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Nutritional labeling of food products

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Nutritional labeling of food products

  2. 2. By Khapare and Raut Nutritional Labeling of Food Products: Imperative Aspect In Packaging
  3. 3. Why Nutritional Labeling? Food labeling is a primary means of communication between the producer, seller and consumer of food. Nutrition label is considered as an ideal vehicle for conveying dietary guidance/information about the nutrition attributes of food (Nusrath Nasir, 2013). Nutrition labeling law starts working from December, 2007 for all prepackaged foods. “Nutrition labeling become mandatory”. Bringing India in line with the developed world, all processed food made or sold in India have to carry the nutritional Labeling [Health minister, Govt. of India].
  4. 4. Purpose of Nutritional Labeling
  5. 5. Global overview of mandatory and voluntary nutritional labeling 2007 vs 2014 (Source: EUFIC’s Global update on nutritional labeling, January 2015) Voluntary nutritional labelingMandatory nutritional labeling
  6. 6. News:- Nutritional Labeling become compulsory from March 19, 2014.
  7. 7. Important agencies that have formulated food labeling norms: • Nutritional Labeling and Education Act, USA • Codex Alimentarius Commission • European Union [EU] LABELING IN INDIA: • 1898: Section 3A of the Livestock Importation Act • 1954: Prevention of Food Adulteration Act • 1977: Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Act • 2007: Chapter IV, paragraph 23 of the Food Safety and Standards Act (FSSA)
  8. 8. Purpose of Nutritional Labeling of Food: How do I use the nutrition information of food labels in a healthy eating context? Nutritional food label gives you information about which nutrients are in the food. Food labels don’t suggest what foods to eat - that’s your decision. But labels can help you make your “personal best” food choices. Nutritional labeling make significant impact on consumer health through declarations of certain nutrients such as; Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3, fiber, trans fats, cholesterol, sodium etc. Reference: The Codex Guidelines on Nutrition Labeling.
  9. 9. What are nutrition labeling regulations? The regulations stipulate the requirements for 3 different types of nutrition information on food labels. • Nutrition Facts table: • Nutrient content claims: e.g. low in saturated fat, low in sodium. • Diet-related health claims: e.g. reduce risk of high blood pressure, heart disease. Are there any exemptions to mandatory nutrition labeling? • Fresh fruit and vegetables • Raw meat, poultry and fish, seafood • Alcoholic beverages • Foods sold at road-side stands, craft shows, fairs
  10. 10. When and How much Indians check nutritional information when buying packaged food? When Buying Certain Food Types 43% When I Am Thinking Of Buying The Product For First Time 42% When I Am On A Diet (Or) Trying To Lose Weight 22% Never 7% When I Have The Time 16% Always 14% When Buying Certain Food For Children 12% Reference: Nusrath Nasir, Nutritional Labeling – Global Perspective, 2013.
  11. 11. Consumer consider following factors during food purchasing: Source: Consumer Perception of Food Safety and Quality, 2014, AAFC.
  12. 12. Consumers check following factors on Nutritional Label: Source: Consumer Perception of Food Safety and Quality, 2014, AAFC.
  13. 13. Offences and Penalties Regarding Nutritional Labeling • It is very easy to notice the defect in labeling through visual inspection. • Faulty nutritional claims: 1. If the food product is not labeled in accordance to the regulations or 2. it does not provide the required complete information or 3. the food product is promoted for sale with false, misleading or deceptive claims • Penalties are - 1. Misbranded food up to 3 lakh rupees penalty 2. Misleading advertisement up to 10 lakh rupees
  14. 14. Labeling Regulations in India Every packaged food has to be labeled in accordance to the Packaging and Labeling Regulations as per the FSSAI, 2011. As per rule, the label should have following information: •Identifying statement (common name of product) •Net weight or net contents •List of ingredients in order of weight in the package. •Artificial coloring, flavoring and preservative •Percent of daily value based on 2000 calories a day. •Symbol of indicating vegetarian or non-vegetarian and radiation: •Nutritional Information •Name and complete address of the manufacturer or packer •Code No./Lot No./Batch No. •Date of manufacture or packing •Best Before Date •Instructions for use •Allergy information •Health/Nutritional claims ● ●
  15. 15. Description of each point printed on nutritional label Identifying statement (common name of product) • Name of the food must be clearly stated and not be unclear or confusing. • If the food has been processed in some way, the process must be included in the title e.g. dried apricots, salted peanuts, smoked bacon. • The name must also describe the differences between apparently similar products. e.g ‘fruit yogurt’ differentiates it from ‘artificial fruit flavouring yogurt’.
  16. 16. Net weight or net contents The weight or volume of the food must be shown on the label. List of ingredients • Ingredients are listed in order of weight, according to the amounts that were used to make the food, starting with the largest ingredient and ending with the smallest. • Food additives and water must also be included in the list if they have been added.
  17. 17. Artificial coloring, flavoring and preservative • Enlist the names of artificial coloring, flavoring and preservative added during manufacturing of product • Give their names directly or by using code no. e.g. Preservative - 211 in Maggi tomato ketchup i.e. 211 means sodium benzoate Percent Daily Value • Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
  18. 18. Symbol of vegetarian or non-vegetarian and radiation ● ● Symbol and logos on food label Source: Meenu Singh et al. 2013. Nutrition Labeling Compliance of Branded Processed Packaged Foods with Indian Food Laws (FSSAI, 2011 Regulations)
  19. 19. Nutritional Information
  20. 20. Name of address of manufacturer and packer • The name and address of the manufacturer, packer must be stated on the label. • Consumers can then contact the manufacturer if they have a complaint about a product or if they wish to know more about it. Code No./Lot No./Batch No. It is required by law to appear on the label. It helps to identify batches of food in the event that they need to be recalled by the manufacturer or packer.
