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Gastric outlet obstruction

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Gastric Outlet Obstruction
Gastric Outlet Obstruction
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Gastric outlet obstruction

  1. 1. Gastric Outlet Obstruction Rajeshwar .K Final yr PG
  2. 2. Overview Background • Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO, also known as pyloric obstruction) is not a single entity; it is the clinical and pathophysiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying.
  3. 3. Upper endoscopy showing multiple gastric polyps. Such polyps are a major cause of gastric outlet obstruction.
  4. 4. Background Clinical entities that can result in GOO generally are categorized into 2 well-defined groups of causes—benign and malignant. This classification facilitates discussion of management and treatment. When peptic ulcer disease (PUD) was more prevalent, benign causes were the most common; however, one review shows that only 37% of patients with GOO have benign disease and the remaining patients have obstruction secondary to malignancy.
  5. 5. Problem : • Gastric outlet obstruction can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. As part of the initial workup, exclude the possibility of functional nonmechanical causes of obstruction, such as diabetic gastroparesis. • Once a mechanical obstruction is confirmed, differentiate between benign and malignant processes because definitive treatment is based on recognition of the specific underlying cause. • Carry out diagnosis and treatment expeditiously, because delay may result in further compromise of the patient's nutritional status. Delay will also further compromise edematous tissue and complicate surgical intervention.
  6. 6. Epidemiology : Frequency • The incidence of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) has been reported to be less than 5% in patients with PUD, which is the leading benign cause of the problem. • Five percent to 8% of ulcer-related complications result in an estimated 2000 operations per year in the United States. • The incidence of GOO in patients with peripancreatic malignancy, the most common malignant etiology, has been reported as 15-20%.
  7. 7. Etiology : • The major benign causes of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) are 1. PUD, 2. Gastric polyps, 3. Ingestion of caustics, 4. Pyloric stenosis, 5. Congenital duodenal webs, 6. Gallstone obstruction (Bouveret syndrome), 7. Pancreatic pseudocysts, 8. Bezoars. • PUD manifests in approximately 5% of all patients with GOO. • Ulcers within the pyloric channel and first portion of the duodenum usually are responsible for outlet obstruction.
  8. 8. Etiology … • Obstruction can occur in an acute setting secondary to acute inflammation and edema or, more commonly, in a chronic setting secondary to scarring and fibrosis. • Helicobacter pylori has been implicated as a frequent associated finding in patients with GOO, but its exact incidence has not been defined precisely.
  9. 9. Etiology… • Within the pediatric population, pyloric stenosis constitutes the most important cause of GOO. • Pyloric stenosis occurs in 1 per 750 births. It is more common in boys than in girls and also is more common in first-born children. • Pyloric stenosis is the result of gradual hypertrophy of the circular smooth muscle of the pylorus.
  10. 10. Anatomic changes associated with pyloric stenosis.
  11. 11. Malignant causes • Pancreatic cancer is the most common malignancy causing GOO. • Outlet obstruction may occur in 10-20% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma. • Other tumors that may obstruct the gastric outlet include a) Duodenal cancer b) ampullary cancer, c) cholangiocarcinomas d) gastric cancer. • Metastases to the gastric outlet also may be caused by other primary tumors.
  12. 12. Pathophysiology : • Intrinsic or extrinsic obstruction of the pyloric channel or duodenum is the usual pathophysiology of gastric outlet obstruction; as previously noted, the mechanism of obstruction depends upon the underlying etiology. • Patients present with intermittent symptoms that progress until obstruction is complete. Vomiting is the cardinal symptom. • Initially, patients may demonstrate better tolerance to liquids than solid food.
  13. 13. Pathophysiology : • In a later stage, patients may develop significant weight loss due to poor caloric intake. Malnutrition is a late sign, but it may be very profound in patients with concomitant malignancy. • In the acute or chronic phase of obstruction, continuous vomiting may lead to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities. • When obstruction persists, patients may develop significant and progressive gastric dilatation. The stomach eventually loses its contractility. • Undigested food accumulates and may represent a constant risk for aspiration pneumonia.
  14. 14. Presentation : • Nausea and vomiting are the cardinal symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. • Vomiting usually is described as nonbilious, and it characteristically contains undigested food particles. • In the early stages of obstruction, vomiting may be intermittent and usually occurs within 1 hour of a meal.
