Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Biology practical #1 (part 1)

Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 78 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Andere mochten auch (20)


Ähnlich wie Biology practical #1 (part 1) (20)

Biology practical #1 (part 1)

  1. 1. Biology 142 Lab Practical #1
  2. 2. Phylum Porifera • Sponges • Simple animals • No systems, organs, or tissues • Have specialized cells • Live in seas; Live in freshwater • Sessile – Can not move independently, anchored to the ground • Spicules – Long thin structures that support and shape sponges • Usually inorganic; can be organic (in Demospongiae)
  3. 3. Phylum Porifera • Placed in classes based on composition of spicules • In some cases spicules are on outside (bristly defense) • Reproduce asexually by budding • Special reproductive cells carry out sexual reproduction • Monoecious – Contain both male and female gamete producing cells • Male and female gametes produced at different times to reduce risk of self-fertilization
  4. 4. Phylum Porifera • Filter-Feeders • Sponge body riddled with canals • This delivers water and food to each cell • Dermal Ostium – External opening where water enters on (sides of sponge) • Water flows from Dermal Ostium into the Incurrent Canal • Incurrent Canal dead-ends half-way through sponge body • Prosopyle Cells – Line Internal Canal; water transports through these cells into a parallel canal called the Radial • Radial – Begins half-way through cells and ends at hollow center called the Spongocoel
  5. 5. Phylum Porifera • Osculum – Opening at top of sponge through which water exits • Choanocyte Cells – Maintain flow of water through the canal system by rigorously beating their flagella; line Radial Canals • Unique to Phylum Porifera ; diagnostic characteristic of this Phylum • Waste products are excreted by cells into this system of canals and exit the sponge through the Osculum
  6. 6. Scypha, Atlas (c.s) 7 8 9 10
  7. 7. Scypha (Fig 7.1-7.4, 7.5, 7.7)
  8. 8. Scypha (Sponge)
  9. 9. Sponge (Scypha)
  10. 10. Hexactinellida (Glass Sponge)
  11. 11. Demospongiae (Natural Sponges)(Fig. 7.5 ; 7.7)
  12. 12. Phylum Cnidaria (Cnidarians have tissues) • Class Hydrozoa • Spend most of their lives as Polyps • Polyps – Body form like open brown paper bag with Tentacles around opening of bag (go Karen) • Found singly or in colonies • Motile but move very slowly • Attached to surface by Basal Disc at Aboral End • Medusa stage is usually brief and reserved for sexual reproduction • Medusa – Like paper bag with Tentacles around opening; paper bag is squashed so the bottom of the bag is flattened against open tentacle end of bag
  13. 13. Phylum Cnidaria • Found singly and always motile (move under their own power) • Hydrozoans maintain shape through Hydrostatic Skeleton • When there’s no hard material to give the animal its shape, it fills with water and the water provides the stiffening • Have 3 distinct body layers: Epidermis, Mesoglea, Gastrodermis • Epidermis – Contains nerve and muscle cells • Gastrodermis – Contains digestive cells • Mesoglea – Inbetween Epidermis and Gastrodermis and is an acellular mix of their compositions
  14. 14. Phylum Cnidaria • Coelenteron – Hollow center of the Polyp (gastrovascular cavity) • Carnivores; Oral End contains mouth surrounded by fringe of Tentacles • Feed by waving their tentacles in the water currents • Surface of Tentacles is imbedded with Cnidocyte Cells • Cnidocyte Cells – Specialized cells that contain harpoon or lasso-like organelles called Cnidae • When a Cnidocyte is triggered the Cnidae shoots out and either wraps around the prey or barbs it and captures it • Some barbs are tipped with toxin that stings the prey to kill or paralyze it
  15. 15. Phylum Cnidaria • Stinging Cnidae are called Nematocysts • Tentacles then move into the Hydrozoan’s mouth • The prey is scraped into the Coelenteron • There Gastrodermal Cells secrete digestive enzymes • After digestion the molecules remaining are absorbed by the cells as nutrients • Tentacles extend out back into ocean currents to capture prey • Hydra • Have Testis and Ovaries that can be found on both sides of their bodies
