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Freedom & Responsibility
Culture
(Version 1)
This is archive of 1st
Edition
2nd
Edition is at:
http://www.slideshare.net/reed2001/culture-1798664
1
Reference Guide on our
Freedom & Responsibility
Culture
These slides are meant for reading,
rather than presenting
2
Freedom & Responsibility
Applies to our
Salaried Employees
Our hourly employees are important,
but have more structured job roles
3
Culture: what gives Netflix
the best chance of
continuous success
for many generations
of technology and people?
4
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
5
Lots of companies have
nice sounding
value statements
6
Enron Had A Nice-Sounding
Value Statement with 4 Values
• Integrity
• Communication
• Respect
• Excellence
Enron headquarters
7
Their 4 values were chiseled in
marble in the main lobby, but
had little to do with the real
values of the organization
The real company values,
as opposed to the
nice-sounding values,
are shown by who gets
rewarded, promoted, or let go
8
Real company values are the
behaviors and skills
that we particularly value
in fellow employees
9
We Particularly Value
in our Colleagues
these Nine Behaviors and Skills…
10
You make wise decisions
(people, technical, business, and
creative) despite ambiguity
You identify root causes, and get
beyond treating symptoms
You think strategically, and can
articulate what you are, and are
not, trying to do
You smartly separate what must
be done well now, and what can
be improved later
11
Judgment
12
Communication
You listen well, instead of
reacting fast, so you can better
understand
You are concise and articulate in
speech and writing
You treat people with respect
independent of their status or
disagreement with you
You maintain calm poise in
stressful situations
13
Impact
You accomplish amazing
amounts of important work
You demonstrate consistently
strong performance so
colleagues can rely upon you
You focus on great results rather
than on process
You exhibit bias-to-action, and
avoid analysis-paralysis
14
Curiosity
You learn rapidly and eagerly
You seek to understand our
strategy, market, subscribers,
and suppliers
You are broadly knowledgeable
about business, technology and
entertainment
You contribute effectively
outside of your specialty
15
Innovation
You re-conceptualize issues to
discover practical solutions to
hard problems
You challenge prevailing
assumptions when warranted,
and suggest better approaches
You create new ideas that prove
useful
You keep us nimble by
minimizing complexity and
finding time to simplify
16
Courage
You say what you think even if it
is controversial
You make tough decisions
without excessive agonizing
You take smart risks
You question actions
inconsistent with our values
17
Passion
You inspire others with your
thirst for excellence
You care intensely about Netflix'
success
You celebrate wins
You are tenacious
18
Honesty
You are known for candor and
directness
You are non-political when you
disagree with others
You only say things about fellow
employees you will say to their
face
You are quick to admit mistakes
19
Selflessness
You seek what is best for Netflix,
rather than best for yourself or
your group
You are ego-less when searching
for the best ideas
You make time to help
colleagues
You share information openly
and proactively
Judgment
You make wise decisions (people, technical,
business, and creative) despite ambiguity
You identify root causes, and get beyond treating
symptoms
You think strategically, and can articulate what
you are, and are not, trying to do
You smartly separate what must be done well
now, and what can be improved later
Innovation
You re-conceptualize issues to discover practical
solutions to hard problems
You challenge prevailing assumptions when
warranted, and suggest better approaches
You create new ideas that prove useful
You keep us nimble by minimizing complexity
and finding time to simplify
Impact
You accomplish amazing amounts of important
work
You demonstrate consistently strong
performance so colleagues can rely upon you
You focus on great results rather than on process
You exhibit bias-to-action, and avoid analysis-
paralysis
Curiosity
You learn rapidly and eagerly
You seek to understand our strategy,
market, subscribers, and suppliers
You are broadly knowledgeable about business,
technology and entertainment
You contribute effectively outside of your
specialty
Communication
You listen well, instead of reacting fast, so you
can better understand
You are concise and articulate in speech and
writing
You treat people with respect independent of
their status or disagreement with you
You maintain calm poise in stressful situations
Courage
You say what you think even if it is controversial
You make tough decisions without excessive
agonizing
You take smart risks
You question actions inconsistent with our values
Honesty
You are known for candor and directness
You are non-political when you disagree with
others
You only say things about fellow employees you
will say to their face
You are quick to admit mistakes
Selflessness
You seek what is best for Netflix, rather than best
for yourself or your group
You are ego-less when searching for the best
ideas
You make time to help colleagues
You share information openly and proactively
Passion
You inspire others with your thirst for excellence
You care intensely about Netflix' success
You celebrate wins
You are tenacious
We Want to Work with People Who Embody These Nine Values 20
“You question actions
inconsistent with our values”
Part of the Courage value
Akin to the honor code pledge:
“I will not lie, nor cheat, nor steal, nor tolerate those who do”
All of us are responsible for value consistency
21
Values reinforced in hiring,
in 360 reviews, at comp review, in
exits, and in promotions
22
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
23
Imagine if every person at Netflix
is someone you
respect and learn from…
24
Great Workplace is
Stunning Colleagues
Great workplace is not day-care, espresso, health
benefits, sushi lunches, nice offices,
or big compensation,
and we only do those that are efficient at
attracting stunning colleagues
25
Like every company,
we try to hire well
26
But, unlike many companies,
we practice “adequate performance
gets a generous severance
package.”
27
We’re a team, not a family
We’re like a pro sports team,
not a kid’s recreational team
Coaches’ job at every level of Netflix
to hire, develop and cut smartly,
so we have stars in every position
28
The Keeper Test Managers Use:
“Which of my people,
if they told me
they were leaving in two months
for a similar job at a peer company,
would I fight hard to keep at Netflix?
29
The Keeper Test Managers Use:
“Which of my people,
if they told me
they were leaving in two months
for a similar job at a peer company,
would I fight hard to keep at Netflix?
30
The other people should get a generous severance now,
so we can open a slot to try to find a star for that role
Honesty Always
To avoid surprises, you should periodically
ask your manager: “If I told you I were
leaving, how hard would you work to
change my mind to stay at Netflix?”
