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Automobile unit 1 vehicle structure and engines.

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING NOTES FOR MECHANICAL, PRODUCTION AND AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

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Automobile unit 1 vehicle structure and engines.

  1. 1. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 1
  2. 2.  The term automobile or automotive stands for a vehicle which can be moved by itself.  The automobile is a self-propelled vehicle.  It is used for the transportation of passengers and goods from one place to the other on the ground.  Examples: scooters,mopeds,cars,lorry,bus,jeep Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 2
  3. 3.  The invention of the automobile is not the product of a single man, single generation in any company.  The real history of automobiles was started during 15th century (i.e. during Leonardo Da Vinci’s period.)  Captain Nicholas Cugnot, a French engineer is considered to be the father of “The Automoile”. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 3
  4. 4.  In 1898, an American company imported three “Oldsmobiles” cars into Bombay.  One of which was sold to Janshedji Tata, an industrialist.  It was the first motor car in India.  In 1903, an American company began to operate a public taxi service with a feet of 50 cars. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 4
  5. 5.  Premier Automobiles Ltd., Mumbai.  Hindustan motors Ltd., Kolkata.  Ashok Leyland Ltd., Chennai.  Maruti Udyog Ltd.  Tata Engg. & locomotive co., Ltd, (Telco) Mumbai. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 5
  6. 6. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 6
  7. 7. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 7
  8. 8. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 8
  9. 9. Based on purpose Passenger vehicle Goods carriers Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 9
  10. 10. Based on fuel used ➢ Petrol vehicles ➢ Diesel vehicles ➢ Gas vehicles ➢ Electric vehicles ➢ Solar vehicles ➢ Hybrid vehicles ➢ Bi-fuel vehicles Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 10
  11. 11. Solar Powered Electric vehicle Hybrid vehicle Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 11
  12. 12. Based on capacity ➢ Heavy Motor Vehicles ➢ Light Motor Vehicles Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 12
  13. 13. Based on number of wheels ➢ Two wheelers ➢ Three wheelers ➢ Four wheelers ➢ Six wheelers ➢ Multi wheelers Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 13
  14. 14. Based on transmission ➢ Conventional ➢ Semi automatic ➢ Automatic ❖ Tata Nano. ❖ Maruti Suzuki Alto K10. ❖ Maruti Suzuki Celerio. ❖ Tata Zest. ❖ Ford Figo. ❖ Mahindra TUV300. ❖ Maruti Wagon R. ❖ Hyundai Creta. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 14
  15. 15. 1. The basic structure (frame, suspension system, axle, wheels and tyres) 2. Power plant 3. Transmission system 4. The auxiliaries 5. The controls 6. The super structure Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 15
  16. 16. A complete vehicle without body is called Chassis. The following main components of the Chassis are 1. Frame: 2. Engine or Power plant 3. Clutch 4. Gear Box 5. Propeller Shaft 6. Differential Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 16
  17. 17. Chassis of a Truck Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 17
  18. 18. Chassis of a Truck Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 18
  19. 19. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 19
  20. 20. Layout of Chassis Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 20
  21. 21. Classification of a vehicle chassis is based on the position of the engine on the chassis. 1. Full forward 2. Semi Forward 3. Engine at centre 4. Engine at the back 5. Conventional chassis Chassis also classified based on reference to drive 1. Rear wheel drive 2. Front wheel drive 3. Four wheel drive Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 21
  22. 22. Full Forward: ➢ Mostly power is given to the front wheels hence reduces components ➢Problem of visibility & Costly because of transaxle ➢Part of Chassis portion can not be utilized for carrying passengers and goods Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 22
  23. 23. Semi Forward: ➢ Half portion of the engine is in the driver cabin and remaining half is outside the cabin such as in tata trucks ➢ In this arrangement a part of the chassis is utilized for carrying extra passengers Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 23
  24. 24. Engine at Centre: ➢ Drive is given to the rear. ➢ Full space of the chassis floor can be used (Royal tiger world master buses in Delhi) ➢ If used in cars it limits the car to be a two seater. ➢ Luxury/Sports cars use this layout. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 24
  25. 25. Engine at the rear/back: ➢ Reduced components ➢ Costly because of transaxle ➢ With elimination of propeller shaft the centre of gravity lowered giving stable driving ➢ Better adhesion on road specially when climbing hill. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 25
  26. 26. Rear wheel Drive: Good traction obtained while climbing the hill. Good distribution of braking force. Large bulge in the region of gear box and due to propeller shaft. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 26
  27. 27. Front wheel drive: -Lighter in weight, because the driveshaft is shorter, meaning better fuel economy. -No floor hump in the passenger compartment, for the same reason. -Less weight in the drive train overall, resulting in even more fuel economy. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 27
  28. 28. Four wheel drive:  Traction is nearly doubled compared to a two- wheel-drive layout  Handling characteristics in normal conditions can be configured to emulate FWD or RWD  4WD systems require more machinery and complex transmission components Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 28
  29. 29. It is the foundation on which the power plant and the body are carried and which in turn is supported on the wheels through axles and springs Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 29