  16. 16. Phylum Cnidaria • These produce gametes that are used in sexual reproduction • The resulting embryo grows to be another Polyp • In asexual reproduction a new Popyl (Bud) grows out the side of a mature Polyp • When the new Polyp is fully grown it breaks off the parent • It then attached to the surface and begins its own life • Obelia • Some Polyps in the colony are Feeding Polyps • Complete with Tentacles for capturing food • Others are Reproductive Polyps without Tentacles • Form Medusae liberated from the Polyp • They produce gametes that fuse to form embryos • The embryos attach to a surface and grow to become new Obelia colonies
  17. 17. Phylum Cnidaria • Class Scyphozoa • Jellyfish • Spend majority of their lives in Medusa stage • Have Epidermis, Mesoglea, and Gastrodermis • Tentacles are found around perimeter on Oral End • Have Cnidocytes and Cnidae
  18. 18. Phylum Cnidaria • Aurelia • Tentacles are too short to put food in mouth • Have Oral Arms instead • Oral Arms – Carry food from tentacles and carry it to the mouth (four of them) • Food moves from the mouth to the Gastric Pouches where digestive enzymes break down the food • Molecules circulate from Gastric Pouches to edge of animal through Radial Canals • From there molecules move around through the Ring Canal • Molecules move back towards the mouth through the Periradial Canal
  19. 19. Phylum Cnidaria • Excessive nutrition and waste products then exit out the mouth • This circulation gives each cell nutrients • Reproduce sexually with four horseshoe shaped Gonads • Gonads can be seen from Aboral End and are very close to the Gastric Pouches • Release gametes into ocean • Gametes fuse and become Sessile and grow into small polyps • Polyps mature and begin producing Medusae which grow into jellyfish • Both Polyp and Medusae stages • Move slowly by contracting muscle cells • Have primitive Sense Organs found along perimeter of Medusae that help the animal navigate the ocean
  20. 20. Phylum Cnidaria • Class Anthozoa • Sea Anemones and Coral • Exist in Polyp form only • Sea Anemones are found from cold northern waters to warmer southern ocean waters • Slow moving animals that attach themselves to a surface using their Pedal Disc on the Aboral Surface • Slowly glide along on Pedal Disc • Opposite end has the Oral Disc • There the Mouth is surrounded by tentacles bearing Cnidocyte Cells • Waving tentacles capture food using Cnidae
  21. 21. Phylum Cnidaria • The tentacle then places food into the Pharynx • The food then enters the Coelenteron and then into many Septa for digestion • Waste leaves in the reverse path • Gonads are found on the ends of the Septa • Produce either male or female gametes • They get released into the ocean for fertilization to occur • After fertilization the embryo attaches to a surface and grows into another Polyp
  22. 22. Phylum Cnidaria • Coral are Polyp colonies • Found in shallow warm coastal waters in tropics • Secrete hard Calcareous Exoskeleton around their bodies (some coral polyps) • This remains when the coral dies • New Polyps settles on this, so only outer layer is living • Coral attach to surfaces at Aboral End • Coral have a mouth at Oral End • Surrounded by Cnidocyte Cell studded Tentacles • Feeding behavior and mechanics similar to Hydrozoa • Unusual variation: contain mutualistic Dinoflagellate within their body • Dinoflagellate – Photosynthetic thus supplying coral with food; coral provides Dinoflagellate with safe home
  23. 23. Polyp & Medusae Body
  24. 24. Hydra, Atlas (c.s,l.s) Figure 7.14: 3.)Coelenteron 6.) Gastrodermis
  25. 25. Hydra (Fig. 7.9-7.19)
  26. 26. Budding Hydra, Atlas
  27. 27. Budding Hydra
  28. 28. Obelia Hydroid, Atlas 1 2 3
  29. 29. Obelia Hydroid (7.17- 7.19)
  30. 30. Brown & Green Hydra
  31. 31. Hydra Virdis
  32. 32. Metridium, Atlas (l.s)
  33. 33. Metridium (Fig. 7.37-7.45)
  34. 34. Sea Anemone (Metridium)
  35. 35. Coral
  36. 36. Sea Anemone (Metridium)
  37. 37. Aurelia (Fig. 7.27-28)
  38. 38. Medusae of Jellyfish (Aurelia)
  39. 39. Jellyfish (Aurelia)
  40. 40. Grantia
  41. 41. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Class Turbellaria • Planaria • One of few free-living Platyhelminthes • Found in small bodies of fresh water (streams, ponds) • Crawl along debris on bottom • Carnivores • Food enters through Mouth at end of long Protrusible Pharynx (midway down ventral surface) • Food then goes to multi-branched Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC). • Enzymes are secreted here for digestion.