31
Isn’t Loyalty Good?
What About Hard Workers?
What about Brilliant Jerks?
32
Loyalty is Good
• Loyalty is good as a stabilizer
• People who have been stars for us, and hit a bad
patch, get a near term pass because we think
they are likely to become stars for us again
• We want the same: if Netflix hits a temporary
bad patch, we want people to stick with us
• But unlimited loyalty to a shrinking firm, or to an
ineffective employee, is not what we are about
33
Hard Work – Not Directly Relevant
• It’s about effectiveness – not effort – even
though effectiveness is harder to assess than
effort
• We don’t measure people by how many
evenings or weekends they are in their cube
• We do try to measure people by how much,
how quickly and how well they get work done
– especially under deadline
34
Brilliant Jerks
• Some companies tolerate them
• For us, the cost to teamwork is too high
• Diverse styles are fine – as long as person
embodies the 9 values
35
Why are we so manic on
high performance?
In procedural work, the best are 2x
better than the average.
In creative work, the best are 10x
better than the average, so huge premium on
creating effective teams of the best
36
Why are we so manic on
high performance?
Great Workplace is
Stunning Colleagues
37
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
38
The Rare Responsible Person
• Self motivating
• Self aware
• Self disciplined
• Self improving
• Acts like a leader
• Doesn’t wait to be told what to do
• Never feels “that’s not my job”
• Picks up the trash lying on the floor
• Behaves like an owner
39
Responsible People
Thrive on Freedom,
and are Worthy of Freedom
40
Our model is to increase
employee freedom as we grow,
rather than limit it, to continue to
attract and nourish
innovative people,
so we have better chance of
long-term continued success
41
Most Companies
Curtail Freedom as they get Bigger
Bigger
Employee Freedom
42
Most Companies Curtail Freedom
As They Grow to Avoid Errors
(sounds pretty good to avoid errors)
43
Desire for Bigger Positive Impact
Creates Growth
Growth
44
Growth Increases Complexity
Complexity
45
Growth Shrinks Talent Density
in Most Firms
% High Performance Employees
Complexity
46
Chaos Emerges
% High Performance Employees
Chaos and errors spikes here – business
has become too complex to run
informally with this talent level Complexity
47
Process Emerges to Stop the Chaos
Procedures
No one loves process, but
feels good compared to the
pain of chaos
48
Process-focus Drives More Talent Out
% High Performance Employees
49
Strong Near-Term Outcome
• A highly-successful process-driven company
– With leading share in its market
– Minimal thinking required
– Few mistakes made – very efficient
– Few curious innovator-mavericks remain
– Very optimized processes for its existing market
50
Then the Market Shifts…
• Market shifts due to new technology or new
competitors or new business models
• Company is unable to adapt quickly, because
the employees are extremely good at
following the existing processes, and process
adherence is the value system
• Company generally grinds painfully into
irrelevance, due to inability to respond to the
market shift
51
Seems Like Three Bad Options
1. Stay creative by staying small
2. Try to avoid rules as you grow, suffer chaos
3. Use process as you grow to drive efficient
execution of current model, but cripple
creativity, innovation, flexibility, and ability
to thrive when market inevitably shifts
52
A Fourth Option
• Avoid Chaos as you grow with Ever More High
Performance People – not with Rules
• Then you can continue to run informally with
self-discipline and avoid chaos
• The run informally part is what enables and
attracts creativity
53
The Key: Increase Talent Density
faster than Complexity Grows
% High Performance Employees
Business Complexity
54
Increase Talent Density
• Top of market compensation
• Attract hi-value people through
freedom to make impact
• Be demanding about high
performance culture
% High Performance Employees
55
Minimize Complexity Growth
Business Complexity
• Few big products vs many small ones
• Eliminate distracting complexity (barnacles)
• Value simplicity
56
With the Right People,
Instead of a
Culture of Process Adherence,
Culture of
Freedom and Responsibility,
Innovation and Self-Discipline
57
Is Freedom Absolute?
Are all rules & processes bad?
58
Freedom is not absolute.
Like “free speech”
there are some
limited exceptions to
“freedom at work”
59
Two Types of Necessary Rules
1. Prevent irrevocable disaster
– E.g. Financials produced are wrong
– E.g. Hackers steal our customers’ credit card info
1. Moral, ethical, legal issues
– E.g. Dishonesty, harassment are intolerable
60
Mostly, Though, Rapid Recovery is
the Right Model
• Just fix problems quickly
– High performers make very few errors
• We’re in a creative-inventive market, not a
safety-critical market like medicine or nuclear
power
• You may have heard preventing error is
cheaper than fixing it
– Yes, in manufacturing or medicine, but…
– Not so in creative environments
61
“Good” vs “Bad” Processes
• “Good” processes help talented people get more done
– Web site push every two weeks rather than random
– Spend within budget each quarter so don’t have to
coordinate every spending decision across departments
– Regularly scheduled strategy and context meetings
• “Bad” processes try to prevent recoverable mistakes
– Get pre-approvals for $5k spending
– 3 people to sign off on banner ad creative
– Permission needed to hang a poster on a wall
– Multi-level approval process for projects
– Get 10 people to interview each candidate
62
Rule Creep
• “Bad” processes tend to creep in
– Preventing errors just sounds so good
• We try to get rid of rules when we can, to
reinforce the point
63
Example: Netflix Vacation Policy
and Tracking
Until 2004 we had the standard
model of N days per year
64
Meanwhile…
We’re all working online some nights
and weekends, responding to emails at
odd hours, and taking an afternoon
now and then for personal time.
65
An employee pointed out…
We don’t track hours worked per day
or per week, so why are we tracking
days of vacation per year?
66
We realized…
We should focus on what people get done,
not how many hours or days worked. Just
as we don’t have an 9-5 day policy, we don’t
need a vacation policy.
