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FRAMING SENTENCES
AND VOCABULARY
Course – B.Sc.
Subject – English Communication and Life Skills
Unit - II
Framing Simple Sentences
•A sentence is a group of words that is used to say something, to
ask something, or to tell someb...
What is a sentence composed of?
•A Sentence is composed of a
Subject, verb and a
Predicate.
•SENTENCE = SUBJECT +
VERB + P...
What is a sentence
composed of?
•A complete sentence has at least a subject and a main verb
to state (declare/say) a compl...
Definition:
•Subject of a sentence:
The subject is the
person, place, or thing
that acts, is acted on, or
is described in ...
Kinds of subject
• There are three kinds of Subject:
1) Simple Subject – a Noun or a Pronoun
•Example: He/She/Ram/Seeta
2)...
Kinds of predicate
• A predicate may be one word or many words.
• There are three kinds of Predicate:
1) Simple Predicate–...
Kinds of sentences
•Sentences are used in all languages. Sentences are used in
both speech and writing. There are five kin...
•2) Interrogative Sentences: Sentences used to ask
questions.
•Example:
•- What are you doing?
•- Where will you go tomorr...
•5) Exclamatory Sentences: Sentences that are in the form
of exclamations.
•Example:
•- Wow! How pretty it is!
- How marve...
PARTS OF SPEECH
•There are thousands of words in any language. But not all words have the
same job. For example, some word...
Eight parts of speech
PARTS OF SPEECH ROLE EXAMPLES
1) Noun Nouns are naming words. Monday, Christmas, etc.
2) Adjective A...
PARTS OF SPEECH ROLE EXAMPLES
6) Conjunction Joining words, which
join two words or
sentences.
and, or, thus, etc.
7) Prep...
Define: Parts Of speech
•A term in traditional grammar
for the eight categories into
which words are classified
according ...
Exercise: A – Sentence structure
• Identify every word of the sentence:
1) Mary and her brother look smart.
2) The train w...
Exercise: ‘b’ – subject, verb and
predicate
• Identify the Subject, verb and Predicate in the sentence:
1) Gopal drives ve...
EXERCISE ‘C’ COMPLETE THE
FOLLOWING:
a) My brother ___________________________________.
b) Sometimes I ___________________...
WH questions
Which are the TYPES OF questions?
•There are two types of questions.
i) Yes-No Questions
ii) WH-Questions
•Question words ...
USAGE AND MEANING OF WH-
QUESTIONSQUESTION WORDS MEANING & USAGE EXAMPLE
1) Who Person Who is that? It is Ram.
2) Where Pl...
FRAMING SIMPLE QUESTIONS:
1. If you ask about the subject of the sentence, simply add the
question word at the beginning:
...
EXERCISE ‘E’ – CHOOSE THE CORRECT
OPTION
1. _____ are you?
2. _____ is your pen?
3. _____ are you crying?
4. _____ is the ...
SYNOMYMS
•Define: synonym - Synonyms are words that have the same or
very similar meaning.
•Synonyms are different words t...
Homophones, homographs,
homonyms•Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation,
but different meanings. For exampl...
List of synonyms
WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM
1) Scream Yell Shout Shriek
2) Start Begin Commence
3) Help Aid Assist Suppo...
WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM
6) Strange Odd Weird
7) Fake Unnatural Counterfeit Forged
8) Find Locate Seek Search
9) Wealt...
WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM
11) Difficult Hard Challenging Tough
12) See Observe Look Watch
13) Grand Magnificent Majesti...
WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM
16) Betray Deceive Cheat Fool
17) Dangerous Risky Unsafe
18) Glad Happy Merry Joy
19) Real Ge...
WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM
21) Bold Daring Fearless Brave
22) Brief Concise Short Abridged
23) Category Classification D...
EXERCISE ‘f’ GIVE SYNONYMS:
1) Find –
2) Fake –
3) Important
4) Grand –
5) Shout -
EXERCISE ‘G’ replace the underlined
word with a synonym:
1) I understand the speaker.
2) It was a grand function.
3) I met...
Recourses/References
• www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.html
• free-english-study.com/grammar/basic-sentence-struc...
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  1. 1. FRAMING SENTENCES AND VOCABULARY Course – B.Sc. Subject – English Communication and Life Skills Unit - II
  2. 2. Framing Simple Sentences •A sentence is a group of words that is used to say something, to ask something, or to tell somebody to do something. It gives enough information for a person to form a complete idea in his mind of the message that is being communicated to him. •A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). •The sentence is traditionally defined as a word or group of words that expresses a complete idea and that includes a subject and a verb. – Definition.
