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MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT
OFOF
PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
Developed by: -Developed by: -
PankajPankaj Sharma ISharm...
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Education is concerned with the modificationEducation is concerned with the modification
of behav...
PSYCHOMOTORPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINDOMAIN
The psychomotor domain is skill based. It isThe psychomotor domain is skill based. It ...
PSYCHOMOTORPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINDOMAIN
Psychomotor skills are classified underPsychomotor skills are classified under
unspeci...
MEANINGMEANING
o MeasurementMeasurement: -Measurement is an act as: -Measurement is an act as
process that involves the as...
LEVELSLEVELS
According to Francis M. Quinn PsychomotorAccording to Francis M. Quinn Psychomotor
domain consists of seven l...
Level –2 SetLevel –2 Set: -: -
Readiness to take a particular type of action.Readiness to take a particular type of action...
Level – 3 Guided ResponsesLevel – 3 Guided Responses:: --
These refers to the early stages on skillThese refers to the ear...
Level – 4 mechanismsLevel – 4 mechanisms:: --
At this level the performance has becomeAt this level the performance has be...
Level – 5 complex overt responsesLevel – 5 complex overt responses: -: -
This level typifies the skilled performanceThis l...
Level – 6 adaptationLevel – 6 adaptation: -: -
Here the skills are internalized to such asHere the skills are internalized...
Level – 7 originationLevel – 7 origination:: --
This is the highest level & concerns theThis is the highest level & concer...
There are three primary taxonomies of theThere are three primary taxonomies of the
psychomotor domainpsychomotor domain::
...
3.3.
PrecisionPrecision
Independently perform theIndependently perform the
skill or produce the product,skill or produce t...
Simpson, E. (1972).Simpson, E. (1972). The classification of educational objectivesThe classification of educational objec...
4.4.
MechanismMechanism
The ability to perform aThe ability to perform a
complex motor skill; thecomplex motor skill; the
...
Modification of SimpsonModification of Simpson by the University ofby the University of
Mississippi School of EducationMis...
3. Perceptual3. Perceptual
abilitiesabilities
Kinesthetic, visual,Kinesthetic, visual,
auditory and tactileauditory and ta...
Tools of assess psychomotor domainTools of assess psychomotor domain
Observation TechniquesObservation Techniques: -: -
Th...
Advantages of observationAdvantages of observation:-:-
 Frequent observation of a student’s work and workFrequent observa...
Tools of assess psychomotor domainTools of assess psychomotor domain
  
Types of observation toolsTypes of observation too...
Check listCheck list: -: -
Check list is basically a method of recordingCheck list is basically a method of recording
whet...
Construction of checklistsConstruction of checklists: -: -
 While constructing or preparing checklistsWhile constructing ...
SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YESYES NONO
11 Explain ProcedureExplain Procedure
22 Collect Necessary EquipmentsCollect...
SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YESYES NONO
55 Wash HandsWash Hands
66 Maintains Aseptic TechniqueMaintains Aseptic Tech...
SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YES or NOYES or NO
1111 Applies DressingApplies Dressing
1212 Remove equipmentRemove equ...
Rating ScaleRating Scale:: --
Rating scale is a standardized method ofRating scale is a standardized method of
recording, ...
 Numerical Rating ScaleNumerical Rating Scale: -: -
Numerical rating scale is where the raterNumerical rating scale is wh...
 Graphic Rating ScaleGraphic Rating Scale: -: -
Ex:Ex:
Direction - place an (X) any where along theDirection - place an (...
 Descriptive Graphic ScalesDescriptive Graphic Scales: -: -
ExEx::
Place an (X) anywhere along the horizontalPlace an (X)...
Ranking MethodsRanking Methods: -: -
In this approach, the pupils being rated areIn this approach, the pupils being rated ...
Principles of effective ratingPrinciples of effective rating: -: -
 Only those learning outcomes which can beOnly those l...
Qualities of a Rating ScaleQualities of a Rating Scale: -: -
Guilbert identify, the qualities for a ratingGuilbert identif...
Common Errors in Rating: -Common Errors in Rating: -
There are certain factors which causesThere are certain factors which...
AdvantagesAdvantages: -: -
 Technically, rating scale is standard device forTechnically, rating scale is standard device ...
Anecdotal recordsAnecdotal records: -: -
Anecdotal records are factual description ofAnecdotal records are factual descrip...
