Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Packaging

51.172 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

This is about the different types of packaging...and which types of materials used for the packaging....thank u..

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • thnx sir
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier

Packaging

  1. 1. PACKAGING Name : Parth M. ka.patel Sem. : 2nd sem Roll no : 12 Materials science department Date : 24/2/2014 9/12/2014 1
  2. 2. Outline  What is Packaging?  Selection criteria for Packaging material  Characteristics of Packaging material  Uses of Packaging  Types of Packaging  1.Primary  2.Secondary 3.Tertiary  Types of Packaging material  1.glass  2.Metals  3.Rubber  4.Plastic  5.Fibrous materials  6.Films,Foils & Laminates  References 9/12/2014 2
  3. 3. PACKAGING  Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.  Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.  Packaging may also be defined as the collection of different components (e.g. bottle, vial, closure, cap, ampoule, blister) which surround the pharmaceutical product from the time of production until its use. 9/12/2014 3
  4. 4. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR PACKAGING MATERIAL There are many factors which need to consider when selecting a suitable type of pack for the product: •The product or pack contents •The application of the product •Content stability, and the need of protection from any environmental factors •Content reactivity ( with relevant to the packaging material) •Acceptibilty of the pack to the consumer or user The packaging process •Regulatory, legal and quality issues 9/12/2014 4
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PACKAGING MATERIAL: The material selected must have the following characteristics: •Must meet tamper-resistance requirements •Must be FDA approved •Must be non-toxic •Must not impart odor/taste to the product •Must not reactive with the product •They must protect the preparation from environmental conditions 9/12/2014 5
  6. 6. USES OF PACKAGING: •Physical protection: It protects from, among other things, mechanical shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge, compression, temperature, etc. •Information transmission: Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical products, some types of information are required by governments. •Marketing: The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. •Convenience: Packages can have features that add convenience in distribution, handling, display, sale, opening, re-closing, use, reuse, recycling, and ease of disposal. 9/12/2014 6
  7. 7. •Security: Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. Packages can be engineered to help reduce the risks of package pilferage. 9/12/2014 7
  8. 8. TYPES OF PACKAGING Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents. Examples: Ampoules,Vials ,Containers ,Dosing dropper ,Closures (plastic, metal) ,Syringe ,Strip package, Blister packaging. 9/12/2014 8
  9. 9. Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging – perhaps used to group primary packages together. Example: Paper and boards, Cartons ,Corrugated fibers ,Box manufacture) 9/12/2014 9
  10. 10. Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling , warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers. 9/12/2014 10
  11. 11. TYPES OF PACKAGING MATERIAL I) Glass II) Metals III) Rubbers IV) Plastics V) Fibrous material VI) Films, Foils and laminates 9/12/2014 11
  12. 12. GLASS: Glass has been widely used as a drug packaging material. Glass is composed of sand, soda ash, limestone,& cullet. Si, Al, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn & Ba are generally used into preparation of glass 9/12/2014 12
  13. 13. 9/12/2014 13 Advantages • They are hygienic and suitable for sterilization • They are relatively non reactive ( depending on the grade chosen) • It can accept a variety of closures • They can be used on high speed packaging lines • They are transparent. • They have good protection power. • They can be easily labeled. DISADVANTAGES • It is relatively heavy • Glass is fragile so easily broken. • Release alkali to aqueous preparation
  14. 14. METALS  Metal containers are used solely for medicinal products for non-parenteral administration.  Metal is strong, opaque, impermeable to moisture, gases, odors, light, bacteria, and shatterproof, it is the ideal packaging material for pressurized containers.  It is resistant to high and low temperatures  They include tubes, packs made from foil or blisters, cans, and aerosol and gas cylinders.  Aluminium and stainless steel are the metals of choice for both primary and secondary packaging for medicinal products.  Form an excellent tamper evident containers. 9/12/2014 14