  3. 3. What is a sentence composed of? •A Sentence is composed of a Subject, verb and a Predicate. •SENTENCE = SUBJECT + VERB + PREDICATE
  4. 4. What is a sentence composed of? •A complete sentence has at least a subject and a main verb to state (declare/say) a complete thought. Short example: Walker walks. A subject is the noun that is doing the main verb. The main verb is the verb that the subject is doing. •A sentence is a set of words that contain a Subject and a Predicate. It is important that a sentence should express a complete thought. There are two main parts of a Sentence. •A Subject is what the sentence is about, the topic of the sentence. •A Predicate is what is said about the subject. The Predicate of a Sentence always consists of a Verb, in fact sometimes the predicate is only a verb.
  5. 5. Definition: •Subject of a sentence: The subject is the person, place, or thing that acts, is acted on, or is described in the sentence. •Predicate of a sentence: The predicate usually follows the subject , it is the action or description that occurs in the sentence. Examples: Ram runs very fast. Come in. Stand outside. The lamp is very beautiful.
  6. 6. Kinds of subject • There are three kinds of Subject: 1) Simple Subject – a Noun or a Pronoun •Example: He/She/Ram/Seeta 2) Complete Subject - a noun or a pronoun plus any modifiers • Example: The black cat, The big mouse, The hungry lion, etc. 3) Compound Subject - two or more subjects joined by a conjunction. •Example: She and I, Peter or Harry, A bat and a ball, etc.
  7. 7. Kinds of predicate • A predicate may be one word or many words. • There are three kinds of Predicate: 1) Simple Predicate– a complete verb (a verb and any helping verbs) •Example: stand, was singing, could have come, etc. 2) Complete Predicate - a simple predicate plus all modifiers •Example: was singing sweetly, was reading loudly, etc. 3) Compound Predicate - two or more predicates with the same subject. •Example: was singing quietly and sweetly, play cards or watch television, etc.
  8. 8. Kinds of sentences •Sentences are used in all languages. Sentences are used in both speech and writing. There are five kinds of sentences: •1) Declarative Sentences: Sentences that make statements. •Example: •- I have two brothers and one sister. •- My name is Mary.
  9. 9. •2) Interrogative Sentences: Sentences used to ask questions. •Example: •- What are you doing? •- Where will you go tomorrow? •3) Imperative Sentences: Sentences that give commands or make requests. •Example: •- Come here. •- Please, come here.
  10. 10. •5) Exclamatory Sentences: Sentences that are in the form of exclamations. •Example: •- Wow! How pretty it is! - How marvelous! •6) Optative Sentence: Optative sentences express wishes. •Example: •- May you live a long and happy life together. - God bless you!
  11. 11. PARTS OF SPEECH •There are thousands of words in any language. But not all words have the same job. For example, some words express "action". Other words express a "thing". Other words "join" one word to another word. These are the "building blocks" of the language. Think of them like the parts of a house. When we want to build a house, we use concrete to make the foundations or base. We use bricks to make the walls. We use window frames to make the windows, and door frames to make the doorways. And we use cement to join them all together. Each part of the house has its own job. And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different types of word. Each type of word has its own job. •We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes. These classes are called "Parts Of Speech".
  12. 12. Eight parts of speech PARTS OF SPEECH ROLE EXAMPLES 1) Noun Nouns are naming words. Monday, Christmas, etc. 2) Adjective An adjective describes a noun or pronoun. Long, some, etc. 3) Pronoun Pronoun is used instead of a noun. He, she, It, etc. 4) Verb Verb is a doing word or a word which shows action. We can say that Verb is the motor that runs the sentence. Walk, keep, write, etc.
  13. 13. PARTS OF SPEECH ROLE EXAMPLES 6) Conjunction Joining words, which join two words or sentences. and, or, thus, etc. 7) Preposition Relates one thing to the other. at, on in, etc. 8) Interjection A word showing emotion or feeling. Hooray, Hi!, Ouch! Oh! Alas! etc. 9) Article Definite or Indefinite Article – a, an, the. A, an the.
  14. 14. Define: Parts Of speech •A term in traditional grammar for the eight categories into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences. Example: Articles, Nouns, Verbs, etc.
  15. 15. Exercise: A – Sentence structure • Identify every word of the sentence: 1) Mary and her brother look smart. 2) The train will arrive at the station. 3) Look at your book. 4) I eat a small sandwich with tea. 5) Please, make green tea for me.