AdvantageAdvantage: -: -
 It records incidents of spontaneous behavior onIt records incidents of spontaneous behavior on
...
Disadvantages:Disadvantages: --
 They are time consuming to write.They are time consuming to write.
 When incident are n...
Construction of Anecdotal recordsConstruction of Anecdotal records: -: -
 Anecdotal records of critical incidents thatAne...
Format Of Anecdotal RecordsFormat Of Anecdotal Records
Name of the school or college _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _...
Critical Incident TechniqueCritical Incident Technique: -: -
Critical incident is a method of assessing theCritical incide...
Example of the critical incident techniqueExample of the critical incident technique
Behavioral objectiveBehavioral object...
Summary: -Summary: -
So for we have discussed about meaning ofSo for we have discussed about meaning of
measurement of psy...
Psychomotor domain
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Psychomotor domain

  1. 1. MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT OFOF PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN Developed by: -Developed by: - PankajPankaj Sharma ISharma Istst Msc.{Nsg.}Msc.{Nsg.}
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Education is concerned with the modificationEducation is concerned with the modification of behavior is what the student should know orof behavior is what the student should know or be able to do after the teaching – learningbe able to do after the teaching – learning activity. The realization of educational goal andactivity. The realization of educational goal and objectives in the educational process is basedobjectives in the educational process is based on the accuracy of the judgment & inferenceson the accuracy of the judgment & inferences made by decision the test, measurement andmade by decision the test, measurement and evaluation has become a part & parcel of everyevaluation has become a part & parcel of every system of education to determine thesystem of education to determine the achievement of goals by the students in a givenachievement of goals by the students in a given period.period.
  3. 3. PSYCHOMOTORPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINDOMAIN The psychomotor domain is skill based. It isThe psychomotor domain is skill based. It is steeped in a demonstration and three practicalsteeped in a demonstration and three practical instructional levels –instructional levels – Imitation,Imitation, Practice, andPractice, and Habit.Habit.
  4. 4. PSYCHOMOTORPSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINDOMAIN Psychomotor skills are classified underPsychomotor skills are classified under unspecified number of types. They range fromunspecified number of types. They range from simple skills that don’t require many musclessimple skills that don’t require many muscles (organs/senses) to be used, the skills that(organs/senses) to be used, the skills that many muscles are used, and circulation skillsmany muscles are used, and circulation skills that requires a body-to-body activitythat requires a body-to-body activity SkillSkill:: The ability to perform kinesthetic activity inThe ability to perform kinesthetic activity in an easy, precise, harmonious way with thean easy, precise, harmonious way with the constant changing circumstances.constant changing circumstances.
  5. 5. MEANINGMEANING o MeasurementMeasurement: -Measurement is an act as: -Measurement is an act as process that involves the assignment of aprocess that involves the assignment of a numerical index to whatever is being assessed.numerical index to whatever is being assessed. o PsychomotorPsychomotor: -: - It is related to mental abilities,It is related to mental abilities, adaptive abilities, general skill and motor skills.adaptive abilities, general skill and motor skills. Skill is the ability to do something well.Skill is the ability to do something well. o DomainDomain: - Domain is the area of activity.: - Domain is the area of activity.
  6. 6. LEVELSLEVELS According to Francis M. Quinn PsychomotorAccording to Francis M. Quinn Psychomotor domain consists of seven levels.domain consists of seven levels. Level – 1 PerceptionLevel – 1 Perception: -: - This basic level is concerns with theThis basic level is concerns with the perception sensory uses that guide actions andperception sensory uses that guide actions and ranges from awareness of stimuli to translation inranges from awareness of stimuli to translation in to action.to action. Action verbsAction verbs - Differentiates, Distinguishes,- Differentiates, Distinguishes, Identifies, Detect etc.Identifies, Detect etc. ExEx: -: - Realizes the importance of the internet as aRealizes the importance of the internet as a powerful source for gathering the information hepowerful source for gathering the information he needs for his assignment about decubitus ulcer.needs for his assignment about decubitus ulcer.
  7. 7. Level –2 SetLevel –2 Set: -: - Readiness to take a particular type of action.Readiness to take a particular type of action. It includes mental set (mental set to act),It includes mental set (mental set to act), physical set (physical readiness to act), andphysical set (physical readiness to act), and emotional set (willingness to act). Perception isemotional set (willingness to act). Perception is prerequisite for this level.prerequisite for this level. VerbsVerbs - Begins, Moves, Reacts, Shows, Starts- Begins, Moves, Reacts, Shows, Starts etc.etc. ExEx: -: - Reacts promptly to emergency situationsReacts promptly to emergency situations during trauma care posting.during trauma care posting.
