Types of animals
Based on the absence or presence of backbone , animals
can be divided
1. Animals with Backbone (Vertebrates )
2. Animals without Backbone (Invertebrates)
Animals that do not have a backbone are called
Examples are insects like spider and scorpion, Worms,
and slug and snail.
Insects have six legs and their body is divided into
three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen.
Most insects have a hard outer covering made up of a
material called chitin.
Vertebrates can be divided into
Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are cold-blooded
animals. This means that their body temperature
changes with the change in the temperature of the
Warm blooded animals : Animals that have same
temperature inside the body all the time.
Birds and mammals are warm-blooded animals
Live in water
Breathe through gills
Have fins to swim
Body is covered by scale
Are cold-blooded animals
Examples : cod,shark,mackerel
Lives both on land and water
Breathe both through lungs and moist skin
Are cold-blooded animals
Example : Frog, toad, newt
Live mainly on land.
Have scaly skins and reproduce by laying eggs. are
Are cold-blooded animals
Examples : Lizard, snake, and crocodile
Birds have a light body.
They are covered with feathers.
They have wings that help them to fly.
Are warm-blooded animals
Examples : Crow, sparrow, eagle, etc.
Birds like ostrich, kiwi, and penguin cannot fly because
they have a heavy body. They are called flightless birds.
Hummingbird is the smallest bird in the world.
Animals that give birth to babies (except the platypus
Their bodies have hair and the mothers suckle their
They breathe through lungs and have four limbs.
Are warm-blooded animals.,
Examples : Human, elephant, horse, cow, dog.
Animals based on place they live
Based on where animals live ,they are grouped
Live on land
Live in water
Live on both on land and in water
Lives mostly on tree
Fly and spend a lot of time in the air
Animals that live on land are called terrestrial animals.
These animals have features suitable for life on land.
They have legs which help them to walk on land, and
most of them have lungs as their breathing organ.
Animals have adapted to live in different climatic
Freezing condition :Animals have a thick layer of fat
called blubber under their skin to keep their body warm.
Example: Seal, penguin, and Walrus are adapted to live in
Cold Places: Animals that live in very cold places have
thick fur on their body, which protects them from cold.
Example: It is cold on the mountains and in the polar
regions. A yak lives in the mountains and a polar bear
lives in polar region.
Yak Polar bear
Desert: Animals living in deserts have very little hair
on their body. These animals have certain adaptations
that prevent water loss from their bodies.
Hibernation :Animals like bear, frog, and snake
become inactive in cold winter months, since the
food is also scarce. This inactivity during winter
months or winter sleep is called hibernation
Aestivation :Slowing down of activity or settling
down to along sleep by some animals during the
hot summer months.
Animals that live in water are called aquatic
Most aquatic animals breathe through
gills, except whales and dolphins, which
breathe through lungs.
Most aquatic animals have fins or paddles that
help them to swim.
Example : Fish, octopus, turtle, and crab
Turtle Octopus Crabwww.reflectivelearn.com
Animals that live both on land and in water.
The back legs of a frog and toad are stronger than
their front legs. This helps them to jump, which is
how they move on land.
They have webbed feet that help them to swim in
Example : Toad, Frog
Land animals that live mostly on trees are called
They have sharp claws to climb up and down the
branches and usually have strong, muscular limbs
and a tail for holding on to the branches.
Example : Monkey , koala bear.
Animals that can fly and spend a lot of their time in the air
are called aerial animals.
Their hollow bones make their bodies light.
They have one set of limbs modified as wings to help them
The body shape of aerial animals is such that they able to
cut through the air easily.
In the cold winter months, when the food become scarce
many birds fly towards warmer countries in search of food
and warmth. This mass movement of birds from a colder to
a warmer place is called migration
Example : Almost all birds, except flightless birds, Bats
Animal Group based on food they eat.
Based on the type of food animals eat, they can be
divided into five main groups
1. Herbivores : Animals that eat plants
2. Carnivores : Animals that eat the flesh of other animals
3. Omnivores :Animals that eat plants as well as the flesh
of other animals
4. Scavengers : Flesh eating animals that feed on the flesh
of dead animals
5. Parasites : Some small animals get their food from
other living organisms
Animals that eat plants are called
They have sharp teeth for biting and
cutting, and very strong teeth for grinding
as plant food needs to be chewed a lot as it is very rich
in a substance called cellulose.
Example :Horse, Cow
• Animals that eat the flesh of other
animals are called Carnivores.
• Most carnivorous animals have very
sharp teeth for tearing out the flesh of
• Example :Lion, tiger, snake, and lizard
Animals that eat plants as well as the flesh of other
animals are called Omnivores
Example :Crow ,bear and Human beings
Scavengers are some flesh-eating animals feed on the
flesh of dead animals.
Example :Vulture, hyena
Some small animals get their food from other living
They get their food by sucking the blood of their host.
They may live on or inside the body of their host.
Example : Fleas and lice live on the host body
, tapeworm, roundworm and hook worm live inside the
Adaptations for protection
Many animals have adapted themselves to the
environment and to protect themselves from their
1. Animals like elephant and hippopotamus have thick skin to
protect themselves from the hot climate.
2. Some animals have very strong legs and are able to run very fast
and can easily run away from danger. For example, deer and
3. Some animals like chameleon, zebra, arctic fox, polar bear, and
frog can trick their enemies because their body colour easily
blends with their surroundings, thus confusing their enemies.
This is known as camouflaging.
4. A chameleon can also change its body colour according to the
surroundings. Grasshopper and the stick insect are other
examples of animals that show perfect camouflage.
Extinct and Endangered animals
Some animals like the Dodo has already disappeared
from the Earth. Such animals are called extinct
Animals like the Giant Panda and tiger are in danger of
becoming extinct. Such animals are called endangered