Sentence structure in linguisitcs

9. Feb 2015

Más contenido relacionado


Sentence structure in linguisitcs

  1. SENTENCE STRUCTURE I really do not know anything has even more exciting than diagramming sentences. -Gertrude Stein
  2. DET N V DET N This template says that a determiner (an article) is followed by a noun, which is followed by a verb, and so on. It would describe English sentences such as the following.  The child found a puppy.  The professor wrote a book.  The runner won a race.
  3. The child found a puppy. The words in the sentence may be grouped into [the child] and [found a puppy], corresponding to subject and predicate of the sentence. Further division [the child], [found], [a puppy], finally for the individual words. [[the] [child]] [[found] [[a] [puppy]]].
  4. root child found the a puppy
  5. The tree conveys the same information as nested square brackets.The hierarchical organization of the tree reflects the groupings and subgroupings of the words of the sentence. The phrase found a puppy divides naturally into two branches, one for the verb found and other for the direct object a puppy.
  7. CONSTITUENTS- natural groupings or parts of the sentences. 3 TESTS 1. “STAND ALONE TEST’’- If a group of words can stand alone, they form a constituent. -the set of words that can be used to answer a question is a constituent. EX: Q: What did you find?, the speaker might answer a puppy, but not found a. A puppy can stand alone, while found a cannot.
  8. 2. “REPLACEMENT BY A PRONOUN”- pronouns can substitute for a natural group. EX: Q: Where did you find a puppy?, the speaker might answer, “ I found him in the park. 3. “MOVE AS UNIT TEST”- if a group of words can moved, they form a constituents.
  9. EX: if we compare the ffg. sentences to the sentence “The child found a puppy”, we see the certain elements have moved. • It was the puppy that the child found. • A puppy was found by the child.  Some sentences have prepositional phrase in the predicate. Ex: The puppy played in the garden.
  10. Syntactic categories- It is the family of expressions that can substitute for one another without the loss of grammaticality. - The child, the police, John, and so on belongs to the syntactic category of NOUN PHRASE (NP)- it may function as subject, or as an object in a sentence. - The girl that the professor Snape loved married the man of her dreams.
  11. Other Syntactic Categories VERB PHRASE (VP)- always contains a verb, ex. found a puppy -VP may contain other categories such as PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP), which is a preposition followed by an NP, such as in the park, on a roof, with a balloon.
  12. LEXICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES Syntactic categories includes both phrasal categories such as NP,VP, AdjP, PP, AdvP. Lexical categories such as noun (N), verb (V), preposition (P), adjective (Adj), adverb (Adv).
  13. LEXICAL CATEGORIES EXAMPLES noun Puppy, boy, soup, happiness, fork, kiss, pillow, cake verb Find, run, sleep, throw, realize, see, try preposition Up, down, across, into, by, with adjective Red, big, candid, hopeless, fair, idotic adverb Again, carefully, luckily, never, very, fairly
  14. Phrase structure tree/ constituent structure tree- it is the tree diagram with with syntactic category information. It shows that a sentence is both linear string of words and hierarchical structure with phrases nested in phrases. PS tree represents 2 aspects: 1. Linear order of words in a sentence 2. identification of syntactic categories of words and group of woords.
  15. 3.The hierarchical structure of the syntactic categories.. The following diagrams provides labels for each constituents of sentece “The child found a puppy”. It will show that the entire sentence belongs to syntactic category of S ( S-node encompasses all the words)
  16. PS Tree- it is a formal device for representing the speaker’s knowledge of the structure of knowledge in his language . The information represented in the PS tree, can also be presented by other formal device, the PS rules. PS rules can capture the knowledge that the speakers have about the possible structure of knowledge
  17. PS RULES 1. S NP VP 2. NP Det N 3. VP V NP 4. VP V -Rule 1 says that a sentence (S) contain NP and VP in that order. S NP VP
  18. Rule 2- one subtree for English NP looks like this: NP Det N Rule 3- says that a verb phrase consists of a verb followed by an NP. VP V NP
  19. The child found a puppy. S NP VP Det N V NP The child found Det N a puppy
  20. 5. VP V PP 6. PP P NP The following sentences contain prepositional phrases following the verb. • The puppy played in the garden • The boat sailed up the river. • A girl laughed at the monkey.
  21. S NP VP Det N V PP The puppy played P NP in Det N the garden
  22. 7. VP V , CP 8. CP C , S Another option open to VP is to contain or embed a sentence. EX: The professor said that the student passed the exam. It contains a sentence “the student passed the exam”. Preceding the embedded sentence is the word “that”, which is a complementizer.
  23. CP- it stands for complementizer phrase. Rule 8, says that CP contains a complementizer such as “that” followed by embedded sentence. Other complementizers are if and whether.
  24. S NP VP Det N V CP The professor said C S that NP VP Det N V NP the students passed Det N the exam.
  25. Here are the PS rules we have discussed so far. A few other rule will be considered later. 1. S NP , VP 2. NP Det , N 3. VP V , NP 4. VP V 5. VP V , PP 6. PP P , NP 7. VP V , CP 8. CP C , S