  42. 42. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Waste exits through Protrusible Pharynx • Nerve Cords – Control movement of muscles; found along side of body on ventral surface • Eyespots – Light sensitive; found on dorsal surface at anterior end • Hermaphroditic • Have both Testes & Ovaries
  43. 43. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Class Trematoda • Flukes • Parasitic • Attach to hosts with Suckers to feed • Fasciola • Sheep liver fluke • Has Oral Sucker surrounding anterior Mouth • Has Ventral Sucker 1/3 way down ventral surface • Food enters through mouth • Passes through Muscular Pharynx to Esophagus and finally to Intestine
  44. 44. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Intestine is forked (to left and right side) • Has many pouch like branches called Caeca • Digestive enzymes are secreted into the Intestines and Caeca • Waste leaves body through reverse path • Hermaphroditic • Have both Ovary & Testes • Look similar: consist of many branched leaf-like structures • Testes are more towards posterior end • Ovaries found anterior to Testes • Along sides of body are Yolk Glands • Yolk Glands – Thin-branched tubules that secretes the yolk of the egg
  45. 45. Phylum Platyhelminthes • When the Eggs pass by yolk reservoir, yolk is added to the egg • Eggs then enter Uterus (located posterior to Ventral Sucker) • Eggs are then fertilized by sperm placed into the end of the Uterus • Eggs exit the fluke at the end of the Uterus • Sperm are formed in testes and collected by ducts to be stored in the Seminal Vesicle • Located just posterior to Ventral Sucker • Sperm are released into Uterus of another fluke by Penis • Flukes can self or cross-fertilize
  46. 46. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Clonorchis/Opisthorchis • Anatomically very similar to Fasciola • There are few differences • Oral & Ventral suckers in same location as Fasciola • Food enters Mouth, passes through Pharynx, Esophagus, and into forked Intestine • No Caeca branching off Intestine • Intestine looks like a smooth tube • Digestive waste leaves by same path it enters
  47. 47. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Hermaphroditic • Branching leaf-like Testes found toward Posterior end • Ovary is small round organ found in middle of body • Delicately branched tubular Yolk Glands found along side of fluke • Eggs pass from ovary by Yolk Duct where yolk is added to the egg • Yolked egg then passes Seminal Receptacle just posterior to ovary • Sperm from other fluke is deposited here via short duct that communicates with outside environment
  48. 48. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Eggs are fertilized as passing by Seminal Vesicle • Eggs then make way up long tubular Uterus (located in middle of body) • Eggs then exit body at end of Uterus through Genital Pore (very near Ventral Sucker) • Sperm from Testes are carried by ducts up to Genital Pore where they leave the body • Male and Female reproductive systems share common Genital Pore • Can self or cross-fertilize • Have excretory organs to excrete excess water • Excretory Pore – Where excretory system can be seen at posterior tip of fluke
  49. 49. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Class Cestoda • Taenia • Tapeworms • Simple animals • Parasitic • Attach to host with series of Hooks & Suckers (anterior end) • This is called the Scolex • Beyond Scolex are Proglottids • Just behind Scolex • Quite small; get bigger as going down length of tapeworm
  50. 50. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Each is a package of reproductive organs • In middle-sized Proglottids – Testes visible as little scattered dots • Ovaries are 2 round localized clusters of dots just below midpoint of the Proglottid • At base of Ovaries is elongate Yolk Gland • Yolk added to eggs before fertilization • Ducts from male & female reproductive systems run parallel to each other from center of Proglottid across to side of body where they exit through Genital Pore • In large (mature) Proglottids Uterus is only reproductive organ visible • Filled with eggs
  51. 51. Phylum Platyhelminthes • Most mature Proglottid is farthest from Scolex • When fully mature detaches from tapeworm and exits host through host’s feces • When is dries out it ruptures (releasing eggs) • Two tubular structures run down both sides of Proglottids • Nerve Cord – Outer tube • Excretory Canal – Inner tube • Primarily for removal of excess water • Tapeworms have no digestive organs • Found in intestines of host and absorb nutrients across their outer body covering
  52. 52. Taenia Scolex and Proglottids
  53. 53. Taenia Mature and Ripe Proglottids
  54. 54. Taenia Pisiformis
  55. 55. Taenia Sagniata
  56. 56. Taenia Pisiformis
  57. 57. Teania Model 1
  58. 58. Teania Model 2
  59. 59. Teania Model 3
  60. 60. Teania Model 4
  61. 61. Teania Model 5
  62. 62. Teania Model 6
  63. 63. Teania Model 7
  64. 64. Fasciola Diagram and Specimen
  65. 65. Fasciola Hepatica
  66. 66. Fasciola Hepatica (2)
  67. 67. Fasciola
  68. 68. Schistosoma in Liver
  69. 69. Planaria Whole and c.s
  70. 70. Planaria w.m
  71. 71. Planaria c.s, Pharyngeal Region, c.s Posterior Region 1 2 3 4
  72. 72. Planaris
  73. 73. Planaris (2)
  74. 74. Planaris
  75. 75. Opisthorcis Specimen and c.s
  76. 76. Clonorchis
  77. 77. Clonorchis (2)
  78. 78. Clonorchis