67
Netflix Vacation Policy
and Tracking
“there is no policy or tracking”
68
Netflix Vacation Policy
and Tracking
“there is no policy or tracking”
“There is also no clothing policy at Netflix, but no one has
come to work naked lately.” – Patty McCord, 2004
Lesson: you don’t need detailed policies for everything.
69
Another Example of Freedom
and Responsibility…
70
Most companies have complex
policies around what you can
expense, how you travel, what gifts
you can accept, etc.
Plus they have whole departments
to verify compliance
with these policies.
71
Netflix Policies
for Expensing, Entertainment,
Gifts & Travel:
“Act in Netflix’s Best Interests”
(5 words long)
72
“Act in Netflix’s Best Interests”
Generally Means…
1. Expense only what you would otherwise not
spend, and is worthwhile for work.
2. Travel as you would if it were your own money.
3. Disclose non-trivial vendor gifts.
4. Take from Netflix only when it is inefficient to
not take, and inconsequential.
– “taking” means, for example, printing personal
documents at work or making personal calls on work
phone: inconsequential and inefficient to avoid
73
Freedom and Responsibility
• Many people say one can’t do it at scale
• But since going public in 2002, which is
traditionally the beginning of the end for
freedom, we’ve increased talent density and
employee freedom substantially.
74
Summary of
Freedom & Responsibility:
As We Grow, Minimize Rules.
Inhibit Chaos with Ever More
High Performance People.
Flexibility is More Important
than Efficiency in the Long Term
75
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
76
"If you want to build a ship, don't
drum up the people to gather wood,
divide the work, and give orders.
Instead, teach them to yearn for the
vast and endless sea."
-Antoine De Saint-Exupery,
Author of The Little Prince
77*translation uses ‘people’ instead of ‘men’ to modernize
The best managers figure out how
to get great outcomes by setting the
appropriate context, rather than by
trying to control their people
78
Context, not Control
Context
• Strategy
• Metrics
• Assumptions
• Objectives
• Clearly-defined roles
• Knowledge of the stakes
• Transparency around
decision-making
Control
• Top-down decision-making
• Management approval
• Committees
• Planning and process valued
more than results
Provide the insight and understanding to enable sound decisions
79
Exceptions
• Control can be important in emergency
– No time to take long-term capacity-building view
• Control can be important when someone is
still learning their area
– Takes time to pick up the necessary context
• Control can be important when you have the
wrong person in a role
– Temporarily, no doubt
80
Managers: When one of your
talented people
does something dumb,
don’t blame them.
Instead,
ask yourself what context
you failed to set.
81
Managers: When you are tempted
to “control” your people, ask
yourself what context you could set
instead
Are you articulate and inspiring
enough about goals and strategies?
82
Good Context
• Link to company/functional goals
• Relative priority (how important/how time sensitive)
– Critical (needs to happen now), or…
– Nice to have (when you can get to it)
• Level of precision & refinement
– No errors (credit cards handling, etc…), or…
– Pretty good / can correct errors (website), or…
– Rough (experimental)
• Key stakeholders
• Key metrics / definition of success
83
Why Managing Through
Context?
High performance people will do
better work if they understand the
context
84
Investing in Context
This is why we do new employee
college, and why we are so open
internally about strategies and results
85
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
86
Three Models of Corporate Teamwork
1. Tightly-Coupled Monolith
2. Independent Silos
3. Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
87
Tightly-Coupled Monolith
• Senior management reviews and approves
nearly all tactics
• Lots of x-departmental buy-in meetings
• Keeping other groups in agreement has equal
precedence with pleasing customers
• Mavericks get exhausted trying to innovate
• Highly coordinated through centralization, but
very slow, and slowness increases with size
88
Independent Silos
• Each group executes on their objectives with
little coordination
• Work that requires coordination suffers
• Alienation and suspicion between
departments
• Only works well when areas are independent
– e.g. GE: aircraft engines and Universal Studios
89
The Netflix Choice
1. Tightly-Coupled Monolith
2. Independent Silos
3. Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
90
Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Highly Aligned
– Strategy and goals are clear, specific, broadly understood
– Team interactions are on strategy and goals rather than tactics
– Requires large investment in management time to be
transparent and articulate and perceptive and open
• Loosely Coupled
– Minimal cross-functional meetings except to get aligned on
goals and strategy
– Trust between groups on tactics without previewing/approving
each one – groups can move fast
– Leaders reaching out proactively for ad-hoc coordination and
perspective as appropriate
– Occasional post-mortems on tactics necessary to increase
alignment
91
Highly-Aligned Loosely-Coupled
teamwork effectiveness
is dependent on
high performance people
and good context
Goal is to be
Big and Fast and Flexible
92
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
93
Pay Top of Market is Core to
High Performance Culture
One outstanding employee gets more done
and costs less than two adequate
employees
We endeavor to have only
outstanding employees
94
Three Tests for Top of Market
for a Person
1. What could person get elsewhere?
2. What would we pay for replacement?
3. What would we pay to keep person?
– If they had a bigger offer elsewhere
95Confidential
Takes Great Judgment
• Goal is to keep each employee at top of
market for that person
– Pay them more than anyone else likely would
– Pay them as much as a replacement would cost
– Pay them as much as we would pay to keep them
if they had higher offer from elsewhere
96
Titles Not Very Helpful
• Lots of people have the title “Major League
Pitcher” but they are not all equally effective
• Similarly, all people with the title “Senior
Marketing Manager” or “Director of
Engineering” are not equally effective
• So the art of compensation is answering the
Three Tests for each employee
97
Annual Comp Review
• Hiring is market-based at many firms, but at
Netflix we also make the annual comp review
market-based
– Applies same lens as hiring
• Essentially, rehiring each employee each year,
for purposes of comp
– At annual comp review, manager has to answer
the Three Tests for the personal market for each
of their employees
98Confidential
No Fixed Budgets
• There are no centrally administered “raise
pools” each year
• Instead, each manager aligns their people to
market each year – the market will be
different in different areas
99
Annual Comp Review
• Some people will move up in comp very
quickly because their value in the marketplace
is moving up quickly, driven by increasing skills
and/or great demand for their area
• Some people will move down or stay flat
because their value in the marketplace has
moved down or stayed flat
– Depends in part on inflation and economy
– Still top of market, though, for that person
100
Compensation Not Dependent
on Netflix Success
• Whether Netflix is prospering or floundering,
we pay at the top of the market
– i.e., sports teams with losing records still pay
talent the market rate
• Employees can choose how much they want
to link their economic destiny to Netflix
success or failure by deciding how much
Netflix stock or stock options they want to
own
101
Bad Ideas
• Manager sets pay at Nth percentile of title-
linked compensation data
– The “Major League Pitcher” problem
• Manager cares about internal parity instead of
external market value
– Fairness in comp is being true to the market
• Manager gives everyone a 4% raise
– Very unlikely to reflect the market
102
When Top of Market Comp
Done Right...