  15. 15. Presentation: • Patients with gastric outlet obstruction resulting from a duodenal ulcer or incomplete obstruction typically present with symptoms of gastric retention, including early satiety, bloating or epigastric fullness, indigestion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. • They are frequently malnourished and dehydrated and have a metabolic insufficiency. • Weight loss is frequent when the condition approaches chronicity and is most significant in patients with malignant disease.
  16. 16. Metabolic effects • Dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities-- Increase in BUN and creatinine are late features of dehydration.  Prolonged vomiting causes loss of hydrochloric acid & produces an increase of bicarbonate in the plasma to compensate for the lost chloride-------hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis.  Alkalosis shifts the intracellular potassium to the extracellular compartment, and the serum potassium is increased factitiously. • With continued vomiting, the renal excretion of potassium increases in order to preserve sodium. • The adrenocortical response to hypovolemia intensifies the exchange of potassium for sodium at the distal tubule, with subsequent aggravation of the hypokalemia.
  17. 17. Paradoxically acidic urine  Initially, the urine has a low chloride and high bicarbonate content, reflecting the primary metabolic abnormality  This bicarbonate is excreted along with sodium and so, with time, the patient becomes progressively hyponatraemic and more profoundly dehydrated.  Because of the dehydration, a phase of sodium retention follows and potassium and hydrogen are excreted in preference.  This results in the urine becoming paradoxically acidic.  Alkalosis leads to a lowering of the circulating ionised calcium, and tetany can occur.
  18. 18. Presentation… • Abdominal pain is not frequent and usually relates to the underlying cause, eg, PUD, pancreatic cancer. • Physical examination often demonstrates the presence of chronic dehydration and malnutrition • A dilated stomach may be appreciated as a tympanitic mass in the epigastric area and/or left upper quadrant.
  19. 19. Indications: • Patients with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) due to benign ulcer disease may be treated medically if results of imaging studies or endoscopy determine that acute inflammation and edema are the principle causes of the outlet obstruction (as opposed to scarring and fibrosis, which may be fixed). • If medical therapy conducted for a reasonable period fails to alleviate the obstruction, then surgical intervention becomes appropriate. • Typically, if resolution or improvement is not seen within 48-72 hours, surgical intervention is necessary.
  20. 20. Indications… • The choice of surgical procedure depends upon the patient's particular circumstances; however, vagotomy and antrectomy should be considered the criterion standard against which the efficacy of other procedures is measured. • In cases of malignant obstruction, weigh the extent of surgical intervention for the relief of GOO against the malignancy's type and extent, as well as the patient's anticipated long-term prognosis.
  21. 21. Indications.. • As a guiding principle, undertake major tumor resections in the absence of metastatic disease in a patient who can withstand such a procedure from a nutritional standpoint. • In patients with largely metastatic disease, determine the degree of surgical intervention for palliation in light of the patient's realistic prognosis and personal wishes.
  22. 22. Relevant Anatomy: • SAC-LIKE ORGAN LOCATED MOSTLY IN THE LEFT UPPER PART OF THE ABDOMEN • It is located beneath the diaphragm and is attached superiorly to the esophagus and distally to the duodenum. • The stomach is divided into 4 portions, the cardia, the body, the antrum, and the pylorus. • HAS 2 SURFACES (ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR), 2 CURVATURES (GREATER & LESSER), & 4 REGIONS (CARDIA, FUNDUS, PYLORUS,& ANTRUM • The gastric wall is made up of 4 layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, and serosa • Inflammation, scarring, or infiltration of the antrum and pylorus are associated with the development of gastric outlet obstruction.
