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Lichen powerpoint presentation

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Lichen powerpoint presentation

  1. 1. WORLD OF LICHENS introoDUCtion CLASSiFiCAtion rEProDUCtion EConoMiC iMPortAnCEEConoMiC iMPortAnCE PointS to notE GEnErAL FEAtUrES
  2. 2. Lichens A lichen is not a single organism. Rather, it is a symbiosis between different organisms - a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. Cyanobacteria are sometimes still referred to as 'blue-greenCyanobacteria are sometimes still referred to as 'blue-green algae', though they are quite distinct from the algae. The non-fungal partner contains chlorophyll and is called the photobiont. #15,000-20,000 species.
  3. 3. Lichens are small, non vascular plant found on bark of tree, ground, rock, fences, roofs and other man made objects.  Lichen on stone Lichen covered tree,Tresco
  4. 4.  Xanthoria sp. lichen on volcanic rock in Craters of the Moon National Monument (Idaho, USA)  Xanthoria sp. With oval thallus On tree
  5. 5.  Cladonia fimbiata found on moist environment  Pine forest with lichen ground-cover
  6. 6. Lichens may be of varied colour - Grey, Greyish green, yellow, brown, orange or red.
  7. 7. Fungal Taxa Order Families Acarosporales Acarosporaceae Agyriales Agyriaceae, Anamylosporaceae Arthoniales Arthoniaceae, Chrysothricaceae, Melaspileaceae, Roccellaceae Lecanorales Catillariaceae, Cladoniaceae, Lecanoraceae, Parmeliaceae, Ramalinaceae, Stereocaulaceae Lichinales Gloeoheppiaceae, Heppiaceae, Lichinaceae, Peltulaceae
  8. 8. Ostropales Gomphillaceae, Graphidaceae, Gyalectaceae, Stictidaceae, Thelotremataceae Peltigerales Collemataceae, Lobariaceae, Nephromataceae, Pannariaceae, Peltigeraceae, Placynthiaceae Pertusariales Megasporaceae, Pertusariaceae Pyrenulales Monoblastiaceae, Pyrenulaceae Letroutiaceae, Physciaceae, Teloschistales Letroutiaceae, Physciaceae, Teloschistaceae Verrucariales Verrucariaceae Incertae sedis Arthrorhaphidaceae (Ostropomycetidae), Arthopyreniaceae (Dothideomycetes), Elixiaceae (Lecanoromycetes), Microtheliopsidaceae (Dothideomycetes), Pyrenotrichaceae (Dothideomycetes), Lecideaceae (Lecanoromycetidae), Trypetheliaceae (Dothideomycetes)
  9. 9. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF LICHENS
  10. 10. Morphological types of LICHENS  Lichens occur in one of four basic growth forms.
  11. 11. CRUSTOSE: Crust like growing tight against the substratum. e.g.- Graphis,Leconora, Haematomma etc Lecanora sp.
  12. 12. FOLIOSE: Leaf liked, with flat sheets of tissue not tightly bound. e.g.- Physcia,Gyrophora,Paramelia Paramelia
  13. 13. FRUTICOSE:  Free standing branching tube, branches cylindrical to ribbon like in form. E.g.Usnia, Evernia Usnea sp.
  14. 14.  Asexual reproduction: Soredia Isidia Soralia Pseudocyphella Cyphella Cilia
  15. 15. Soredia: » Greyish, minute rounded bud-like outgrowths. » Developed on surface of thallus » Fall on suitable substratum to germinate
  16. 16. Isidia:  Coral like outgrowth, develop from thallus  Help in photosynthesis  Like Soredia, they are easily dispersed. The isidia on the foliose lichen----Xanthoparmelia australasica.
  17. 17.  Found only in Mycobionts  Fertilization organs- Spermagonia &Ascogonia  Reproduction called Spermatization.  Ascocarp may be Apothecium or Perithecium or an Ascostroma Ascospore Hyphal branches Free living alga + =
  18. 18.  Soil formation and growth of new Vegetation – Enrich by forming humus  Food – Contain Lichenin carbohydrate compound.  In ireland,sweden and norway Cetraria In ireland,sweden and norway Cetraria Islandica is taken as food. Cetraria Islandica
  19. 19. South India species of Paramelia is use in making delicious curry Reindeer moss - the only fodder for reindeer and cattle during winter.
  20. 20.  Medicine –  Pelligera caniana is used for hydrophobia  Species of Cladonia, Cetraria for intermittent fever and as laxatives.  Lobaria pulmonare for lung diseases. Lobaria pulmonare for lung diseases. Cladonia Lobaria pulmonare
  21. 21.  Dyes and Perfumes –  Rocella tinctoria yields litmus commonly used as indicators  Rocella sp. Give ‘orchil’ used in dyeing wollen and fabrics.  Contain Cleoresinous substance used in perfumery.perfumery. E.g- Evernia prunastris. A sampling of lichen-dyed yarns Evernia prunastris
  22. 22.  As pollution indicators – Lichens are killed by low level of Sulphur dioxide. Accumulate SO2 within their thalli. Geological estimation –Geological estimation – Lichens with known, slow growth rates, like Rhizocarpon geographicum, have been used to estimate the dates of geological events such as the retreat of glaciers.
  23. 23. Recent discovery of lichen named after Barack obama Caloplaca obamae.
  24. 24.  THANK YOU THANK YOU

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