  30. 30. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 30
  31. 31. Cross sections of Frame Cross Section of Frame: a. Channel Section - Good resistance to bending b. Tabular Section - Good resistance to Torsion c. Box Section - Good resistance to both bending and Torsion Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 31
  32. 32. • The various steels used for conventional pressed frame are mild steel, carbon sheet steel and sheet nickel alloy steel •Carbon - 0.25-0.35% •Manganese -0.35-0.725% •Silicon -0.30% (maximm) •Nickel -3% •Phosphorous -0.05% (max.) •Sulphur -0.5% (max) Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 32
  33. 33. 1. To carry load of the passengers or goods carried in the body. 2. To support the load of the body, engine, gear box etc., 3. To withstand the forces caused due to the sudden braking or acceleration 4. To withstand the stresses caused due to the bad road condition. 5. To withstand centrifugal force while cornering Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 33
  34. 34. There are three types of frames 1. Conventional frame 2. Semi-integral frame 3. Integral frame Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 34
  35. 35. Conventional Semi Integral Integral Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 35
  36. 36.  Body is the super structure for all the vehicles it may either be constructed separately and bolted to the chassis or manufactured integral with the chassis.  It consists of windows and doors engine cover, roof, luggage cover etc. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 36
  37. 37.  Weight of the body is 40% for car and 60 to 70% of total weight of the buses. Therefore reduction in body weight is important.  If we reduce the weight of the body which also improves the fuel economy. (i.e., Mileage) Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 37
  38. 38. Body Panels Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 38
  39. 39. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 39
  40. 40. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 40
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  43. 43. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 43
  44. 44. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 44
  45. 45. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 45
  46. 46. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 46
  47. 47. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 47
  48. 48. 1. Air Resistance 2. Gradient resistance (Vehicle weight but depend on the speed of the vehicle) 3. Rolling Resistance 4. Miscellaneous resistance a. Road charecteristics b. vehicle speed c.Tyre charecteristics Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 48
  49. 49. AERODYNAMICS It is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a solid object, such as an Automobile, airplane wing, etc. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 49
  50. 50. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 50
  51. 51. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 51
  52. 52. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 52
  53. 53. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 53
  54. 54. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 54
  55. 55. FORCES ACTING ON VEHICLE : Drag force (Fx)- Along the vehicle direction Profile drag, interference drag, skin friction, cooling and ventilation system drag. Cross wind (Fy)- along side or lateral direction Assymetric flow of air around the vehicle body Lift force(Fz) – vertical force acting from the bottom of the vehicle Because of pressure difference between top and bottom of the vehicle. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 55
  56. 56. MOMENTS DUE TO FORCES: Moments created by forces acting on the vehicle Pitching moment – Created by drag or lift force about y-axis and reduces the traction in the wheels Yawing moment- Created by cross wind about z-axis Rolling Moment – Created by cross wind about x-axis Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 56
  57. 57. Forces and moments acting on a vehicle Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 57
  58. 58. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 58
  59. 59. 1. To provide necessary torque to move the vehicle from standstill position 2. To provide different speeds to the driving wheels 3. To disconnect engine from the driving wheels 4. Helps to connect engine with the wheels smoothly and without shock. 5. Provides relative motion between the engine and the drivig wheels due to flexing of road springs. 6. Provide means to transfer power in opposite direction. 7. Enable diversion of power flow at right angles. 8. Bear the effect of torque reaction , driving thrust and braking effort effectively. 9. Provide a varied leverage between the engine and the drive wheels Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 59
  60. 60.  Combustion of fuel with oxygen of the air occurs within the cylinder of the engine.  An engine is the prime mover and it is the heart of the automobile.  It is used to convert the heat energy obtained from fuel into useful mechanical work.  Nowadays I.C Engines are commonly used in automobiles Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 60
  61. 61. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 61
  62. 62. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 62
  63. 63. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 63
  64. 64. Four stroke engine Two stroke engine Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 64
  65. 65. Horizontal engine Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 65
  66. 66. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 66
  67. 67. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 67
  68. 68. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 68
  69. 69. ENGINE Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 69
  70. 70. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 70
  71. 71. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 71
  72. 72. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 72