  23. 23. STOMACH
  24. 24. STOMACH • It functions primarily as a reservoir to store large quantities of recently ingested food • Its volume ranges from about 30ml in a neonate to 1.5 to 2L in adulthood. • The gastroesophageal junction generally lies to the left of the 10th thoracic vertebral body, 1-2cm below the diaphragmatic hiatus. • The gastroduodenal junction lies at L1 and generally to the right of the midline, but may be lower
  25. 25. STOMACH • ANTERIOR RELATIONS – DIAPHRAGM, ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL, LEFT COSTAL MARGIN, & THE LEFT LOBE OF THE LIVER • POSTERIOR RELATIONS – LESSER SAC, PANCREAS, LEFT SUPRARENAL GLAND, LEFT KIDNEY, SPLEEN, SPLENIC ARTERY, & THE TRANVERSE COLON • SUPERIOR RELATIONS – LEFT DOME OF THE DIAPHRAGM
  26. 26. STOMACH
  27. 27. STOMACH • BLOOD SUPPLY: FROM THE COELIAC AXIS – LEFT GASTRIC, • SPLENIC (SHORT GASTRIC & LEFT GASTROEPIPLOIC), • HEPATIC (GASTRODUODENAL[SUPERIOR PANCREATICODUODENAL & RIGHT EPIPLOIC], CYSTIC, & RIGHT GASTRIC)
  28. 28. STOMACH
  29. 29. STOMACH • NERVE SUPPLY: VAGUS (ANTR & POSTR) The vagus constitutes the motor and secretory nerve supply for the stomach. • When divided, in the operation of vagotomy, the neurogenic (reflex) gastric acid secretion is abolished but the stomach is, at the same time, rendered atonic so that it empties only with great difficuty. • Because of this, total vagotomy must always be accompanied by some sort of drainage procedure, either a pyloroplasty (to enlarge the pyloric exit and render the pyloric sphincter incompetent) or by a gastrojejunostomy (to drain the stomach into the proximal small intestine). • Drainage can be avoided if the nerve of Latarjet is preserved, thus maintaining the innervation and function of the pyloric antrum (highly selective vagotomy).
  30. 30. STOMACH • The sympathetic innervation is derived from preganglionic fibers arising predominantly from T6 to T8 spinal nerves.
  31. 31. STOMACH
  32. 32. BARIUM MEAL TRACING
  33. 33. Relevant Anatomy.. DUODENUM • 25cm LONG, C-SHAPED CURVE AROUND THE HEAD OF THE PANCREAS, DIVIDED INTO 4 PARTS • 1ST PART  5cm LONG, ASCENDS FROM THE GASTRODUODENAL JUNCTION, OVERLAPPED BY THE LIVER & GALL BLADDER  IMMEDIATELY POSTR ARE THE PORTAL VEIN, COMMON BILE DUCT & GASTRODUODENAL ARTERY SEPARATING IT FROM THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA • 2nd PART  7.5CM LONG, DESCENDS IN A CURVE AROUND THE HEAD OF PANCREAS, CROSSED BY THE TRANSVERSE COLON & LIES ON THE RIGHT KIDNEY AND URETER. • 3rd PART  10cm LONG, RUNS TRANSVERSELY TO THE LEFT CROSSING THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA, AORTA & L3 VERT • 4th PART  ASCENDS UPWARDS & TO THE LEFT TO END AT THE DUODENOJEJUNAL JUNCTION • BLOOD SUPPLY – THE SUPERIOR & INFERIOR PANCREATICODUODENAL ARTERIES • It is intimately related to the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas; therefore, a malignant process of any adjacent structure may cause outlet obstruction due to extrinsic compression.
  34. 34. DUODENUM
  35. 35. Contraindications for Surgical therapy • Contraindications for surgery relate to the underlying medical condition. • Most patients benefit from an initial period of gastric decompression, hydration, and correction of electrolyte imbalances. • In patients who are severely malnourished, postponing surgical intervention until the nutritional status has been optimized may be wise. • In selective cases, some patients may benefit from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or distal tube feeding (eg, placed via a percutaneous jejunostomy).
  36. 36. Contraindications.. • One of the relative contraindications for surgery is the presence of advanced malignancy; in these cases, in which life expectancy may be limited to a few months, palliation via endoscopically placed stents should be considered. • Overall, every patient with gastric outlet obstruction deserves evaluation by a surgeon. • Even if the patient has unresectable disease, palliative surgical measures may improve the quality of life.
  37. 37. WORKUP Laboratory Studies • Obtain a CBC. Check the hemoglobin and hematocrit to. rule out the possibility of anemia. • Obtain an electrolyte panel. As noted previously, identifying and correcting electrolyte abnormalities that tend to occur is essential. • Liver function tests may be helpful, particularly when a malignant etiology is suspected. • A test for H pylori is helpful when the diagnosis of PUD is suspected.
  38. 38. Imaging studies Plain abdominal radiographs, contrast upper GI studies (Gastrografin or barium), and CT scans with oral contrast are helpful. Plain radiograph of the abdomen. Enlarged stomach with calcified content
  39. 39. Contrast study demonstrating an enlarged stomach. The point of obstruction is visualized at the pyloric-duodenal junction (string sign). Plain radiographs, including the obstruction series (ie, supine abdomen, upright abdomen, chest posteroanterior), can demonstrate the presence of gastric dilatation and may be helpful in distinguishing the differential diagnosis.