  8. 8. Level – 3 Guided ResponsesLevel – 3 Guided Responses:: -- These refers to the early stages on skillThese refers to the early stages on skill acquisition where skills are performed followingacquisition where skills are performed following demonstration by the teacher.demonstration by the teacher. VerbsVerbs - Carries out, Makes, Performs, Calculates- Carries out, Makes, Performs, Calculates etc.etc. Ex: -Ex: - Performs bed making correctly asPerforms bed making correctly as demonstrated by the teacher.demonstrated by the teacher.
  9. 9. Level – 4 mechanismsLevel – 4 mechanisms:: -- At this level the performance has becomeAt this level the performance has become habitual, but the movements are not sohabitual, but the movements are not so complex as the next level.complex as the next level. VerbsVerbs - Carries out, Makes, Performs, Calculates- Carries out, Makes, Performs, Calculates etc.etc. ExEx: -: - Calculates the volume of fluid required inCalculates the volume of fluid required in first day for a patient admitted with 60 % burnsfirst day for a patient admitted with 60 % burns of weighting 50 kg.of weighting 50 kg.
  10. 10. Level – 5 complex overt responsesLevel – 5 complex overt responses: -: - This level typifies the skilled performanceThis level typifies the skilled performance and involved economy of effort, smoothnessand involved economy of effort, smoothness of action, accuracy and efficiency etc.of action, accuracy and efficiency etc. VerbsVerbs - Carries out, Makes, Performs,- Carries out, Makes, Performs, Calculates.Calculates. ExEx: -: - Performs endotracheal intubationsPerforms endotracheal intubations correctly.correctly.
  11. 11. Level – 6 adaptationLevel – 6 adaptation: -: - Here the skills are internalized to such asHere the skills are internalized to such as extent that the student can adapt them to caterextent that the student can adapt them to cater for special circumstances.for special circumstances. VerbsVerbs - Adapts, Alters, Modifies, Reorganizes- Adapts, Alters, Modifies, Reorganizes etc.etc. ExEx: -: - Modifies sterilization techniques accordingModifies sterilization techniques according to the article to be sterilized.to the article to be sterilized.
  12. 12. Level – 7 originationLevel – 7 origination:: -- This is the highest level & concerns theThis is the highest level & concerns the origination of new movement pattern to suitorigination of new movement pattern to suit particular circumstances.particular circumstances. VerbsVerbs - Composes, Creates, Designs, Originates- Composes, Creates, Designs, Originates etc.etc. Ex: -Ex: - Designs a splint to restrain the forearm ofDesigns a splint to restrain the forearm of child who is on I.V. Infusion.child who is on I.V. Infusion.
  13. 13. There are three primary taxonomies of theThere are three primary taxonomies of the psychomotor domainpsychomotor domain:: - Dave, R. (1967).- Dave, R. (1967). Psychomotor domainPsychomotor domain. Berlin: International. Berlin: International Conference of Educational Testing.Conference of Educational Testing. Cont…Cont… LevelLevel DefinitionDefinition PossiblePossible VerbsVerbs 1.1. ImitateImitate Observe a skill and attemptObserve a skill and attempt to repeat it, or see a finishedto repeat it, or see a finished product and attempt toproduct and attempt to replicate it while attending toreplicate it while attending to an exemplar.an exemplar. Attempt, copy,Attempt, copy, duplicate,duplicate, imitate, mimicimitate, mimic 2.2. ManipulateManipulate Perform the skill or producePerform the skill or produce the product in a recognizablethe product in a recognizable fashion by following generalfashion by following general instructions rather thaninstructions rather than observation.observation. Complete,Complete, follow,follow, play, perform,play, perform, produceproduce
  14. 14. 3.3. PrecisionPrecision Independently perform theIndependently perform the skill or produce the product,skill or produce the product, with accuracy, proportion,with accuracy, proportion, and exactness; at an expertand exactness; at an expert level.level. AchieveAchieve automatically,automatically, excel expertly,excel expertly, performperform masterfullymasterfully 4.4. ArticulationArticulation Modify the skill or productModify the skill or product the product to fit newthe product to fit new situations; combine moresituations; combine more than one skill in sequencethan one skill in sequence with harmony andwith harmony and consistency.consistency. Adapt, alter,Adapt, alter, customize,customize, originateoriginate 5.5. NaturalizationNaturalization Completion of one or moreCompletion of one or more skills with ease and makingskills with ease and making the skill automatic withthe skill automatic with limited physical or mentallimited physical or mental exertion.exertion. Naturally,Naturally, perfectlyperfectly
  15. 15. Simpson, E. (1972).Simpson, E. (1972). The classification of educational objectivesThe classification of educational objectives in the psychomotor domain: The psychomotor domainin the psychomotor domain: The psychomotor domain.. Cont…Cont… LevelLevel DefinitionDefinition PossiblePossible VerbsVerbs 1.1. PerceptionPerception The ability to use sensory cues toThe ability to use sensory cues to guide physical activityguide physical activity Distinguish,Distinguish, identify,identify, selectselect 2. Set2. Set The readiness to act; requires theThe readiness to act; requires the learner to demonstrate anlearner to demonstrate an awareness or knowledge of theawareness or knowledge of the behaviors needed to carry out thebehaviors needed to carry out the skillskill Assume aAssume a position,position, demonstratedemonstrate , show, show 3. Guided3. Guided responseresponse The early stage of learning aThe early stage of learning a complex skill; includes imitation;complex skill; includes imitation; can complete the steps involvedcan complete the steps involved in the skill as directedin the skill as directed Attempt,Attempt, imitate, tryimitate, try
  16. 16. 4.4. MechanismMechanism The ability to perform aThe ability to perform a complex motor skill; thecomplex motor skill; the intermediate stage ofintermediate stage of learning a complex skilllearning a complex skill 5. Complex5. Complex overtovert responseresponse The ability to perform theThe ability to perform the complete psychomotor skillcomplete psychomotor skill correctlycorrectly Carry out,Carry out, operate,operate, performperform 6. Adaptation6. Adaptation Can modify motor skills to fitCan modify motor skills to fit a new situationa new situation Adapt,Adapt, change,change, modify,modify, reviserevise 7.7. OriginationOrigination The ability to develop anThe ability to develop an original skill that replacesoriginal skill that replaces the skill as initially learnedthe skill as initially learned Create,Create, design,design, originate.originate.
  17. 17. Modification of SimpsonModification of Simpson by the University ofby the University of Mississippi School of EducationMississippi School of Education Harrow, A. (1972).Harrow, A. (1972). Taxonomy of the psychomotorTaxonomy of the psychomotor domain. A guide for developing objectives behavioraldomain. A guide for developing objectives behavioral.. NewYork:McKayNewYork:McKay.. LevelLevel DefinitionDefinition PossiblePossible VerbsVerbs 1. Reflex1. Reflex movementmovement Segmental, inter segmental,Segmental, inter segmental, and supra segmental reflexesand supra segmental reflexes RespondRespond 2. Basic-2. Basic- fundamentalfundamental movementsmovements Loco motor movements, non -Loco motor movements, non - loco motor movements,loco motor movements, manipulative movementsmanipulative movements
  18. 18. 3. Perceptual3. Perceptual abilitiesabilities Kinesthetic, visual,Kinesthetic, visual, auditory and tactileauditory and tactile discrimination anddiscrimination and coordinated abilitiescoordinated abilities 4. Physical4. Physical abilitiesabilities Endurance,Endurance, strength, flexibility,strength, flexibility, and agilityand agility 5. Skilled5. Skilled movementsmovements Simple, compound,Simple, compound, and complexand complex adaptive skillsadaptive skills Assemble,Assemble, calibrate,calibrate, construct,construct, dissectdissect 6. Non6. Non discursivediscursive communicationcommunication Expressive andExpressive and interpretiveinterpretive movementmovement Arrange,Arrange, compose,compose, create,create, originate, designoriginate, design
  19. 19. Tools of assess psychomotor domainTools of assess psychomotor domain Observation TechniquesObservation Techniques: -: - The term observational tools and techniquesThe term observational tools and techniques are not synonymous, although they are usedare not synonymous, although they are used interchangeably by many persons. Aninterchangeably by many persons. An observation technique generally implies the useobservation technique generally implies the use of a particular observational tool such asof a particular observational tool such as ratingrating scalescale, a, a checklistchecklist, etc. However, the process of, etc. However, the process of Observing and recording an individual’sObserving and recording an individual’s behavior is what is meant by the phrasebehavior is what is meant by the phrase “observation technique”.“observation technique”.