  73. 73. o This is the main block of the engine. o This contains the cylinder and provides housing for the crank, crank shaft and other engine parts. o This is the basic frame for the engine and the parts fitted on it. o Material: Hard Grade cast iron or Aluminium alloys Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 73
  74. 74.  This is the top most part of the engine which covers the cylinder.  It is bolted with the engine block at the top.  Provides combustion chamber, and mounting areas for spark plugs and valve parts  Material: Hard Grade cast iron or Aluminium alloys Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 74
  75. 75.  Gasket are used so that a gas tight joint is formed.  These joints will withstand high pressure and heat developed in the combustion chambers.  This is usually cast as a single piece.  Material: Soft copper and asbestos sheet Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 75
  76. 76.  Used to guide and seal piston and to mount cylinder assembly to head.  It contains gas under pressure during combustion Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 76
  77. 77.   Material: Chromium plated mild steel Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 77
  78. 78. o The piston is the most active part of the engine. o The movement of the piston changes the volume inside the cylinder and provides combustion space. o Material : cast iron, aluminium alloy, nickel-iron alloy, cast steel, etc. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 78
  79. 79. Piston designs Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 79
  80. 80.  To provide a good sealing fit between the piston and cylinder.  There are two type of rings 1. COMPRESSION RINGS - Prevents gases leaking from combustion chamber. These rings are located at the top of the piston 2. OIL RINGS - prevents lubricant entering into the combustion chamber. Too much oil film and the engine will use excessive oil and too little oil causes heat and insufficient lubrication Material: cast iron, alloy steels, etc Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 80
  81. 81. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 81
  82. 82. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 82
  83. 83. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 83
  84. 84.  The link between the crankshaft and the piston  The connecting must withstand heavy thrust  Cross section is an “H” or “I”  It has passage for transfering lubricating oil from the big end bearing to the small end bearing. Dynamic Dampers can be mounted to the crankshaft to reduce vibration Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 84
  85. 85. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 85
  86. 86.  Changes reciprocating motion of pistons into rotating motion to drive propeller  The propeller mounts to the front of the crankshaft using a spline, taper, or flange  The crankshaft rotates within the crankcase and is supported by main bearing journals  Dynamic Dampers can be mounted to the crankshaft to reduce vibration Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 86
  87. 87.  Counterweights are also used to reduce vibration  Counterweights and dampers are used in piston engines because the power pulses and movement of the pistons create large amounts of vibration  The engine is also mounted in rubber bushings to absorb vibration  Material: Plain carbon steel, Al alloy, nickel alloy steelsPrepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 87
  88. 88. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 88
  89. 89.  Turns at 1/2 the speed of the crankshaft  Must be mechanically coupled to the crankshaft for timing purposes (gears, belts, chains)  The camshaft consists of bearing journals and lobes spaced along the shaft  Each lobe is positioned to open and close a valve at a specific time  Material: Plain carbon steel, Al alloy, nickel alloy steels Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 89
  90. 90. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 90
  91. 91.  Valves control the flow of gases inside the engine  Poppet valves are the most common and get their name from the popping open and closed during operation  Intake valves are chrome steel and are cooled by the incoming air and fuel mixture  Exhaust valves are also alloy steel but are often filled with metallic sodium for cooling. Valve faces may be coated with Stellite to reduce wear and corrosion  Valve faces are ground to 30 degrees for intake (airflow) and 45 degrees (cooling) for exhaust Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 91
  92. 92. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 92
  93. 93. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 93
  94. 94. 1290 degrees F (typical) Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 94
  95. 95.  May be solid, roller, or hydraulic  The lifter follows the cam lobes and pushes on the pushrod  Solid and roller lifters require adjustable rocker arms  Hydraulic type lifters fill with oil and lengthen to compensate for any clearances in the valve system Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 95
  96. 96. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 96
  97. 97.  Transmits push of lifter up to rocker arm  Hollow to allow oil to flow to the top of the cylinder for valve part lubrication  Length can be varied to adjust valve clearance  Valve clearance is the space between the top of the valve stem and the rocker arm.  valve clearance increases as the engine operates due to cylinder expansion (solid lifters)  Hydraulic lifters have a “0” clearance in operation Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 97
  98. 98. Valve clearance adjustment Valve clearance measurement Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 98
  99. 99.  Adjustable in solid lifter  One end rests on the valve stem and the other on the pushrod  Rocking motion opens and closes the valves Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 99
  100. 100.  Must be able to withstand forces inside an engine with minimal friction and heat build-up. Must accept radial and thrust loads Plain Bearings  A steel insert with babbitt (lead alloy) bonded to the bearing surface  Plain bearings are keyed to keep them in place  A lip or flange allows the plain bearing to accept thrust loads  Commonly used as crankshaft and rod bearings in opposed engines Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 100