  40. 40. Diagnostic Procedures • Upper endoscopy can help visualize the gastric outlet and may provide a tissue diagnosis when the obstruction is intraluminal. • The sodium chloride load test is a traditional clinical nonimaging study that may be helpful. • The traditional sodium chloride load test is performed by infusing 750 cc of sodium chloride solution into the stomach via a nasogastric tube (NGT). • A diagnosis of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is made if more than 400 cc remain in the stomach after 30 minutes.
  41. 41. Diagnostic procedures.. • Nuclear gastric emptying studies measure the passage of orally administered radionuclide over time. • Unfortunately, both the nuclear test and the saline load test may produce abnormal results in functional states. • Barium upper GI studies are very helpful because they can delineate the gastric silhouette and demonstrate the site of obstruction. • An enlarged stomach with a narrowing of the pyloric channel or first portion of the duodenum helps differentiate GOO from gastroparesis.
  42. 42. Diagnostic procedures.. • The specific cause may be identified as an ulcer mass or intrinsic tumor. • In the presence of PUD, perform endoscopic biopsy to rule out the presence of malignancy. • In the case of peripancreatic malignancy, CT scan–guided biopsy may be helpful in establishing a preoperative diagnosis. • Needle-guided biopsy also may be helpful in establishing the presence of metastatic disease. This knowledge may impact the magnitude of the procedure planned to alleviate the GOO.
  43. 43. Histologic Findings Histologic findings relate to the individual underlying cause.
  44. 44. Medical Therapy • Initial management of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) should be the same regardless of the primary cause. • After a diagnosis is made, admit patients for hydration and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. • Remembering that the metabolic alkalosis of GOO responds to the administration of chloride is important; therefore, sodium chloride solution should be the initial IV fluid of choice. • Potassium deficits are corrected after repletion of volume status and after replacement of chloride.
  45. 45. Medical therapy • Place a NGT to decompress the stomach. Occasionally, a large tube is required because the undigested food blocks tubes with small diameters. • When acute PUD has been identified as a primary cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), focus treatment on the reduction of acid production. • Histamine-2 (H2) blockers and proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment.
  46. 46. Medical therapy.. • Treat H pylori infection, when identified, according to current recommendations. • Although most patients improve temporarily with treatment, scarring and fibrosis may worsen over time. • Pneumatic balloon dilatation of a chronic, benign stricture can be performed via endoscopy. • Patients who are candidates for balloon dilatation are likely to present with recurrent GOO.
  47. 47. Medical therapy.. • Published series using this technique report success rates of over 76% after multiple dilatations, although the rate of failure and recurrent obstruction is higher in patients treated with balloon dilatation who have not also been treated for H pylori infection. • Patients who are negative for H pylori do not respond favorably to balloon dilatation and should be considered for surgical treatment early in the process. • Further treatment is tailored to the underlying cause; this is where the distinction between benign and malignant disease becomes important.
  48. 48. MEDICAL THERAPY : INTERVENTION • If the GOO is irreversible, or is caused by fibrotic scarring, rather than edema and spasm, it requires a definitive treatment. • The advent of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), surgery was the only treatment for these patients. • Recent data suggest that EBD is an effective alternative to surgery in a majority of patients with ulcer-related and caustic induced GOO. • Patients with a possibility of malignancy would not be candidates for EBD. • In inflammatory conditions like Crohn’s disease or infection like tuberculosis causing GOO, specific treatment for the antecedent disease is mandatory and may obviate the need for surgery or EBD.
  49. 49. EBD • The advent of through-the-scope (TTS) balloon dilating catheters, EBD has become the first line of therapy in a majority of patients with benign GOO. EQUIPMENT • The balloons are available in lengths of 5.5-8.0 cm and are inflated using a hydrostatic device that is attached to a pressure gauge. • Two types of balloons are currently available, one which can be dilated to a single diameter (Olympus SWIFT Balloon Dilators, Microvasive Rigiflex balloon) and the other ones that can be dilated to pre-fixed increasing diameters depending on the pressure with which they are inflated, e.g. CRE® dilators from Boston Scientific Inc and Quantum TTC® Balloon Dilators from Wilson Cook.