  16. 16. Exercise: ‘b’ – subject, verb and predicate • Identify the Subject, verb and Predicate in the sentence: 1) Gopal drives very roughly. 2) I have a big balloon. 3) Sit outside. 4) I helped my mother. 5) Light the lamp.
  17. 17. EXERCISE ‘C’ COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING: a) My brother ___________________________________. b) Sometimes I _________________________________. c) Our house ___________________________________. d) The children _________________________________. e) Many students _______________________________. Follow the thumb rule: Subject + Verb + Predicate
  18. 18. WH questions
  19. 19. Which are the TYPES OF questions? •There are two types of questions. i) Yes-No Questions ii) WH-Questions •Question words are also called wh questions because they include the letters 'W' and 'H'. •There are eight wh-questions, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where and why and to this list we usually add how as they are all used to elicit (bring about) particular kinds of information.
  20. 20. USAGE AND MEANING OF WH- QUESTIONSQUESTION WORDS MEANING & USAGE EXAMPLE 1) Who Person Who is that? It is Ram. 2) Where Place Where do you live? 3) Why Reason Why do you sleep early? 4) When Time When should I call you? 5) How Manner How do you go?0 6) What Object, idea or action What do you do? 7) Which Choice – used for things Which one do you prefer? 8) Whose To show possession Whose book is this? 9) Whom Used for persons Whom did you meet?
  21. 21. FRAMING SIMPLE QUESTIONS: 1. If you ask about the subject of the sentence, simply add the question word at the beginning: •Example: •James writes good poems. — Who writes good poems? •Exercise ‘D’ make Questions: 1) Neha is my sister. 2) The bank opens at 8 o’clock. 3) He drank juice. 4) He discovered the truth. 5) Rohit likes to play Football.
  22. 22. EXERCISE ‘E’ – CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION 1. _____ are you? 2. _____ is your pen? 3. _____ are you crying? 4. _____ is the problem? 5. _____ will the train arrive? When What Why Who Which
  23. 23. SYNOMYMS •Define: synonym - Synonyms are words that have the same or very similar meaning. •Synonyms are different words that have the same meaning, or about the same. Many words have multiple synonyms depending on the part of speech. Some words are used to mean specific things, so their synonyms cannot always replace them. •Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. •Define: synonymy - The state of being a synonym is called synonymy.
  24. 24. Homophones, homographs, homonyms•Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation, but different meanings. For example, 'witch' and 'which' are homophones (because they are pronounced the same). •Homographs are words that the same spelling, but have different pronunciations. For example, ‘minute’, ‘tear’, ‘wind’, ‘wound’, etc. •Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation and spelling, but have different meanings. For example, 'rose' (a type of flower) and 'rose' (past tense of "rise") are homonyms.
  25. 25. List of synonyms WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM 1) Scream Yell Shout Shriek 2) Start Begin Commence 3) Help Aid Assist Support 4) Important Essential Vital Significant 5) Rubbish Garbage Trash Litter
  26. 26. WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM 6) Strange Odd Weird 7) Fake Unnatural Counterfeit Forged 8) Find Locate Seek Search 9) Wealthy Rich Well off Well-to-do 10) Submerge Sink Drown Immerse
  27. 27. WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM 11) Difficult Hard Challenging Tough 12) See Observe Look Watch 13) Grand Magnificent Majestic Splendid 14) Understand Comprehend Interpret Follow 15) Large Vast Huge Enormous
  28. 28. WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM 16) Betray Deceive Cheat Fool 17) Dangerous Risky Unsafe 18) Glad Happy Merry Joy 19) Real Genuine Authentic Actual 20) Famous Well-known Popular Renowned
  29. 29. WORD SYNONYM SYNONYM SYNONYM 21) Bold Daring Fearless Brave 22) Brief Concise Short Abridged 23) Category Classification Division Kind 24) Polite Courteous Well-mannered Civil 25) Decay Decline Rot Deterioration
  30. 30. EXERCISE ‘f’ GIVE SYNONYMS: 1) Find – 2) Fake – 3) Important 4) Grand – 5) Shout -
  31. 31. EXERCISE ‘G’ replace the underlined word with a synonym: 1) I understand the speaker. 2) It was a grand function. 3) I met a large group of foreigners. 4) He belongs to a wealthy family. 5) My neighbor is strange.
  32. 32. Recourses/References • www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.html • free-english-study.com/grammar/basic-sentence-structure.html • Advanced English Grammar by Wren and Martine

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