• Nearly all ex-employees will take a step down
in comp for their next job
• We will rarely counter with higher comp when
someone is voluntarily leaving because we
have already moved comp to our max for that
person
• Employees will feel they are getting paid well
relative to their other options in the market
103
Versus Traditional Model
• Traditional model is good prior year earns a
raise, independent of market
– Problem is employees can get materially under- or
over-paid relative to the market, over time
– When materially under-paid, employees switch
firms to take advantage of market-based pay on
hiring
– When materially over-paid, employees are
trapped in current firm
• Consistent market-based pay is better model
104
Employee Success
• It’s pretty ingrained in our society that the size of
one’s raise is the indicator of how well one did
the prior year – but at Netflix there are other
factors too – namely, the outside market
• In our model, employee success is big factor in
comp because it influences market value
– In particular, how much we would pay to keep the
person
– But employee success is not the only factor in comp,
so the linkage of prior year performance to raise size
is weak
105
Good For Each Employee to
Understand Their Market Value
• It a healthy idea, not a traitorous idea, to
understand what other firms would pay you,
by interviewing and talking to peers at other
companies
– Talk with your manager about what you find
– Minor exception: interviewing with groups that
directly compete with Netflix, because their
motive is in part confidential information
106
Efficiency
• Big salary is the most efficient form of comp
– Most motivating for any given expense level
– No bonuses – just include in salary – so much simpler
– No free stock options – just big salary
– Great health plan options, but high employee co-pay
– No philanthropic match
– Instead, put all that expense into big salaries
– Give people big salaries, and the freedom to spend as
they think best
107
Optional Options
• Employees can request to trade salary for stock
options, if they wish
• The options are fully vested, granted monthly,
and cost employees in pre-tax salary
approximately half of what such an option would
cost in the open market
• Options ultimately valuable only if Netflix stock
climbs over the next 10 years
• Investing in Netflix stock or stock options lets one
participate in Netflix success or failure at
whatever level is comfortable for employee
108
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• High Performance
• Values are what we Value
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
109
In some time periods, in some
groups, there will be lots of
opportunity and growth at Netflix
Some people, through both luck and
talent, will have extraordinary career
growth
110
Baseball Analogy: Minors to
Majors
• Very talented people usually get to move up, but
only true for the very talented
• Some luck in terms of what positions open up
and what the competition is
• Some people move to other teams to get the
opportunity they want
• Great teams keep their best talent
• Some minor league players keep playing even
though they don’t move up because they love
the game
111
Netflix Doesn’t Have to be for Life
• In some times, in some groups, there may not
be enough growth opportunity for everyone
• In which case we should celebrate someone
leaving for a bigger job that we didn’t have
available to offer them
• If that is what the person prefers
112
Two Necessary Conditions
for Promotion
• Job has to be big enough
– We might have an incredible manager of something,
but we don’t need a director of it because job isn’t big
enough
• If the incredible manager left, we would replace with
manager, not with director
• Person has to be a superstar in current role
– Could get the next level job here if applying from
outside and we knew their talents well
– Could get the next level job at peer firm that knew
their talents well
113
Timing
• If manager would promote employee to keep
them if employee were thinking of leaving,
manager should promote now, and not wait
• Both tests still have to be passed
– Job big enough
– Superstar in current role
114
Development
• We develop people by giving them the
opportunity to develop themselves, by
surrounding them with stunning colleagues
and giving them big challenges to work on
– Mediocre colleagues or unchallenging work is
what kills progress of a person’s skills
115
Development
• Formalized development is rarely effective,
and we don’t try to do it
– E.g. Courses, mentor assignment, rotation around
a firm, multi-year career paths, etc.
• High performance people are generally self-
improving through experience, observation,
introspection, reading and discussion
– As long as they have stunning colleagues and big
challenges
116
Individuals should manage their own
career paths, and not rely on a
corporation for planning their
careers
Like retirement planning – safer as
individual responsibility
117
Individual’s economic security is
based upon their
skills and reputation
We try hard to consistently provide
opportunity to grow both
118
Seven Aspects of our Culture
• Values are what we Value
• High Performance
• Freedom & Responsibility
• Context, not Control
• Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled
• Pay Top of Market
• Promotions & Development
119
Why is culture important?
What is our culture trying to
support?
120
Culture is How a Firm Operates
What practices give Netflix the best
chance of continuous success for many
generations of technology and people?