  50. 50. GUIDELINES FOR BALLOON DILATION Patient selection • Only localized stricture of the stomach should be chosen. • The site of gastric cicatrisation is not important. • CT scan to assess antral wall thickness may be a good modality to identify the “right patients” and to exclude malignancy. • Endosonography may also emerge as a useful adjunct in this regard, especially in helping direct intralesional steroid injections.
  51. 51. Patient preparation • Prior to the procedure, the patient should be kept fasting for 8-12 h. • Gastric decompression should be carried on using a wide bore Ryles’ tube in patients who have gastric residue. • Aspiration of gastric contents should be done to ensure a clearer view and to prevent regurgitation of contents into the air-passages. • Patient’s diet should be restricted to liquids only, in those with severe stenosis. • Patients are given pharyngeal anesthesia and conscious sedation administered along with hyoscine butylbromide injection prior to the procedure.
  52. 52. When should dilation be started? • Patients with peptic-GOO can be dilated any time after gastric decompression is done as most have chronic cicatrisation. • In those with active ulceration one can wait for response to proton pump inhibitors. As stated previously, it is best to wait for 8 wk after caustic ingestion to allow for natural healing.
  53. 53. How frequently should dilation be done? • Although different workers have dilated at 1-3 wk intervals, weekly dilation in sub-acute phase of caustic ingestion to facilitate: (a) reaching the end point of 15 mm, in a short period of time. (b) maintaining nutritional status of the patient. • In patients in the chronic phase of caustic ingestion and peptic-GOO, dilation can be done once a week or once in 3 wk. • Once adequate nutrition is ensured, the interval between dilations can be varied, taking into account the social circumstances; e.g. the distance the patient travels, etc.
  54. 54. Panel showing barium study in a patient with peptic pyloric stenosis with trifoliate deformity of duodenal bulb (A), and endoscopic pictures at the beginning (B), after 2 dilations (C) and after 4 dilations (D).
  55. 55. Surgical Therapy Management of benign disease • More than 75% of patients presenting with GOO eventually require surgical intervention. • Surgical intervention usually provides definitive treatment of GOO, but it may result in its own comorbid consequences. • Operative management should offer relief of obstruction and correction of the acid problem.
  56. 56. Surgical therapy.. The most common surgical procedures performed for GOO related to PUD are • Vagotomy and antrectomy, • Vagotomy and pyloroplasty, • Truncal vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy, • Pyloroplasty, • Laparoscopic variants of the aforementioned procedures. • Vagotomy and antrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction (gastrojejunostomy) seem to offer the best results. • Vagotomy and pyloroplasty and pyloroplasty alone, although used with some success, can be technically difficult to perform due to scarring at the gastric outlet.
  57. 57. VAGOTOMY
  58. 58. VAGOTOMY
  59. 59. • A combination of balloon dilatation and highly selective vagotomy has been described, but it is associated with gastroparesis and a high recurrence rate. • Placement of a jejunostomy tube at the time of surgery should be considered. • This provides temporary feeding access in already malnourished patients. Also, in chronically dilated partial obstructions, the stomach may be slow to recover a normal rate of emptying
  60. 60. Surgical therapy…. • The role of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of GOO is under investigation and may represent a valid form of therapy with low morbidity. • One group in China performed laparoscopic truncal vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for GOO related to PUD, with nearly complete resolution of symptomatology. • The investigators reported no conversions to open procedure or mortalities. • Twenty-seven percent of patients did experience transiently delayed gastric emptying, which resolved with conservative measures.
  61. 61. Surgical therapy… • Kim et al also reported good results from the use of laparoscopic truncal vagotomy with gastrojejunostomy, including shorter operating times and hospital stays in comparison with the open procedure. • Hall et al performed a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing patient recovery following laparoscopic pyloromyotomy to that after open pyloromyotomy in infants with pyloric stenosis. • The investigators found that among the 87 infants who underwent the laparoscopic procedure, the median (interquartile range) postoperative time needed to achieve full enteral feeding was 18.5 hours, compared with 23.9 hours in the 93 infants who underwent open pyloromyotomy.
  62. 62. • The study also found that the incidence of postoperative vomiting was similar in the open and laparoscopic groups, as was the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications. • The authors suggested that open and laparoscopic pyloromyotomy are safe means of treating infantile pyloric stenosis. • Because of its apparent advantages, however, they recommended that in centers with suitable laparoscopic experience, the laparoscopic form of the procedure be used.