  101. 101. Plain bearing Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 101
  102. 102. Roller Bearings (antifriction)  Hard steel rollers captured between an inner and outer “race” and held in alignment by a “cage”  May be tapered to absorb radial and thrust loads or straight to absorb radial loads only Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 102
  103. 103. Ball Bearings (antifriction)  Used for both radial and thrust loads  Deep grooves in races allow thrust loads OUTER RACE INNER RACE CAGE BALL Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 103
  104. 104. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 104
  105. 105. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 105
  106. 106.  It is the process of altering the timing of a valve lift event, and is often used to improve performance, fuel economy or emissions.  It is increasingly being used in combination with variable valve lift systems.  The aim was to improve volumetric efficiency, decrease NOx emissions, and decrease pumping losses. * VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 106
  107. 107. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 107
  108. 108. The variable cam system used on some Ferraris Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 108
  109. 109. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 109
  110. 110.  Late intake valve closing (LIVC) The first variation of continuous variable valve timing involves holding the intake valve open slightly longer than a traditional engine. This results in the piston actually pushing air out of the cylinder and back into the intake manifold during the compression stroke. The air which is expelled fills the manifold with higher pressure, and on subsequent intake strokes the air which is taken in is at a higher pressure. Late intake valve closing has been shown to reduce pumping losses by 40% during partial load conditions, and to decrease nitric oxide (NOx) emissions by 24%. Peak engine torque showed only a 1% decline, and hydrocarbon emissions were unchanged.  Early intake valve closing (EIVC) Another way to decrease the pumping losses associated with low engine speed, high vacuum conditions is by closing the intake valve earlier than normal. This involves closing the intake valve midway through the intake stroke. Air/fuel demands are so low at low-load conditions and the work required to fill the cylinder is relatively high, so Early intake valve closing greatly reduces pumping losses. Studies have shown early intake valve closing reduces pumping losses by 40%, and increases fuel economy by 7%. It also reduced nitric oxide emissions by 24% at partial load conditions. A possible downside to early intake valve closing is that it significantly lowers the temperature of the combustion chamber, which can increase hydrocarbon emissions.  Early intake valve opening Early intake valve opening is another variation that has significant potential to reduce emissions. In a traditional engine, a process called valve overlap is used to aid in controlling the cylinder temperature. By opening the intake valve early, some of the inert/combusted exhaust gas will back flow out of the cylinder, via the intake valve, where it cools momentarily in the intake manifold. This inert gas then fills the cylinder in the subsequent intake stroke, which aids in controlling the temperature of the cylinder and nitric oxide emissions. It also improves volumetric efficiency, because there is less exhaust gas to be expelled on the exhaust stroke.  Early/late exhaust valve closing Early and late exhaust valve closing can also reduce emissions. Traditionally, the exhaust valve opens, and exhaust gas is pushed out of the cylinder and into the exhaust manifold by the piston as it travels upward. By manipulating the timing of the exhaust valve, engineers can control how much exhaust gas is left in the cylinder. By holding the exhaust valve open slightly longer, the cylinder is emptied more and ready to be filled with a bigger air/fuel charge on the intake stroke. By closing the valve slightly early, more exhaust gas remains in the cylinder which increases fuel efficiency. This allows for more efficient operation under all conditions.Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 110
  111. 111. TYPES  Air cooling  Water cooling Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 111
  112. 112.  Method of cooling an engine by the use of atmospheric air is called air-cooling.  Generally the two stroke engines are air-cooled.  The heat from the cylinder is spread over a large area of the outer surface of cylinder head and cylinder by providing fins. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 112
  113. 113. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 113
  114. 114.  Light in weight.  No coolant is used.  Warming up is faster.  Less efficient.  Noisy operation. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 114
  115. 115.  In water cooling, water is used for cooling the engine by circulating it through water jackets around each combustion chamber cylinder, cylinder head, valve and valve sheet.  By absorbing heat, water will become hot. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 115
  116. 116. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 116
  117. 117.  In an IC engine heat is generated between the moving parts due to friction. This heat produces wear and tear of the moving parts.  To reduce the power loss and wear and tear, a foreign substance called lubricant is introduced in between the rubbing surfaces. Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 117
  118. 118.  It reduces the friction between the moving parts.  It reduces wear and tear.  It provides cushion effect.  It produces cooling effect.  It reduces noise Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 118
  119. 119. LUBRICATION SYSTEM Prepared by Mr. Rajesh K/AP Mech-RMKCET 119

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