fear arousal may not work in changing the attitude. If moderate level of fear arousal are
used, people often become aware of the situation and will change their attitudes. If high
degrees of fear may prove counter-productive. On being threatened too far, people
tend to become stubborn in their attitudes and may refuse to change.
5. THE COOPTING (CHOOSE ORELECTAS A COLLEAGUE) APPROACH: This means taking
people who are dissatisfied with a situation and getting them involved in improving
Also, one should note that an individual is more likely to change a privately held attitude
than one he has stated publicly. It is, therefore, necessary that a situation is avoided
where the individual makes his attitude public prior to the change attempt.
15. EMOTIONS AND MOODS
Emotions- joy, sorrow, anger or surprise add meaning to life and our relationships otherwise life would become dull and boring.
People who do not care for the emotions of others are said to be suffering from antisocial personality disorder. They are commonly referred to as
psychopaths and sociopaths.
“Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.” (Robert and judge, 2013)
Strong feelings that are directed towards some specific target. Reaction to an event like one feels happy when one sees a friend.
MOODS ARE defined as : feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus”. (Robbins and Judge,2013)
Emotions v/s mood: >People sometimes experience moods even in the absence of any specific event.
> Moods are more long lasting than emotions.
> Moods are experienced more at the mental level and causes a person to think.
>motions affect moods and moods affect emotions. Emotions may become moods when they lose >their focus from the specific event or person
that started it.
>Moods in turn can make people more emotional to events and people.
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS AND MOODS
The following are the major sources/causes of emotions:
1. PERSONALITY: Some peoples are more frequently prone to certain types of emotions and moods than others. People who are high on
affect intensity experience both positive an negative emotions more deeply.
2. DAY OF THE WEEK AND TIME OF THE DAY: Research has found that people experience their worst moods at the beginning of the week and
their best mood late in the week. Positive affect peaks at around the half point between our waking and sleeping hour rest is negative
3. Weather: Association our moods with the weather is due our tendency to engage in illusory( not in reality) correlation.
4. STRESS: negative effect on moods. firing by the boss lead to negative moods. these events build over times and make our mood worse and
5. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES: Our positive mood increases or when we are in a positive mood , we engage in social activities. Positive mood
increases. When engage in physical- cycling or informal- party. Better in attending a lecture or watching a tv show.
6. SLEEP: People who are deprived of sleep experience greater feeling of tiredness, anger and hostility. Inability to control their emotions. ,
lower job satisfaction, irritated.
7. EXERCISES: Improves our positive mood.
8. AGE: Negative mood decline as grow older.. Able to mange their emotional experience better.
9. GENDER: Differences in experience as well as expression of emotions:
Women are emotionally more expressive.
experience emotions more intensely
Women express both positive and negative emotion more frequently. Men experience anger more frequently
men experience powerful emotions. Like- anger and women sadness and fear.