  63. 63. Completed myotomy in open pyloromyotomy for hypertropic pylotic stenosis.
  64. 64. Management of malignant disease • The management of GOO secondary to malignancy is controversial. • Of patients with periampullary cancer, 30-50% present with nausea and vomiting at the time of diagnosis. • Most of these tumors are unresectable (approximately 40% of gastric cancers and 80- 90% of periampullary cancers.) • When tumors are found to be unresectable, 13- 20% of patients eventually develop GOO before they succumb to their disease.
  65. 65. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • Gastrojejunostomy remains the surgical treatment of choice for GOO secondary to malignancy. • Although surgeons traditionally have preferred an antecolic anastomosis to prevent further obstruction by advancing tumor growth, a publication evaluating the retrocolic anastomosis in this setting challenges conventional wisdom. • Results demonstrate that a retrocolic anastomosis may be associated with decreased incidences of delayed gastric emptying (6% vs 17%) and late GOO (2% vs 9%).
  66. 66. Roux-en-Y GJ
  67. 67. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • Other groups have illustrated that partial stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy decreases the rates of delayed gastric emptying as compared with traditional gastrojejunostomy. • Feeding jejunostomy should again be considered to combat malnutrition and slow recovery of gastric emptying.
  68. 68. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • Internationally, studies are underway using laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy instead of the open procedure. • In the United States, critics cite a nearly 20% conversion rate and a delay in the return of gut function as reasons to not perform the procedure laparoscopically. • Comparisons of laparoscopic GI anastomosis versus the open procedure have revealed less morbidity and mortality, shorter hospital stays, fewer blood transfusions, and faster GI transit recovery time.
  69. 69. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • Researchers at Johns Hopkins Hospital have attempted endoscopic transgastric approaches to create a gastrojejunostomy in a porcine model. • As natural orifice transluminal surgery gains more widespread interest, these novel approaches may become more popular. • Chopita and colleagues reported on the use of magnetic endoscopic gastroenteric anastomosis in 15 patients with malignant gastroenteric obstruction. The procedure had an 86.7% success rate, with the authors noting the additional benefits of shorter duration of hospital stay and good quality of life in patients. • Although still experimental, this procedure may one day be a surgical option.
  70. 70. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • No and colleagues reported that gastrojejunostomy was preferable to metal stent placement in providing palliation of GOO caused by unresectable or metastatic cancer in patients with a good performance status. • Self-expandable metallic stents also have been used for the treatment of GOO in a malignant setting. • Metallic stents have previously been used successfully to treat stenosis of such areas as the blood vessels, bile duct, esophagus, and trachea. • With the development of newer stents and delivery systems, metallic stents may have a role in the nonsurgical treatment of gastroduodenal obstruction. • Stents may allow the physician to avoid complicated surgical procedures. Currently, only the Wallstent has FDA approval for palliation in malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. • Significant complications include the following: malposition, misdeployment, tumor ingrowth or overgrowth, migration, bleeding, and perforation.
  71. 71. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • A review of 19 studies published in 2004 quoted clinical success rates of 80-90%. • Subsequent multicenter trials using the enteral Wallstent in 176 patients with malignant GOO resulted in 89% of patients tolerating oral intake for a median of 219 days postprocedure. • Of the 84% in whom the stent was successful after the initial procedure, 22% required restenting to tolerate an oral diet. • In addition, as other studies have demonstrated, chemotherapy was independently associated with an increased tolerance in oral intake.
  72. 72. Figure 1. Stents used . a, Duodenal stent; b, pylorus stent
  73. 73. Figure 2. Stent delivery system. (a), stent delivery system; (b), the front tip of the delivery system; (c), the handler of the delivery system.
  74. 74. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • One proposed solution uses covered metallic stents that have a lower incidence of tumor ingrowth. • A 60% rate of tumor ingrowth in uncovered stents versus a 10% rate of tumor ingrowth in covered stents has been reported. Furthermore, with the double stent technique, that is, simultaneous placement of both covered stents and uncovered stents, lower early restenosis rates have been achieved. • A stent patency of 21.5 days for uncovered stents versus 150 days for double stents has been achieved. • Of the 62 patients studied by Maetani et al, half received uncovered stents and half covered stents. The authors found no statistical difference in patency, but the triple-covered stent resulted in less frequent dysfunction four weeks after stenting.
