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By Gunchmaa.N
4 main stages
1. Ventilation
2. Diffusion (alveoli/blood)
3. Transport of O2 and
CO2
4. Exchange (tissue/blood)
Non-respiratory functions
• Moistens inspired air
• Maintains pH
• Vocalization
• Modifies various materials
• Enhances ve...
The Pleura
• The pleura separates
each lung from the
thoracic wall and other
structures
• Secretes a thin
intrapleural flu...
Different Pressures
• Atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg
• Intra-alveolar pressure - pressure within
the alveoli
• Intrapleu...
Transmural Pressure Gradient
4 mm Hg difference in pressure enables
lungs to expand and shrink
Basic concept
• Intra-alveolar P < atmospheric P =
inspiration
• Intra-alveolar P > atmospheric P =
expiration
Major respiratory muscles
• Diaphragm
• External intercostal
• Internal intercostal
• Abdominal muscles
• Sternocleidomast...
Movement of rib and sternum
Pulmonary surfactant
• A complex mixture of lipids and proteins
secreted by the Type II alveolar cells
• Lowers alveolar s...
Law of LaPlace
The smaller alveolus has a tendency
(without pulmonary surfactant) to collapse and
empty its air into the l...
• Surfactant proteins - synthesized in
polyribosomes, modified in the ER, GA and
stored in lamellar bodies before secretio...
Alveolar interdependence
When an alveolus in a group of alveoli collapses, the
surrounding alveoli are stretched. As the o...
Variations in lung volume
Anatomical Dead Space
Not all the inspired air
gets down to
the alveoli. Part
remains in the
conducting airways,
where it ...
Effects of CO2 and O2
Gas transport
• Oxygen is present in the blood in two forms:
physically dissolved and chemically bound to
hemoglobin
• Deo...
CO2 transport in blood
This reaction takes place slowly in the plasma,
but it’s catalyzed by erythrocyte enzyme
carbonic anhydrase.
Haldane effect
Removing O2 from Hb increases the ability of
Hb to pick up CO2 and CO2-generated H ion
Components of neural control of
respiration
1. Factors that generate respiratory rhythm
2. Factors that regulate the magni...
Medullary Respiratory Center
• Dorsal respiratory group consists of inspiratory
neurons. When active inspiration occurs.
•...
Pre-Bötzinger complex
A region located near the end of the medullary
respiratory center. Displays pacemaker activity.
Apneustic center
Prevents the inspiratory
neurons from
being switched off.
Hering–Breuer reflex
Prevents overinflation of the lungs. Pulmonary
stretch receptors’ action potentials travel
through af...
Peripheral chemoreceptors
• Carotid/aortic
bodies
• Responds to
chemical
changes in
arterial blood
Other ventilation factors
• Protective reflexes such as sneezing and
coughing
• Inhalation of noxious agents triggers cess...
Thank You
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
Physiology of the respiratory system
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Physiology of the respiratory system

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Physiology, brief anatomy of respiratory system

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Physiology of the respiratory system

  1. 1. By Gunchmaa.N
  2. 2. 4 main stages 1. Ventilation 2. Diffusion (alveoli/blood) 3. Transport of O2 and CO2 4. Exchange (tissue/blood)
  3. 3. Non-respiratory functions • Moistens inspired air • Maintains pH • Vocalization • Modifies various materials • Enhances venous return
  4. 4. The Pleura • The pleura separates each lung from the thoracic wall and other structures • Secretes a thin intrapleural fluid which lubricates the pleural surfaces as they slide past each other
  5. 5. Different Pressures • Atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg • Intra-alveolar pressure - pressure within the alveoli • Intrapleural pressure - pressure exerted within the thoracic cavity /756 mm Hg/
  6. 6. Transmural Pressure Gradient 4 mm Hg difference in pressure enables lungs to expand and shrink
  7. 7. Basic concept • Intra-alveolar P < atmospheric P = inspiration • Intra-alveolar P > atmospheric P = expiration
  8. 8. Major respiratory muscles • Diaphragm • External intercostal • Internal intercostal • Abdominal muscles • Sternocleidomastoideous • Scalenus
  9. 9. Movement of rib and sternum
  10. 10. Pulmonary surfactant • A complex mixture of lipids and proteins secreted by the Type II alveolar cells • Lowers alveolar surface tension • Decreases hydrogen bonding at the alveolar air–water interface • More crowded in small alveoli
  11. 11. Law of LaPlace The smaller alveolus has a tendency (without pulmonary surfactant) to collapse and empty its air into the larger alveolus. Surfactant avoids this!
  12. 12. • Surfactant proteins - synthesized in polyribosomes, modified in the ER, GA and stored in lamellar bodies before secretion. • Surfactant phospholipids - synthesized in the ER and packaged into lamellar bodies. After exocytosis of lamellar bodies, it’s organized into tubular myelin
  13. 13. Alveolar interdependence When an alveolus in a group of alveoli collapses, the surrounding alveoli are stretched. As the other alveoli recoil in resistance, they pull outward on the collapsing alveolus.
  14. 14. Variations in lung volume
  15. 15. Anatomical Dead Space Not all the inspired air gets down to the alveoli. Part remains in the conducting airways, where it is not available for gas exchange. The volume averages about 150 ml.
  16. 16. Effects of CO2 and O2
  17. 17. Gas transport • Oxygen is present in the blood in two forms: physically dissolved and chemically bound to hemoglobin • Deoxyhemoglobin/oxyhemoglobin • The saturation, measures the Hb combined with O2 and can vary from 0% to 100%. • PO2 of the blood determines saturation
  18. 18. CO2 transport in blood
  19. 19. This reaction takes place slowly in the plasma, but it’s catalyzed by erythrocyte enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
  20. 20. Haldane effect Removing O2 from Hb increases the ability of Hb to pick up CO2 and CO2-generated H ion
  21. 21. Components of neural control of respiration 1. Factors that generate respiratory rhythm 2. Factors that regulate the magnitude of ventilation 3. Factors that modify respiratory activity to serve other purposes.
  22. 22. Medullary Respiratory Center • Dorsal respiratory group consists of inspiratory neurons. When active inspiration occurs. • Ventral respiratory group is composed of inspiratory neurons and expiratory neurons. Activates when demands for ventilation are increased.
  23. 23. Pre-Bötzinger complex A region located near the end of the medullary respiratory center. Displays pacemaker activity.
  24. 24. Apneustic center Prevents the inspiratory neurons from being switched off.
  25. 25. Hering–Breuer reflex Prevents overinflation of the lungs. Pulmonary stretch receptors’ action potentials travel through afferent nerve fibers to the medullary center and inhibit the inspiratory neurons.
  26. 26. Peripheral chemoreceptors • Carotid/aortic bodies • Responds to chemical changes in arterial blood
  27. 27. Other ventilation factors • Protective reflexes such as sneezing and coughing • Inhalation of noxious agents triggers cessation of ventilation. • The expression of various emotional states, such as laughing, crying, sighing. • Hiccups • The respiratory center is reflexly inhibited during swallowing
  28. 28. Thank You

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