  21. 21. Date of manufacture or packing Best Before Date Source: Meenu Singh et al. 2013. Nutrition Labeling Compliance of Branded Processed Packaged Foods with Indian Food Laws (FSSAI, 2011 Regulations)
  22. 22. Preparation instructions • Instructions on how to prepare and cook the food must be given on the label, if they are needed. • If the food has to be heated, the temperature of the oven and the cooking time will usually be stated. e.g. Instant soup mix, Instant Dhokla mix.
  23. 23. Allergy information The 14 foods are: 1)celery; 2)cereals containing gluten (such as wheat, barley, rye and oats); 3)crustaceans (such as lobster and crab); 4)eggs; 5)fish; 6)lupins; 7)cow’s milk; 8)oysters; 9) mustard; 10) nuts (such as almonds, walnuts, brazil nuts, cashews); 11) peanuts; 12) sesame seeds; 13) soybeans; 14) sulphur dioxide and sulphites (preservatives used in some foods and drinks) at levels above 10 mg per kg or per litre. • Within European Union, 14 foods are need to be mentioned on food label.
  24. 24. Health claims • General claims about benefits to overall good health, such as ‘healthy’ or ‘good for you’, will only be allowed to be used if accompanied by an approved claim. This means that have an explanation of why the food is ‘healthy’. • Labels are not allowed to claim that food can treat, prevent or cure any disease of medical condition. These sorts of claims can only be made of licensed medicines. Examples of health claims include: • Calcium is important for normal growth and development of bones. • Beta-glucans from oats help to reduce cholesterol. • Xylitol in some sugar-free chewing gum helps to neutralise plaque acids.
  25. 25. Nutrition/Functional claims A nutrition claim describes what a food contains (or does not contain) or contains in reduced or increased amounts. Examples include: • Low fat (less than 3g of fat per 100g food) Symbol • High fibre (more than 6g of fibre per 100g food) Symbol • Reduced sugar (30% less than the original product) Symbol • Zero transfat Symbol X
  26. 26. Scenario of Nutrition/Functional claims
  27. 27. Choosing a Label Format • Amount of “space available for labeling” • Dual declaration - “As Packaged” & “As Prepared” • Bilingual declaration - English & another language • Food represented as food for children
  28. 28. What’s Consumer Need? Serving size - Household and metric measure Servings per container
  29. 29. • Vertical format with second column indicating “as consumed” Prepared/processed foods • Preparation as per instructions
  30. 30. Combined Foods • Vertical format with second column indicating nutrients added by combination of foods e.g. Milk-Oats
  31. 31. Limit These Nutrients The goal is to stay below 100% of the DV for each of these nutrients per day. Get Enough of These Nutrients Try to get 100% of the DV for each of these nutrients each day.
  32. 32. Calories – The amount of energy that one serving will provide Calories from Fat – Gives you an idea of how much fat is in the food.
  33. 33. Why the Need of Signpost Labelling/Traffic light labelling? Reference: Katie Mahoney, Nov. 2014
  34. 34. Toasted Oat Breakfast Squares 340 g (10.75 oz) 0 8976806 PDP Amt./Wt. 1] Principal display panel (PDP) • Portion of label most likely to be seen by consumer at time of purchase Principal display panel must contain; • Net quantity of content (amount of food in package) Key parts of the food label
  35. 35. 2] Information panel • Panel to the immediate right of PDP • Principal information panel must contain; 1] Name and address of manufacturer: 2] Ingredient list: 340g (10.75oz) Reference: Camille E. Brewer
  36. 36. Table 1. Mandatory Nutrients Calories Dietary Fiber (g) Calories from Fat Sugars (g) Total fat (g) Protein (g) Saturated fat (g) Vitamin A (% of DV) Cholesterol (mg) Vitamin C (% of DV) Sodium (mg) Calcium (% of DV) Total Carbohydrate (g) Iron (% of DV) Reference: Food Safety and Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, CFTRI, Mysore
  37. 37. Table 2. Voluntary Nutrients Calories from Saturated fat Vitamins and Minerals (With RDI) Polyunsaturated fat (g) Soluble Fiber (g) Monounsaturated fat (g) Insoluble Fiber (g) Potassium (mg) Other Carbohydrate (g) Reference: Food Safety and Analytical Quality Control Laboratory, CFTRI, Mysore
  38. 38. Conclusion: Nutritional Labeling is beneficial to food producer to attract consumers towards their products w.r.t. its nutritional content. The nutrition information on food labels helps consumers to compare products more easily, determine the nutritional value of foods and better manage special diets. Shopping Tips for consumers: • Read the ingredients what you’re really getting • Watch for sugar content and calories • Look at the serving size and servings per container • Look at nutrients to limit (fat, cholesterol)
  39. 39. References: • Camille E. Brewer, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling & Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration • Codex Guidelines on Nutrition Labeling, Codex Alimentarius Commission • Irwin H. Rosenberg, Chairman, Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification • Katie Mahoney, U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. “How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label”. November 2004. • Nusrath Nasir, Nutritional Labeling – Global PerspectiveIndian Food Industry, Jan.- Feb.2013 • Rosemary Hignett, Food Standards Agency, Public health Nutrition, Ottawa, 22/23 October 2008. • To see the USDA food guide see: http://www.webmd.com • For more information, please contact: Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements