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The Future (of Textbooks) is Open

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Presentation at the AGM of the Canadian Federation of Students (BC) on August 14, 2015

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The Future (of Textbooks) is Open

  1. 1. The  Future  (of  Textbooks)  is  Open Faculty  Fellow,  BC  Open  Textbook  Project Dept.  of  Psychology,  Kwantlen  Polytechnic  University Open  Learning  Faculty  Member,  Thompson  Rivers  University Associate  Editor,  NOBA  Project @thatpsychprof Rajiv  Jhangiani,  Ph.D.
  2. 2. Buy  used Resell Rent (Inter)library  loans Group  purchase Crowdfunding Old  edition International  edition Photocopy E-­‐textbooks
  3. 3. €€€ €€ €€ € €  60%+ do not purchase textbooks at some point due to cost 35% take fewer courses due to textbook cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to textbook cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to cost 14% have dropped a course due to textbook cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to textbook cost Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus There  is  a  direct  relationship   between  textbook  costs  and  student   success
  4. 4. "Ivory  Towers" by James  F  Clay is  licensed  under CC  BY-­‐NC  4.0
  5. 5. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34%   are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years
  6. 6. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34%   are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years "Kids  Giving  you  problems?  Hire  an  Elephant" by peasap is  licensed  under CC  BY  2.0
  7. 7. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34%   are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years
  8. 8. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34% are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years
  9. 9. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34% are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years
  10. 10. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34% are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has   increased   by  812%  over  30  years
  11. 11. • Half of  Bachelor’s  degree   graduates  rely  on  student  loans • In  Sept.  2010  Federal  student  loan   debt  surpassed   $15  billion • Average  BC  student  debt  in  2011   was  $29,497 • 3  years  after  graduating,  only  34% are  debt  free • BC  students  now  work  180%  more   hours  than  they  did  in  1975  to  pay   for  PSE • When  debt  reaches  $10,000,   program  completion  rates  drop   from  59%  to  8% • The  cost  of  textbooks  has  risen  by   1041% since  1977
  12. 12. "Crazy  Stunt" by Ross  G.  Strachan is  licensed  under CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  4.0
  13. 13. "circa  1890  -­‐ Hamlin's  Wizard  Oil"byclotho98 is  licensed   under CC  BY-­‐NC  4.0 "'THAT  WAS  EASY!'" byjoepoppis  licensed  underCC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0
  14. 14. Retain Redistribute Revise Remix Reuse Source:  David  Wiley,    http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3221 March  5,  2014,  CC-­‐BY
  15. 15. open.bccampus.ca open.bccampus.ca
  16. 16. "Opening  the  Curriculum:  Open  Education  Resources  in  U.S.  Higher  Education,  2014"by I.  Elaine  Allen  &  Jeff  Seaman,   Babson  Survey  Research  Group is  licensed  under CC  BY  4.0 Those  who  have  adopted  OER  rate  the   quality  of  OER  as  significantly  higher:   F(1,  35)  =  7.88,  p =  .008,            =  0.18 (Jhangiani  et  al.,  2015) ηp 2
  17. 17. 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 Strongly  disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly  agree Rajiv Richard Overall,  I  am  satisfied  with  the  quality  of  the   modules/chapters  in  the  open  textbook Jhangiani  &  Le  Grand  (2014) N  =  105 %
  18. 18. Overall,  I  am  satisfied  with  the  convenience,   access,  &  portability  of  the  open  textbook 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 Strongly  disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly  agree % Jhangiani  &  Le  Grand  (2014)
  19. 19. The  cost  savings  that  come  with  an  open   textbook  are  important  to  me 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 Strongly  disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly  agree % Jhangiani  &  Le  Grand  (2014)
  20. 20. What  is  the  average  cost  of  the  textbooks   that  you  purchase  for  your  other  courses? 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 <$50 $51-­‐$100 $101-­‐$150 $151-­‐$200 >$200 Rajiv Richard Jhangiani  &  Le  Grand  (2014) %
  21. 21. I  would  have  preferred  to  pay  for  a  traditional   textbook  for  this  course 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 Strongly  disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly  agree Rajiv Richard Jhangiani  &  Le  Grand  (2014) %
  22. 22. I  like  how  the  theories   are  explained  in   more  understandable   ways  compared  to   other  textbooks  where  the  author  tends  to   talk  in  circles  before  explaining  what  is   being  talked  about I  would  not  have  bought  the  text  book  for   this  course  because  it's  an  elective.  I   would  have  possibly  walked  away  with  a   C,  now  I  might  actually  get  an  A-­‐ It  is  easily  accessible   and   convenient.  Material  is  easy   to  understand  and  follow I  personally  really  like  the  convenience   of   having  the  complete  set  of  chapters  on  my   computer  and  even  accessible   from  my   phone  if  I  need  it.  I  like  that  I  don't  have  to   lug  around  another  text  book It's  free  and  it's  a  great  money  saver
  23. 23. Hilton  &  Laman (2012) • 7  psychology  faculty • Houston  Community  College • 23  sections  (690  students) Traditional textbook   (Spring  2011) Open  textbook (Fall 2012) GPA 1.6 2.0 Withdrawal  rate  (%) 14 7.1 Final examination  (%) 67.6 71.1 Hilton,  J.,  &  Laman,  C.  (2012).  One  college’s  use  of  an  open  psychology  textbook.  Open   Learning,  27(3),  265-­‐272.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2012.716657
  24. 24. Robinson  et  al.  (2014) • Quasi-­‐experimental  design • Propensity-­‐score  matched  groups • OT  students  scored  slightly  higher  on  end-­‐of-­‐year   standardized  science  tests • Significant  gains  in  chemistry • No  differences  in  physics  or  earth  systems Robinson  T.  J.,  Fischer,  L.,  Wiley,  D.  A.,  &  Hilton,  J.  (2014).  The  impact  of  open  textbooks  on   secondary  science  learning  outcomes.  Educational  Researcher,  43(7),  341-­‐351. doi:   10.3102/0013189X14550275
  25. 25. Access Cost  savings Portability Course  performance Adapt,  update,  &  remix Enrolment Student  retention Program  completion
  26. 26. open.bccampus.ca Results Year Faculty Sections Students Savings 2013 12 18 553 $55,300  -­ $84,560 2014 42 78 2630 $263,000  -­ $367,896 2015   (Jan-­April) 33 73 2224 $222,400  -­ $252,285 Today 97 180 6006 $600,600-­ $822,622
  27. 27. open.bccampus.ca What  can  YOU  do? • Survey  your  student  body • #textbookbroke campaign • Presentations   • Utilize  visuals,  create  displays • Speak  directly  to  faculty  &  admin • Suggest  that  faculty  review  a  textbook • Showcase  examples • Form  a  student-­led  OER  group • Connect.  Collaborate.
  28. 28. rajiv.jhangiani@kpu.ca @thatpsychprof Thank  you!

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