  75. 75. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • Several retrospective studies have been performed to compare the results of stenting versus surgical intervention. • Survival rates are equivalent; however, costs, length of stay, and number of subsequent procedures are all decreased following stenting. • In addition, a delay of gastric emptying and morbidity decrease with the use of metallic stents. • These promising results suggest that stents may eventually replace surgery as palliative intervention for unresectable periampullary malignancies.
  76. 76. Management of malignant disease(GOO) • A 2011 study from the Netherlands discusses the use of a D-Weave Niti-S nitinol stent specifically for the duodenum. • A key outcome in this palliative procedure was a significant improvement in global health status and median 82-day survival. • This study reports a marvelous technical and robust clinical success rate with patency up to 190 days, and a 25% complication rate.
  77. 77. Expandable metallic stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction under endoscopy in a patient
  78. 78. Postoperative Details  Admit patients to a monitor unit after the procedure.  Pay special attention to fluid and electrolyte status.  Most surgeons agree that perioperative antibiotics are advisable but may be limited to use during the immediate perioperative period in the absence of intervening infection.  If a gastric reconstruction is performed, an NGT is recommended.  The length of time that the NGT should remain in place is controversial; however, it is important to remember that a previously dilated stomach, the performance of a vagotomy, and the presence of metastatic cancer may all contribute to decreased gastric motility.  An anatomically patent gastrojejunostomy may fail to empty for days. This syndrome of delayed gastric emptying is a well-known entity and requires surgical patience. Again, preoperative planning for feeding access becomes important during this immediate postoperative period.  Aggressive pulmonary toilet, prophylaxis for gastritis and deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and early ambulation are advisable.
  79. 79. Follow-up • Closely monitor patients after surgery and upon discharge. After relief of gastric outlet obstruction, patients may continue to experience gastric dysmotility and may require medication to stimulate gastric emptying and motility. • In patients with malignancy, the potential for progressive and recurrent disease always remains. These patients should be monitored by a surgeon or an oncologist. • Closely monitor patients whose treatment consisted of balloon dilatation because most of these patients require subsequent dilatations to achieve satisfactory results.
  80. 80. Complications • Although the risk is small, patients undergoing endoscopic treatment with either balloon dilatation or stenting are at risk for perforation. • Migration of the stents and reocclusion requiring further intervention. • Operative complications in patients undergoing surgery for gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) often are related to the nutritional status of the patients. Commencing nutritional support upon recognition of the presence of GOO is important. • If surgery is anticipated, delaying the surgery or any intervention until TPN has been instituted for at least 1 week is often prudent. • Acute intervention may be technically difficult because of significant gastric dilatation and gastric wall edema. This circumstance may increase the rate of anastomotic leak. On occasion, delaying surgical intervention for several days while the stomach is decompressed by nasogastric suction may be prudent. • Alert patients undergoing gastric resection for benign or malignant disease to the possibility of well-known postgastrectomy syndromes, such as dumping, alkaline gastritis, and afferent loop syndrome.
  81. 81. Outcome and Prognosis • Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical condition that may result from a number of underlying causes, both benign and malignant. • Despite medical advances in the acid suppression mechanism, the incidence of GOO remains a prevalent clinical problem in benign PUD. • Also, an increase in the number of cases of GOO seems to be noted secondary to malignancy; this is possibly due to improvements in cancer therapy, which allow patients to live long enough to develop this complication. • Orient initial management to identification of the primary underlying cause and to the correction of volume and electrolyte abnormalities. • Barium swallow studies and upper endoscopy are the main tests used to help make the diagnosis. Tailor treatment to the specific cause.
  82. 82. Future and Controversies • The role of prophylactic gastrojejunostomy in cases of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a question that has not been answered. Some surgeons argue that prophylactic gastrojejunostomy may increase postoperative morbidity, primarily due to delayed gastric emptying. • Lillemoe and Cameron addressed this issue in a publication. Of patients with unresectable periampullary cancer, 87 were randomized to receive or not receive a prophylactic gastrojejunostomy. Although results demonstrated that no significant differences exist in morbidity, length of hospital stay, and survival rates, the group in which prophylactic gastrojejunostomies were performed had a 0% (0/44) incidence of GOO versus 19% (8/43) in the other group. • The authors concluded that prophylactic gastrojejunostomy significantly decreased the incidence of late GOO and should be performed routinely when a patient is undergoing surgical palliation for periampullary cancer.
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