121
Continuous Success =
Continuous growth in revenue,
profits & reputation
122
Need a culture that supports
rapid innovation and
excellent execution
123
Need a culture that supports
rapid innovation and
excellent execution
124
Both are required for
continuous growth
There is tension between these two
goals; between creativity and discipline
Need a culture that supports
effective teamwork of
high-performance
people
125
Need a culture that supports
effective teamwork of
high-performance
people
126
High performance people and effective teamwork
can be in tension also – stars have strong opinions
Need a culture that avoids the
rigidity, politics, mediocrity, and
complacency that infects most
organizations as they grow
127
This slide deck is our current best
thinking about maximizing our
likelihood of continuous success
128
Our culture is a work in progress
Every year we try to refine our
culture further as we learn more
129

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Culture (Original 2009 version)

  • 1. Freedom & Responsibility Culture (Version 1) This is archive of 1st Edition 2nd Edition is at: http://www.slideshare.net/reed2001/culture-1798664 1
  • 2. Reference Guide on our Freedom & Responsibility Culture These slides are meant for reading, rather than presenting 2
  • 3. Freedom & Responsibility Applies to our Salaried Employees Our hourly employees are important, but have more structured job roles 3
  • 4. Culture: what gives Netflix the best chance of continuous success for many generations of technology and people? 4
  • 5. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 5
  • 6. Lots of companies have nice sounding value statements 6
  • 7. Enron Had A Nice-Sounding Value Statement with 4 Values • Integrity • Communication • Respect • Excellence Enron headquarters 7 Their 4 values were chiseled in marble in the main lobby, but had little to do with the real values of the organization
  • 8. The real company values, as opposed to the nice-sounding values, are shown by who gets rewarded, promoted, or let go 8
  • 9. Real company values are the behaviors and skills that we particularly value in fellow employees 9
  • 10. We Particularly Value in our Colleagues these Nine Behaviors and Skills… 10
  • 11. You make wise decisions (people, technical, business, and creative) despite ambiguity You identify root causes, and get beyond treating symptoms You think strategically, and can articulate what you are, and are not, trying to do You smartly separate what must be done well now, and what can be improved later 11 Judgment
  • 12. 12 Communication You listen well, instead of reacting fast, so you can better understand You are concise and articulate in speech and writing You treat people with respect independent of their status or disagreement with you You maintain calm poise in stressful situations
  • 13. 13 Impact You accomplish amazing amounts of important work You demonstrate consistently strong performance so colleagues can rely upon you You focus on great results rather than on process You exhibit bias-to-action, and avoid analysis-paralysis
  • 14. 14 Curiosity You learn rapidly and eagerly You seek to understand our strategy, market, subscribers, and suppliers You are broadly knowledgeable about business, technology and entertainment You contribute effectively outside of your specialty
  • 15. 15 Innovation You re-conceptualize issues to discover practical solutions to hard problems You challenge prevailing assumptions when warranted, and suggest better approaches You create new ideas that prove useful You keep us nimble by minimizing complexity and finding time to simplify
  • 16. 16 Courage You say what you think even if it is controversial You make tough decisions without excessive agonizing You take smart risks You question actions inconsistent with our values
  • 17. 17 Passion You inspire others with your thirst for excellence You care intensely about Netflix' success You celebrate wins You are tenacious
  • 18. 18 Honesty You are known for candor and directness You are non-political when you disagree with others You only say things about fellow employees you will say to their face You are quick to admit mistakes
  • 19. 19 Selflessness You seek what is best for Netflix, rather than best for yourself or your group You are ego-less when searching for the best ideas You make time to help colleagues You share information openly and proactively
  • 20. Judgment You make wise decisions (people, technical, business, and creative) despite ambiguity You identify root causes, and get beyond treating symptoms You think strategically, and can articulate what you are, and are not, trying to do You smartly separate what must be done well now, and what can be improved later Innovation You re-conceptualize issues to discover practical solutions to hard problems You challenge prevailing assumptions when warranted, and suggest better approaches You create new ideas that prove useful You keep us nimble by minimizing complexity and finding time to simplify Impact You accomplish amazing amounts of important work You demonstrate consistently strong performance so colleagues can rely upon you You focus on great results rather than on process You exhibit bias-to-action, and avoid analysis- paralysis Curiosity You learn rapidly and eagerly You seek to understand our strategy, market, subscribers, and suppliers You are broadly knowledgeable about business, technology and entertainment You contribute effectively outside of your specialty Communication You listen well, instead of reacting fast, so you can better understand You are concise and articulate in speech and writing You treat people with respect independent of their status or disagreement with you You maintain calm poise in stressful situations Courage You say what you think even if it is controversial You make tough decisions without excessive agonizing You take smart risks You question actions inconsistent with our values Honesty You are known for candor and directness You are non-political when you disagree with others You only say things about fellow employees you will say to their face You are quick to admit mistakes Selflessness You seek what is best for Netflix, rather than best for yourself or your group You are ego-less when searching for the best ideas You make time to help colleagues You share information openly and proactively Passion You inspire others with your thirst for excellence You care intensely about Netflix' success You celebrate wins You are tenacious We Want to Work with People Who Embody These Nine Values 20
  • 21. “You question actions inconsistent with our values” Part of the Courage value Akin to the honor code pledge: “I will not lie, nor cheat, nor steal, nor tolerate those who do” All of us are responsible for value consistency 21
  • 22. Values reinforced in hiring, in 360 reviews, at comp review, in exits, and in promotions 22
  • 23. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 23
  • 24. Imagine if every person at Netflix is someone you respect and learn from… 24
  • 25. Great Workplace is Stunning Colleagues Great workplace is not day-care, espresso, health benefits, sushi lunches, nice offices, or big compensation, and we only do those that are efficient at attracting stunning colleagues 25
  • 26. Like every company, we try to hire well 26
  • 27. But, unlike many companies, we practice “adequate performance gets a generous severance package.” 27