  20. 20. Advantages of observationAdvantages of observation:-:-  Frequent observation of a student’s work and workFrequent observation of a student’s work and work habits can provide a continuous check on hishabits can provide a continuous check on his progress.progress.  Observational data provide teachers with valuableObservational data provide teachers with valuable supplementary information, much if which couldsupplementary information, much if which could not be obtained in any other way.not be obtained in any other way.  The errors or problems, as they arise can beThe errors or problems, as they arise can be immediately directed and corrective action takenimmediately directed and corrective action taken quicklyquickly
  21. 21. Tools of assess psychomotor domainTools of assess psychomotor domain    Types of observation toolsTypes of observation tools: -: - i) Checklist.i) Checklist. ii) Rating scale.ii) Rating scale. iii) Anecdotal Records.iii) Anecdotal Records. iv) Critical Incident Technique.iv) Critical Incident Technique.
  22. 22. Check listCheck list: -: - Check list is basically a method of recordingCheck list is basically a method of recording whether a characteristics is present or absent orwhether a characteristics is present or absent or whether an action was or was not taken place. Itwhether an action was or was not taken place. It provides a simple yes – no judgment.provides a simple yes – no judgment. AdvantagesAdvantages: -: - -- Checklist is adapted to most subject matter areas.Checklist is adapted to most subject matter areas. - Checklist is useful in evaluating those learning- Checklist is useful in evaluating those learning activities that involve a procedure.activities that involve a procedure. - Process record observations.- Process record observations. - Checklist objectively evaluates traits or characteristics.Checklist objectively evaluates traits or characteristics. DisadvantagesDisadvantages: -: - -- Check list does not indicate quality of performance.Check list does not indicate quality of performance.
  23. 23. Construction of checklistsConstruction of checklists: -: -  While constructing or preparing checklistsWhile constructing or preparing checklists following points to be kept in mind.following points to be kept in mind.  Express each item in clear, simple language.Express each item in clear, simple language.  Avoid negative statements wherever possible.Avoid negative statements wherever possible.  Make sure that each item is clearly yes or no;Make sure that each item is clearly yes or no; true it false and the like.true it false and the like.  Review the items independently.Review the items independently.
  24. 24. SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YESYES NONO 11 Explain ProcedureExplain Procedure 22 Collect Necessary EquipmentsCollect Necessary Equipments 33 Arranges Equipment for convenientArranges Equipment for convenient useuse 44 Prepares PatientPrepares Patient Check list for evaluating of student’sCheck list for evaluating of student’s performance during surgical dressing.performance during surgical dressing. Cont..Cont..
  25. 25. SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YESYES NONO 55 Wash HandsWash Hands 66 Maintains Aseptic TechniqueMaintains Aseptic Technique 77 Removes DressingRemoves Dressing 88 Wash HandsWash Hands 99 Observes Condition of woundObserves Condition of wound 1010 Cleans woundCleans wound Cont…Cont…
  26. 26. SL. NO.SL. NO. BEHAVIORSBEHAVIORS YES or NOYES or NO 1111 Applies DressingApplies Dressing 1212 Remove equipmentRemove equipment 1313 Makes patient comfortableMakes patient comfortable 1414 Completes chartingCompletes charting 1515 Take care of EquipmentTake care of Equipment
  27. 27. Rating ScaleRating Scale:: -- Rating scale is a standardized method ofRating scale is a standardized method of recording, interpretation of behavior, with thisrecording, interpretation of behavior, with this technique students / individual’s rated on atechnique students / individual’s rated on a scale from low to high with respect to ascale from low to high with respect to a particular trait.particular trait. Types of Rating ScaleTypes of Rating Scale: -: -  Numerical Rating scale.Numerical Rating scale.  Graphic Rating scale.Graphic Rating scale.  Descriptive Rating scale.Descriptive Rating scale.  Ranking MethodsRanking Methods Cont…Cont…
  28. 28.  Numerical Rating ScaleNumerical Rating Scale: -: - Numerical rating scale is where the raterNumerical rating scale is where the rater checks or circles a number to indicate thechecks or circles a number to indicate the degree to which a characteristic is present.degree to which a characteristic is present. ExEx: Indicate the degree to which pupil: Indicate the degree to which pupil contribute to class discussion. The numbercontribute to class discussion. The number represents the following values.represents the following values. 5 - Outstanding,5 - Outstanding, 4 -above average,4 -above average, 3 -average, 2 - below average, 1 - Poor.3 -average, 2 - below average, 1 - Poor.  To what extent does the pupil participate inTo what extent does the pupil participate in class discussion?class discussion? 11 22 33 4 54 5 (circle the number)(circle the number)
