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Towards a certification scheme for IoT security evaluation

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Towards a certification scheme for IoT security evaluation

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Many European and international standardization bodies and industrial organizations do provide more or less detailed specification catalogues addressing IoT product security requirements, test cases and evaluation methods. In this contribution, a dedicated set of relevant standards, guides and recommendations which recently have been recognized by the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) will be introduced. Special attention is given to their contribution for the security evaluation process and the product quality itself, including the level of details regarding their suitability for test definition and execution.

Many European and international standardization bodies and industrial organizations do provide more or less detailed specification catalogues addressing IoT product security requirements, test cases and evaluation methods. In this contribution, a dedicated set of relevant standards, guides and recommendations which recently have been recognized by the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) will be introduced. Special attention is given to their contribution for the security evaluation process and the product quality itself, including the level of details regarding their suitability for test definition and execution.

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Towards a certification scheme for IoT security evaluation

  1. 1. Fraunhofer FOKUS Institute for Open Communication Systems Towards a certification scheme for IoT security evaluation R. Barakat, F. Catal, S. Hackel, A. Rennoch, M. Schneider | GI/IACS Berlin | 28.09.21
  2. 2. Agenda 1 Background 2 ENISA recommendations 3 Certification schemes 4 IoTAC project approach 5 Conclusion 2
  3. 3. 1 Background
  4. 4. Fraunhofer is Europe’s largest application oriented research organization: Fraunhofer Society © Michael Zalewski/ Fraunhofer FOKUS © Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft > 29.000 Employees 75 Institutes and research units > 2.8 billion € Budget (1/3 government, 1/3 public, 1/3 industry) 4 Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FOKUS) We connect everything secure, reliable, sustainable Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS The largest Fraunhofer ICT institute (~450 employees). Located in Berlin.
  5. 5. Fields of application and strategic topics of Fraunhofer FOKUS 5 STRATEGIC TOPICS FIELDS OF APPLICATION Sustainability Artificial Intelligence Digital Life Security/ Certification Digital Governance Digital Networking (e.g. 5G/6G) Quantum Computing
  6. 6. 2 ENISA recommendations
  7. 7. ➢ European Union Agency for Cybersecurity ❖ achieving a high common level of cybersecurity across Europe ➢ ENISA’s Stakeholder Cybersecurity Certification Group (SCCG) ❖ development of a cybersecurity certification scheme for IoT products ❖ EUCC, a candidate cybersecurity certification scheme to serve as a successor to the existing SOG-IS ❖ Indication of selected international standards to be considered for IoT certification Who is ENISA? 7
  8. 8. Agenda 1 Background 2 ENISA recommendations 3 Certification schemes 4 IoTAC project approach 5 Conclusion 8
  9. 9. 3 Certification schemes
  10. 10. IEC 62443 Industrial communication networks – IT security for networks and systems 10
  11. 11. ➢ security requirements definition, secure design, secure implementation, including coding guidelines, verification and validation, defect management, patch management and product end-of-life ➢ focus on the design aspects for the target industrial security product ➢ provides development guidance to ensure an advanced development process ➢ content is on a general level and can be described as a best practice guide without much detail on functionality and evaluation aspects ➢ do not contain concrete test scenarios Part 4-1: Secure product development lifecycle requirements 11
  12. 12. ➢ technical security requirements for the product itself ➢ requirements address − identification and authentication control, − use control, − system integrity, − data confidentiality, − restricted data flow, − timely response to events, and − resource availability ➢ considers all Security functional requirement (SFR) classes from the CommonCriteria ➢ product requirements have been related to security levels 0 to 4 Part 4-2: Technical security requirements for IACS components 12
  13. 13. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee (JTC1) 13
