Class IV - Adaptations-How Animals Survive

26. Sep 2013

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Class IV - Adaptations-How Animals Survive

  1. Adaptation-How animals survive
  2. Types of animals  Based on the absence or presence of backbone , animals can be divided 1. Animals with Backbone (Vertebrates ) 2. Animals without Backbone (Invertebrates)
  3. Invertebrates  Animals that do not have a backbone are called invertebrates.  Examples are insects like spider and scorpion, Worms, and slug and snail.  Insects have six legs and their body is divided into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.  Most insects have a hard outer covering made up of a material called chitin.
  4. Vertebrates  Vertebrates can be divided into 1. Fish 2. Amphibians 3. Reptiles 4. Birds 5. Mammals  Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold-blooded animals. This means that their body temperature changes with the change in the temperature of the surrounding  Warm blooded animals : Animals that have same temperature inside the body all the time.  Birds and mammals are warm-blooded animals
  5. Vertebrates 1. Fish  Live in water  Breathe through gills  Have fins to swim  Body is covered by scale  Are cold-blooded animals  Examples : cod,shark,mackerel
  6. Vertebrates 2. Amphibians  Lives both on land and water  Breathe both through lungs and moist skin  Are cold-blooded animals  Example : Frog, toad, newt
  7. Vertebrates 3. Reptiles  Live mainly on land.  Have scaly skins and reproduce by laying eggs. are reptiles.  Are cold-blooded animals  Examples : Lizard, snake, and crocodile
  8. Vertebrates 4. Birds  Birds have a light body.  They are covered with feathers.  They have wings that help them to fly.  Are warm-blooded animals  Examples : Crow, sparrow, eagle, etc.  Birds like ostrich, kiwi, and penguin cannot fly because they have a heavy body. They are called flightless birds.  Hummingbird is the smallest bird in the world.
  9. Vertebrates 5. Mammals  Animals that give birth to babies (except the platypus and anteater).  Their bodies have hair and the mothers suckle their young ones.  They breathe through lungs and have four limbs.  Are warm-blooded animals.,  Examples : Human, elephant, horse, cow, dog.
  10. Animals based on place they live Based on where animals live ,they are grouped  Terrestrial Animals  Live on land  Aquatic animals  Live in water  Amphibians  Live on both on land and in water  Arboreal animals  Lives mostly on tree  Aerial animals  Fly and spend a lot of time in the air
  11. Terrestrial Animals  Animals that live on land are called terrestrial animals.  These animals have features suitable for life on land.  They have legs which help them to walk on land, and most of them have lungs as their breathing organ.
  12. Terrestrial Animals Animals have adapted to live in different climatic conditions.  Freezing condition :Animals have a thick layer of fat called blubber under their skin to keep their body warm.  Example: Seal, penguin, and Walrus are adapted to live in freezing conditions Seal Penguin Walrus
  13. Terrestrial Animals  Cold Places: Animals that live in very cold places have thick fur on their body, which protects them from cold.  Example: It is cold on the mountains and in the polar regions. A yak lives in the mountains and a polar bear lives in polar region. Yak Polar bear
  14. Terrestrial Animals  Desert: Animals living in deserts have very little hair on their body. These animals have certain adaptations that prevent water loss from their bodies.
  15. Terrestrial Animals  Hibernation :Animals like bear, frog, and snake become inactive in cold winter months, since the food is also scarce. This inactivity during winter months or winter sleep is called hibernation  Aestivation :Slowing down of activity or settling down to along sleep by some animals during the hot summer months.
  16. Aquatic Animals  Animals that live in water are called aquatic animals.  Most aquatic animals breathe through gills, except whales and dolphins, which breathe through lungs.  Most aquatic animals have fins or paddles that help them to swim.  Example : Fish, octopus, turtle, and crab Turtle Octopus
  17. Amphibians  Animals that live both on land and in water.  The back legs of a frog and toad are stronger than their front legs. This helps them to jump, which is how they move on land.  They have webbed feet that help them to swim in water.  Example : Toad, Frog Toad
  18. Arboreal animals  Land animals that live mostly on trees are called arboreal animals.  They have sharp claws to climb up and down the branches and usually have strong, muscular limbs and a tail for holding on to the branches.  Example : Monkey , koala bear. Koala
  19. Aerial animals  Animals that can fly and spend a lot of their time in the air are called aerial animals.  Their hollow bones make their bodies light.  They have one set of limbs modified as wings to help them fly.  The body shape of aerial animals is such that they able to cut through the air easily.  In the cold winter months, when the food become scarce many birds fly towards warmer countries in search of food and warmth. This mass movement of birds from a colder to a warmer place is called migration  Example : Almost all birds, except flightless birds, Bats
  20. Animal Group based on food they eat.  Based on the type of food animals eat, they can be divided into five main groups 1. Herbivores : Animals that eat plants 2. Carnivores : Animals that eat the flesh of other animals 3. Omnivores :Animals that eat plants as well as the flesh of other animals 4. Scavengers : Flesh eating animals that feed on the flesh of dead animals 5. Parasites : Some small animals get their food from other living organisms
  21. Herbivores  Animals that eat plants are called herbivores.  They have sharp teeth for biting and cutting, and very strong teeth for grinding as plant food needs to be chewed a lot as it is very rich in a substance called cellulose.  Example :Horse, Cow
  22. Carnivores • Animals that eat the flesh of other animals are called Carnivores. • Most carnivorous animals have very sharp teeth for tearing out the flesh of its prey. • Example :Lion, tiger, snake, and lizard
  23. Omnivores, Scavengers  Animals that eat plants as well as the flesh of other animals are called Omnivores  Example :Crow ,bear and Human beings  Scavengers are some flesh-eating animals feed on the flesh of dead animals.  Example :Vulture, hyena hyena
  24. Parasites  Some small animals get their food from other living organisms.  They get their food by sucking the blood of their host.  They may live on or inside the body of their host.  Example : Fleas and lice live on the host body , tapeworm, roundworm and hook worm live inside the host’s body
  25. Adaptations for protection  Many animals have adapted themselves to the environment and to protect themselves from their enemies. 1. Animals like elephant and hippopotamus have thick skin to protect themselves from the hot climate. 2. Some animals have very strong legs and are able to run very fast and can easily run away from danger. For example, deer and gazelle 3. Some animals like chameleon, zebra, arctic fox, polar bear, and frog can trick their enemies because their body colour easily blends with their surroundings, thus confusing their enemies. This is known as camouflaging. 4. A chameleon can also change its body colour according to the surroundings. Grasshopper and the stick insect are other examples of animals that show perfect camouflage.
  26. Extinct and Endangered animals  Some animals like the Dodo has already disappeared from the Earth. Such animals are called extinct animals  Animals like the Giant Panda and tiger are in danger of becoming extinct. Such animals are called endangered animals. www.reflectivelearn.comGiant Panda