  29. 29.  Graphic Rating ScaleGraphic Rating Scale: -: - Ex:Ex: Direction - place an (X) any where along theDirection - place an (X) any where along the horizontal line.horizontal line.  To what extent dies the pupil participate inTo what extent dies the pupil participate in class discussion?class discussion? Never seldom occasionally frequently alwaysNever seldom occasionally frequently always
  30. 30.  Descriptive Graphic ScalesDescriptive Graphic Scales: -: - ExEx:: Place an (X) anywhere along the horizontalPlace an (X) anywhere along the horizontal line and add a comment to clarify your rating.line and add a comment to clarify your rating. Never Participates Participates as Participate moreNever Participates Participates as Participate more quiet, passive. much as other than any otherquiet, passive. much as other than any other group members group membergroup members group member  Comment:…………………………………………Comment:…………………………………………
  31. 31. Ranking MethodsRanking Methods: -: - In this approach, the pupils being rated areIn this approach, the pupils being rated are ranked in the order in which the tater estimatesranked in the order in which the tater estimates those posses the characteristics being judged.those posses the characteristics being judged. There are modifications of ranking methodsThere are modifications of ranking methods which are time consuming procedures. Thewhich are time consuming procedures. The advantage of ranking method is that it requiresadvantage of ranking method is that it requires the rater to differentiate among pupils beingthe rater to differentiate among pupils being rated and place them in relative order from highrated and place them in relative order from high to low.to low.
  32. 32. Principles of effective ratingPrinciples of effective rating: -: -  Only those learning outcomes which can beOnly those learning outcomes which can be evaluate and stated clearly should beevaluate and stated clearly should be checked by rating scale.checked by rating scale.  The characteristics evaluated should beThe characteristics evaluated should be directly observable.directly observable.  The characteristics and points on the scaleThe characteristics and points on the scale should be clearly defined.should be clearly defined.  Raters should omit rating where they feelRaters should omit rating where they feel unqualified to judge.unqualified to judge.  Ratings from several observers should beRatings from several observers should be combined wherever possible.combined wherever possible.
  33. 33. Qualities of a Rating ScaleQualities of a Rating Scale: -: - Guilbert identify, the qualities for a ratingGuilbert identify, the qualities for a rating scale. They are -scale. They are -  Clarity,Clarity,  Reliance,Reliance,  Precision variety,Precision variety,  Objectivity andObjectivity and  Uniqueness.Uniqueness.
  34. 34. Common Errors in Rating: -Common Errors in Rating: - There are certain factors which causesThere are certain factors which causes errors in rating.errors in rating. These factors can be –These factors can be –  Personal biasPersonal bias  Generosity ErrorsGenerosity Errors  Central Tendency ErrorCentral Tendency Error  Logical ErrorLogical Error  Halo EffectHalo Effect
  35. 35. AdvantagesAdvantages: -: -  Technically, rating scale is standard device forTechnically, rating scale is standard device for recording, qualitative & quantitative judgments aboutrecording, qualitative & quantitative judgments about observed performance.observed performance.  Rating scale measures, specified outcomes orRating scale measures, specified outcomes or objectives.objectives.  Rating scale evaluates personal social development.Rating scale evaluates personal social development.  Rating scale help teachers to rate their studentsRating scale help teachers to rate their students periodically on various characteristics such asperiodically on various characteristics such as punctuality, honesty, cooperativeness, considerationpunctuality, honesty, cooperativeness, consideration of others & other personality traits.of others & other personality traits.  A student to rate himself can also use it.A student to rate himself can also use it.  It can be used with a large number of students.It can be used with a large number of students. DisadvantagesDisadvantages: -: - There is a lack of uniformity with which terms areThere is a lack of uniformity with which terms are interpreted by evaluation.interpreted by evaluation.
  36. 36. Anecdotal recordsAnecdotal records: -: - Anecdotal records are factual description ofAnecdotal records are factual description of the meaningful incidents & events that thethe meaningful incidents & events that the teacher has observed in the pupils lives. Eachteacher has observed in the pupils lives. Each incident should be written down shortly after itincident should be written down shortly after it happens.happens. The descriptions may be recorded onThe descriptions may be recorded on separate card or as running accounts one forseparate card or as running accounts one for each pupil, on separate pages in a notebook.each pupil, on separate pages in a notebook.