  14. 14. ➢ device that enables trust in computing platforms in general ➢ TPMs require hardware protections to provide three roots of trust: storage, measurement, and reporting ➢ root of trust for storage consists primarily of creating, managing and protecting cryptographic keys and other data values ➢ Artefacts protected by or associated with encryption keys, like passwords, certificates or other credentials, can be used for authentication and many other security scenarios ISO/IEC 11889 consists of the following four parts: • Part 1: Architecture • Part 2: Structures • Part 3: Commands • Part 4: Supporting routines ➢ standard provide many design recommendations ➢ no scenarios for quality testing ISO/IEC 11889 Trusted Platform Module 14
  15. 15. ➢ standard is intended to specify a security baseline or platform for ‘IoT devices’ [things] supporting information security and privacy controls. ➢ Examples of baseline [information security] requirements cover the following topics: • Unique device identifier that should be immutable and verifiable • Factory reset functionality • Delete all user data information’ functionality • Protection of data • Patching/updating capability for firmware and software) ➢ provides concrete requirements for the security product itself ➢ In comparison with CC: small selection towards ten SFRs (FIA, FMT, FDP, FPR, FTA, FAU) and three SARs (ADV, ASE/AVA) ISO/IEC 27402 (committee draft) 15
  16. 16. Global Platform (GP) Security Evaluation Standard for IoT Platforms (SESIP) 16
  17. 17. ➢ designed specifically for the IoT platforms and platform parts on which IoT products are based ➢ SESIP provides a common and optimized approach for evaluating the security of connected products that meets the specific compliance, security, privacy and scalability challenges of the evolving IoT ecosystem ➢ follows all mandatory aspects of ISO 15408 Common Criteria standard ➢ addresses both SFRs and SARs ➢ does not provide concrete design decisions or test objectives GP Security Evaluation Standard for IoT Platforms (SESIP) 17
  18. 18. ETSI TC CYBER series 18
  19. 19. ➢ specifies high-level security and data protection provisions for consumer IoT devices ➢ connected to network infrastructure (such as the Internet or home network) and their interactions with associated services ➢ basic guidance through examples and explanatory text on how to implement these requirements ➢ addresses requirements for the security product itself ➢ also assurance requirements (software update process) ➢ possible to find relationships both to SFRs and to SARs ETSI EN 303 645 Cyber Security for Consumer IoT: Baseline Requirements 19
  20. 20. ➢ specifies test scenarios for assessing consumer IoT products against the provisions of EN 303 645 ➢ mandatory and recommended assessments, guidance and examples to support implementations ➢ targeting testing labs and certification bodies that provide assurance on the security of relevant products ➢ targeting manufacturers that wish to carry out a self- assessment ➢ document does not set out detailed testing protocols ➢ intended as input to a future EU common cybersecurity certification scheme as proposed in the Cybersecurity Act ➢ addresses the definition of concrete tests using an informal description of test purposes, test actions and conditions for the assignment of verdicts ETSI TS 103 701 (draft) 20
  21. 21. 4 IoTAC project approach
  22. 22. ➢ Security By Design IoT Development and Certificate Framework with Front-end Access Control ➢ aims to deliver a novel, secure and privacy-friendly IoT architecture ➢ EU-funded H2020 research and innovation project ➢ Start date: 01 September 2020 IoTAC project 22
  23. 23. Industry Consumer System Device Product Assess Process Design Quality Test Level #req IEC 62443-4-1 I S (X) (X) (X) - 48 IEC 62443-4-2 I S X (X) SL 88 ISO/IEC 11889 S X X - N/A ISO/IEC 27402 D (X) (X) - 13 GP SESIP S X (X) X EAL 53 ETSI EN 303645 C D X X o 67 ETSI TS 103701 C D (X) X X 109 Content classification of selected standards 23
  24. 24. Proposed Certification Process
  25. 25. 5 Conclusions
  26. 26. ➢ Multiple different aspects of Certification are under discussion ❖ Various working groups of standardization bodies and industrial associations ❖ Technical viewpoints differ due to the various stakeholders ➢ ENISA documents already support the interested experts and public community ❖ Missing QA, Testing and Certification ➢ A need for harmonization and common strategies ❖ More emphasise on quality and testing ➢ European research project IoTAC work ❖ https://iotac.eu/ Summary 26
  27. 27. Fraunhofer FOKUS Institute for Open Communication Systems Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 31 10589 Berlin, Germany https://www.fokus.fraunhofer.de/en/sqc ramon.barakat@fokus.fraunhofer.de faruk.catal@fokus.fraunhofer.de sascha.hackel@fokus.fraunhofer.de axel.rennoch@fokus.fraunhofer.de martin.schneider@fokus.fraunhofer.de Thank you for your attention! Acknowledgement: The contribution have been partly supported by the European commission H2020-EU.2.1.1, Grant agreement ID: 952684: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/952684.

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