  • 28. We’re a team, not a family We’re like a pro sports team, not a kid’s recreational team Coaches’ job at every level of Netflix to hire, develop and cut smartly, so we have stars in every position 28
  • 29. The Keeper Test Managers Use: “Which of my people, if they told me they were leaving in two months for a similar job at a peer company, would I fight hard to keep at Netflix? 29
  • 30. The Keeper Test Managers Use: “Which of my people, if they told me they were leaving in two months for a similar job at a peer company, would I fight hard to keep at Netflix? 30 The other people should get a generous severance now, so we can open a slot to try to find a star for that role
  • 31. Honesty Always To avoid surprises, you should periodically ask your manager: “If I told you I were leaving, how hard would you work to change my mind to stay at Netflix?” 31
  • 32. Isn’t Loyalty Good? What About Hard Workers? What about Brilliant Jerks? 32
  • 33. Loyalty is Good • Loyalty is good as a stabilizer • People who have been stars for us, and hit a bad patch, get a near term pass because we think they are likely to become stars for us again • We want the same: if Netflix hits a temporary bad patch, we want people to stick with us • But unlimited loyalty to a shrinking firm, or to an ineffective employee, is not what we are about 33
  • 34. Hard Work – Not Directly Relevant • It’s about effectiveness – not effort – even though effectiveness is harder to assess than effort • We don’t measure people by how many evenings or weekends they are in their cube • We do try to measure people by how much, how quickly and how well they get work done – especially under deadline 34
  • 35. Brilliant Jerks • Some companies tolerate them • For us, the cost to teamwork is too high • Diverse styles are fine – as long as person embodies the 9 values 35
  • 36. Why are we so manic on high performance? In procedural work, the best are 2x better than the average. In creative work, the best are 10x better than the average, so huge premium on creating effective teams of the best 36
  • 37. Why are we so manic on high performance? Great Workplace is Stunning Colleagues 37
  • 38. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 38
  • 39. The Rare Responsible Person • Self motivating • Self aware • Self disciplined • Self improving • Acts like a leader • Doesn’t wait to be told what to do • Never feels “that’s not my job” • Picks up the trash lying on the floor • Behaves like an owner 39
  • 40. Responsible People Thrive on Freedom, and are Worthy of Freedom 40
  • 41. Our model is to increase employee freedom as we grow, rather than limit it, to continue to attract and nourish innovative people, so we have better chance of long-term continued success 41
  • 42. Most Companies Curtail Freedom as they get Bigger Bigger Employee Freedom 42
  • 43. Most Companies Curtail Freedom As They Grow to Avoid Errors (sounds pretty good to avoid errors) 43
  • 44. Desire for Bigger Positive Impact Creates Growth Growth 44
  • 46. Growth Shrinks Talent Density in Most Firms % High Performance Employees Complexity 46
  • 47. Chaos Emerges % High Performance Employees Chaos and errors spikes here – business has become too complex to run informally with this talent level Complexity 47
  • 48. Process Emerges to Stop the Chaos Procedures No one loves process, but feels good compared to the pain of chaos 48
  • 49. Process-focus Drives More Talent Out % High Performance Employees 49
  • 50. Strong Near-Term Outcome • A highly-successful process-driven company – With leading share in its market – Minimal thinking required – Few mistakes made – very efficient – Few curious innovator-mavericks remain – Very optimized processes for its existing market 50
  • 51. Then the Market Shifts… • Market shifts due to new technology or new competitors or new business models • Company is unable to adapt quickly, because the employees are extremely good at following the existing processes, and process adherence is the value system • Company generally grinds painfully into irrelevance, due to inability to respond to the market shift 51
  • 52. Seems Like Three Bad Options 1. Stay creative by staying small 2. Try to avoid rules as you grow, suffer chaos 3. Use process as you grow to drive efficient execution of current model, but cripple creativity, innovation, flexibility, and ability to thrive when market inevitably shifts 52
  • 53. A Fourth Option • Avoid Chaos as you grow with Ever More High Performance People – not with Rules • Then you can continue to run informally with self-discipline and avoid chaos • The run informally part is what enables and attracts creativity 53
  • 54. The Key: Increase Talent Density faster than Complexity Grows % High Performance Employees Business Complexity 54
  • 55. Increase Talent Density • Top of market compensation • Attract hi-value people through freedom to make impact • Be demanding about high performance culture % High Performance Employees 55
  • 56. Minimize Complexity Growth Business Complexity • Few big products vs many small ones • Eliminate distracting complexity (barnacles) • Value simplicity 56
  • 57. With the Right People, Instead of a Culture of Process Adherence, Culture of Freedom and Responsibility, Innovation and Self-Discipline 57
  • 58. Is Freedom Absolute? Are all rules & processes bad? 58
  • 59. Freedom is not absolute. Like “free speech” there are some limited exceptions to “freedom at work” 59
  • 60. Two Types of Necessary Rules 1. Prevent irrevocable disaster – E.g. Financials produced are wrong – E.g. Hackers steal our customers’ credit card info 1. Moral, ethical, legal issues – E.g. Dishonesty, harassment are intolerable 60
  • 61. Mostly, Though, Rapid Recovery is the Right Model • Just fix problems quickly – High performers make very few errors • We’re in a creative-inventive market, not a safety-critical market like medicine or nuclear power • You may have heard preventing error is cheaper than fixing it – Yes, in manufacturing or medicine, but… – Not so in creative environments 61
  • 62. “Good” vs “Bad” Processes • “Good” processes help talented people get more done – Web site push every two weeks rather than random – Spend within budget each quarter so don’t have to coordinate every spending decision across departments – Regularly scheduled strategy and context meetings • “Bad” processes try to prevent recoverable mistakes – Get pre-approvals for $5k spending – 3 people to sign off on banner ad creative – Permission needed to hang a poster on a wall – Multi-level approval process for projects – Get 10 people to interview each candidate 62
  • 63. Rule Creep • “Bad” processes tend to creep in – Preventing errors just sounds so good • We try to get rid of rules when we can, to reinforce the point 63
  • 64. Example: Netflix Vacation Policy and Tracking Until 2004 we had the standard model of N days per year 64
  • 65. Meanwhile… We’re all working online some nights and weekends, responding to emails at odd hours, and taking an afternoon now and then for personal time. 65
  • 66. An employee pointed out… We don’t track hours worked per day or per week, so why are we tracking days of vacation per year? 66
  • 67. We realized… We should focus on what people get done, not how many hours or days worked. Just as we don’t have an 9-5 day policy, we don’t need a vacation policy. 67
  • 68. Netflix Vacation Policy and Tracking “there is no policy or tracking” 68