  37. 37. AdvantageAdvantage: -: -  It records incidents of spontaneous behavior onIt records incidents of spontaneous behavior on natural setting.natural setting.  It directs the teacher’s attention to a singleIt directs the teacher’s attention to a single student.student.  It provides cumulative records of growth andIt provides cumulative records of growth and development.development.  It provides cumulative records of growth andIt provides cumulative records of growth and development.development.  It can be used as a supplement to quantitativeIt can be used as a supplement to quantitative data.data.  The mew members may use these records &The mew members may use these records & acquaint themselves with the students.acquaint themselves with the students.
  38. 38. Disadvantages:Disadvantages: --  They are time consuming to write.They are time consuming to write.  When incident are noted and record out ofWhen incident are noted and record out of context, they may lose their meaning.context, they may lose their meaning.  The teacher should have practice & trainingThe teacher should have practice & training making observation & writing anecdotalmaking observation & writing anecdotal records.records.  It is less reliable than other than otherIt is less reliable than other than other observation tools.observation tools.
  39. 39. Construction of Anecdotal recordsConstruction of Anecdotal records: -: -  Anecdotal records of critical incidents thatAnecdotal records of critical incidents that occur during a student’s clinical experienceoccur during a student’s clinical experience are quite useful provided focus is on incidentsare quite useful provided focus is on incidents that reflectthat reflect effective behaviorseffective behaviors andand ineffectiveineffective behaviorsbehaviors..  Both types of incidents should be recordedBoth types of incidents should be recorded briefly.briefly.  Follow ABC rule in writing anecdotal records.Follow ABC rule in writing anecdotal records. – AccuracyAccuracy – BrevityBrevity – Clarity.Clarity.
  40. 40. Format Of Anecdotal RecordsFormat Of Anecdotal Records Name of the school or college _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Name of the school or college _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Name of the student observed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Name of the student observed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Subject  ClassSubject  Class _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   Name of the observer Date & PlaceName of the observer Date & Place    _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   Objective Description _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Objective Description _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   Comments of the observer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Comments of the observer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _        _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Signature of the observer.Signature of the observer.
  41. 41. Critical Incident TechniqueCritical Incident Technique: -: - Critical incident is a method of assessing theCritical incident is a method of assessing the student’s analytic and problem – solvingstudent’s analytic and problem – solving competencies. In the student’s performancecompetencies. In the student’s performance can be recorded and performance evaluatedcan be recorded and performance evaluated according to stated criteria.according to stated criteria. Use of the critical incident technique as aUse of the critical incident technique as a data gathering mechanism could be similar todata gathering mechanism could be similar to that of the anecdotal record. Special behavioralthat of the anecdotal record. Special behavioral objectives would be incident.objectives would be incident.
  42. 42. Example of the critical incident techniqueExample of the critical incident technique Behavioral objectiveBehavioral objective EvaluationEvaluation -Shares own assessment of-Shares own assessment of patient need withpatient need with colleagues in the nursingcolleagues in the nursing team.team. -Two critical incident reports-Two critical incident reports from team conferences.from team conferences. Criteria for evaluationCriteria for evaluation -IdentifyIdentify a. Learner behavior whicha. Learner behavior which assisted team members inassisted team members in understanding patientunderstanding patient needs.needs. b. Learner behaviors whichb. Learner behaviors which interfered with the teaminterfered with the team member’s understanding ofmember’s understanding of patient needs.patient needs.
  43. 43. Summary: -Summary: - So for we have discussed about meaning ofSo for we have discussed about meaning of measurement of psychomotor domain, levels ofmeasurement of psychomotor domain, levels of psychomotor domain, taxonomy of psychomotorpsychomotor domain, taxonomy of psychomotor domain tools of assessing psychomotor domain likedomain tools of assessing psychomotor domain like observational checklist, rating scale, anecdotalobservational checklist, rating scale, anecdotal records, cumulative records, and critical incidentrecords, cumulative records, and critical incident technique.technique. Conclusion: -Conclusion: - Measurement of psychomotor domain is theMeasurement of psychomotor domain is the important aspects in evaluating students. The tools,important aspects in evaluating students. The tools, which we have seen here, are very useful for eachwhich we have seen here, are very useful for each teacher.teacher.

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