  • 69. Netflix Vacation Policy and Tracking “there is no policy or tracking” “There is also no clothing policy at Netflix, but no one has come to work naked lately.” – Patty McCord, 2004 Lesson: you don’t need detailed policies for everything. 69
  • 70. Another Example of Freedom and Responsibility… 70
  • 71. Most companies have complex policies around what you can expense, how you travel, what gifts you can accept, etc. Plus they have whole departments to verify compliance with these policies. 71
  • 72. Netflix Policies for Expensing, Entertainment, Gifts & Travel: “Act in Netflix’s Best Interests” (5 words long) 72
  • 73. “Act in Netflix’s Best Interests” Generally Means… 1. Expense only what you would otherwise not spend, and is worthwhile for work. 2. Travel as you would if it were your own money. 3. Disclose non-trivial vendor gifts. 4. Take from Netflix only when it is inefficient to not take, and inconsequential. – “taking” means, for example, printing personal documents at work or making personal calls on work phone: inconsequential and inefficient to avoid 73
  • 74. Freedom and Responsibility • Many people say one can’t do it at scale • But since going public in 2002, which is traditionally the beginning of the end for freedom, we’ve increased talent density and employee freedom substantially. 74
  • 75. Summary of Freedom & Responsibility: As We Grow, Minimize Rules. Inhibit Chaos with Ever More High Performance People. Flexibility is More Important than Efficiency in the Long Term 75
  • 76. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 76
  • 77. "If you want to build a ship, don't drum up the people to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea." -Antoine De Saint-Exupery, Author of The Little Prince 77*translation uses ‘people’ instead of ‘men’ to modernize
  • 78. The best managers figure out how to get great outcomes by setting the appropriate context, rather than by trying to control their people 78
  • 79. Context, not Control Context • Strategy • Metrics • Assumptions • Objectives • Clearly-defined roles • Knowledge of the stakes • Transparency around decision-making Control • Top-down decision-making • Management approval • Committees • Planning and process valued more than results Provide the insight and understanding to enable sound decisions 79
  • 80. Exceptions • Control can be important in emergency – No time to take long-term capacity-building view • Control can be important when someone is still learning their area – Takes time to pick up the necessary context • Control can be important when you have the wrong person in a role – Temporarily, no doubt 80
  • 81. Managers: When one of your talented people does something dumb, don’t blame them. Instead, ask yourself what context you failed to set. 81
  • 82. Managers: When you are tempted to “control” your people, ask yourself what context you could set instead Are you articulate and inspiring enough about goals and strategies? 82
  • 83. Good Context • Link to company/functional goals • Relative priority (how important/how time sensitive) – Critical (needs to happen now), or… – Nice to have (when you can get to it) • Level of precision & refinement – No errors (credit cards handling, etc…), or… – Pretty good / can correct errors (website), or… – Rough (experimental) • Key stakeholders • Key metrics / definition of success 83
  • 84. Why Managing Through Context? High performance people will do better work if they understand the context 84
  • 85. Investing in Context This is why we do new employee college, and why we are so open internally about strategies and results 85
  • 86. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 86
  • 87. Three Models of Corporate Teamwork 1. Tightly-Coupled Monolith 2. Independent Silos 3. Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled 87
  • 88. Tightly-Coupled Monolith • Senior management reviews and approves nearly all tactics • Lots of x-departmental buy-in meetings • Keeping other groups in agreement has equal precedence with pleasing customers • Mavericks get exhausted trying to innovate • Highly coordinated through centralization, but very slow, and slowness increases with size 88
  • 89. Independent Silos • Each group executes on their objectives with little coordination • Work that requires coordination suffers • Alienation and suspicion between departments • Only works well when areas are independent – e.g. GE: aircraft engines and Universal Studios 89
  • 90. The Netflix Choice 1. Tightly-Coupled Monolith 2. Independent Silos 3. Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled 90
  • 91. Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Highly Aligned – Strategy and goals are clear, specific, broadly understood – Team interactions are on strategy and goals rather than tactics – Requires large investment in management time to be transparent and articulate and perceptive and open • Loosely Coupled – Minimal cross-functional meetings except to get aligned on goals and strategy – Trust between groups on tactics without previewing/approving each one – groups can move fast – Leaders reaching out proactively for ad-hoc coordination and perspective as appropriate – Occasional post-mortems on tactics necessary to increase alignment 91
  • 92. Highly-Aligned Loosely-Coupled teamwork effectiveness is dependent on high performance people and good context Goal is to be Big and Fast and Flexible 92
  • 93. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 93
  • 94. Pay Top of Market is Core to High Performance Culture One outstanding employee gets more done and costs less than two adequate employees We endeavor to have only outstanding employees 94
  • 95. Three Tests for Top of Market for a Person 1. What could person get elsewhere? 2. What would we pay for replacement? 3. What would we pay to keep person? – If they had a bigger offer elsewhere 95Confidential
  • 96. Takes Great Judgment • Goal is to keep each employee at top of market for that person – Pay them more than anyone else likely would – Pay them as much as a replacement would cost – Pay them as much as we would pay to keep them if they had higher offer from elsewhere 96
  • 97. Titles Not Very Helpful • Lots of people have the title “Major League Pitcher” but they are not all equally effective • Similarly, all people with the title “Senior Marketing Manager” or “Director of Engineering” are not equally effective • So the art of compensation is answering the Three Tests for each employee 97
  • 98. Annual Comp Review • Hiring is market-based at many firms, but at Netflix we also make the annual comp review market-based – Applies same lens as hiring • Essentially, rehiring each employee each year, for purposes of comp – At annual comp review, manager has to answer the Three Tests for the personal market for each of their employees 98Confidential
  • 99. No Fixed Budgets • There are no centrally administered “raise pools” each year • Instead, each manager aligns their people to market each year – the market will be different in different areas 99
  • 100. Annual Comp Review • Some people will move up in comp very quickly because their value in the marketplace is moving up quickly, driven by increasing skills and/or great demand for their area • Some people will move down or stay flat because their value in the marketplace has moved down or stayed flat – Depends in part on inflation and economy – Still top of market, though, for that person 100
  • 101. Compensation Not Dependent on Netflix Success • Whether Netflix is prospering or floundering, we pay at the top of the market – i.e., sports teams with losing records still pay talent the market rate • Employees can choose how much they want to link their economic destiny to Netflix success or failure by deciding how much Netflix stock or stock options they want to own 101
  • 102. Bad Ideas • Manager sets pay at Nth percentile of title- linked compensation data – The “Major League Pitcher” problem • Manager cares about internal parity instead of external market value – Fairness in comp is being true to the market • Manager gives everyone a 4% raise – Very unlikely to reflect the market 102
  • 103. When Top of Market Comp Done Right... • Nearly all ex-employees will take a step down in comp for their next job • We will rarely counter with higher comp when someone is voluntarily leaving because we have already moved comp to our max for that person • Employees will feel they are getting paid well relative to their other options in the market 103
  • 104. Versus Traditional Model • Traditional model is good prior year earns a raise, independent of market – Problem is employees can get materially under- or over-paid relative to the market, over time – When materially under-paid, employees switch firms to take advantage of market-based pay on hiring – When materially over-paid, employees are trapped in current firm • Consistent market-based pay is better model 104
  • 105. Employee Success • It’s pretty ingrained in our society that the size of one’s raise is the indicator of how well one did the prior year – but at Netflix there are other factors too – namely, the outside market • In our model, employee success is big factor in comp because it influences market value – In particular, how much we would pay to keep the person – But employee success is not the only factor in comp, so the linkage of prior year performance to raise size is weak 105
  • 106. Good For Each Employee to Understand Their Market Value • It a healthy idea, not a traitorous idea, to understand what other firms would pay you, by interviewing and talking to peers at other companies – Talk with your manager about what you find – Minor exception: interviewing with groups that directly compete with Netflix, because their motive is in part confidential information 106
  • 107. Efficiency • Big salary is the most efficient form of comp – Most motivating for any given expense level – No bonuses – just include in salary – so much simpler – No free stock options – just big salary – Great health plan options, but high employee co-pay – No philanthropic match – Instead, put all that expense into big salaries – Give people big salaries, and the freedom to spend as they think best 107
  • 108. Optional Options • Employees can request to trade salary for stock options, if they wish • The options are fully vested, granted monthly, and cost employees in pre-tax salary approximately half of what such an option would cost in the open market • Options ultimately valuable only if Netflix stock climbs over the next 10 years • Investing in Netflix stock or stock options lets one participate in Netflix success or failure at whatever level is comfortable for employee 108
  • 109. Seven Aspects of our Culture • High Performance • Values are what we Value • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 109
  • 110. In some time periods, in some groups, there will be lots of opportunity and growth at Netflix Some people, through both luck and talent, will have extraordinary career growth 110
  • 111. Baseball Analogy: Minors to Majors • Very talented people usually get to move up, but only true for the very talented • Some luck in terms of what positions open up and what the competition is • Some people move to other teams to get the opportunity they want • Great teams keep their best talent • Some minor league players keep playing even though they don’t move up because they love the game 111
  • 112. Netflix Doesn’t Have to be for Life • In some times, in some groups, there may not be enough growth opportunity for everyone • In which case we should celebrate someone leaving for a bigger job that we didn’t have available to offer them • If that is what the person prefers 112
  • 113. Two Necessary Conditions for Promotion • Job has to be big enough – We might have an incredible manager of something, but we don’t need a director of it because job isn’t big enough • If the incredible manager left, we would replace with manager, not with director • Person has to be a superstar in current role – Could get the next level job here if applying from outside and we knew their talents well – Could get the next level job at peer firm that knew their talents well 113
  • 114. Timing • If manager would promote employee to keep them if employee were thinking of leaving, manager should promote now, and not wait • Both tests still have to be passed – Job big enough – Superstar in current role 114
  • 115. Development • We develop people by giving them the opportunity to develop themselves, by surrounding them with stunning colleagues and giving them big challenges to work on – Mediocre colleagues or unchallenging work is what kills progress of a person’s skills 115
  • 116. Development • Formalized development is rarely effective, and we don’t try to do it – E.g. Courses, mentor assignment, rotation around a firm, multi-year career paths, etc. • High performance people are generally self- improving through experience, observation, introspection, reading and discussion – As long as they have stunning colleagues and big challenges 116
  • 117. Individuals should manage their own career paths, and not rely on a corporation for planning their careers Like retirement planning – safer as individual responsibility 117
  • 118. Individual’s economic security is based upon their skills and reputation We try hard to consistently provide opportunity to grow both 118
  • 119. Seven Aspects of our Culture • Values are what we Value • High Performance • Freedom & Responsibility • Context, not Control • Highly Aligned, Loosely Coupled • Pay Top of Market • Promotions & Development 119
  • 120. Why is culture important? What is our culture trying to support? 120
  • 121. Culture is How a Firm Operates What practices give Netflix the best chance of continuous success for many generations of technology and people? 121
  • 122. Continuous Success = Continuous growth in revenue, profits & reputation 122
  • 123. Need a culture that supports rapid innovation and excellent execution 123
  • 124. Need a culture that supports rapid innovation and excellent execution 124 Both are required for continuous growth There is tension between these two goals; between creativity and discipline
  • 125. Need a culture that supports effective teamwork of high-performance people 125
  • 126. Need a culture that supports effective teamwork of high-performance people 126 High performance people and effective teamwork can be in tension also – stars have strong opinions
  • 127. Need a culture that avoids the rigidity, politics, mediocrity, and complacency that infects most organizations as they grow 127
  • 128. This slide deck is our current best thinking about maximizing our likelihood of continuous success 128
  • 129. Our culture is a work in progress Every year we try to refine our culture further as we learn more 129