  15. 15. For e.g. ALUMINIUM • Thickest aluminium is used for rigid containers such as aerosol cans and tubes for effervescent tablets. • Intermediate thickness are when mechanical integrity is still important but the pack should be capable of being reformed under a reasonable force. e.g. Collapsible tubes for semi solid preparations or roll on screw caps. • Thinnest aluminium is used in flexible foil that are usually a component of laminated packaging material. 9/12/2014 15
  16. 16. RUBBERS (Elastomers): • Excellent material for forming seals, used to form closures such as bungs for vials or in similar applications such as gaskets in aerosol cans. Categories of Rubbers: 1) Natural rubbers; • Suitable for multiple use closures for injectable products as rubber reseals after multiple insertion of needle. • Disadvantages are; i. It doesn't well tolerate multiple autoclaving becoming brittle and leads to relative degree of extractable material in presence of additives. ii. Risk of product absorbing on or in to a rubber. iii. It has certain degree of moisture & gas permeation. 9/12/2014 16
  17. 17. 2) Synthetic rubber: • Have fewer additives and thus fewer extractable and tends to experience less sorption of product ingredients. • Are less suitable for repeated insertions of needle because they tend to fragment or core pushing small particles of the rubber in to the product. • E.g. Silicone, butyl, bromobutyl, chlorobutyl etc. • Silicone is least reactive but it does experience permeability to moisture and gas. Softer rubbers experience less coring and reseal better, harder rubbers are easier to process on high speed packaging lines. 9/12/2014 17
  18. 18. PLASTICS Classes of plastics: There are two classes of plastics, reflecting the behavior with respect to individual or repeated exposure to heating and cooling. 1. Thermoplastics 2. Thermosets Thermoplastics Capable of being shaped after initial heating and solidifying by cooling. Resistant to breakage and cheap to produce and providing the right plastics are chosen will provide the necessary protection of the product in an attractive containers. E.g. Polystyrene, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. 9/12/2014 18
  19. 19. 9/12/2014 19 Thermosets They need heat for processing into a permanent shape. During heating such materials form permanent crosslinks between the linear chains, resulting in solidification and loss of plastic flow. E.g. Phenolic, urea and melamine are representative of thermosets. Uses Used for many types of pack including; rigid bottles for tablets and capsules, squeezable bottles for eye drops and nasal sprays, jars, flexible tubes and strip and blister packs.
  20. 20. Advantages • Least expensive than glasses • Ease of transportation • No risk of breakage • Flexible • Light in weight Disadvantages • They are not as chemically inert . • They are not as impermeable to gas and vapour as glass. • They may possess an electrostatic charge which will attract particles. 9/12/2014 20
  21. 21. FIBROUS MATERIALS  The fibrous materials are the important part of pharmaceutical packaging.  Fibrous materials include: Papers, Labels, Cartons, Bags, Outers, Trays For Shrink Wraps, Layer Boards On Pallets, etc. Paper Corrugated Fiber board 9/12/2014 21
  22. 22. Cont…..  The Applications as well as Advantages of Cartons include:  Increases display area  Provides better stacking for display of stock items  Assembles leaflets  Provides physical protection especially to items like 9/12/2014 22 metal collapsible tubes.  Fiberboard outers either as solid or corrugated board also find substantial application for bulk shipments.  Regenerated cellulose film, trade names Cellophane & Rayophane, is used for either individual cartons or to assemble a no. of cartons.
  23. 23. FOILS,FILMS & LAMINATES FOILS: The most important metal for pharmaceutical application is aluminium. FILMS Cellophane is an attractive transparent film which can be colored and printed upon so it useful as outer wrap. LAMINATES Laminates are used to combine the properties of individual foil and films and strictly are made by bonding the layer with adhesive. 23 4/5/2011 9/12/2014 23
  24. 24. • Uses of films, foils, laminations:  Strip packs  Blister packs  Diaphragm seals for bottles  Liners for boxes either attached or loose bag-in-box systems & bags. • Foil blisters:  When sealed with a metal foil-cover, the blister can provide a hermetic pack i.e. an isolated system, which excludes any exchange of gases between the product & surrounding atmosphere. 9/12/2014 24
  25. 25. BLISTER PACK Blister packs are commonly used as unit dose packaging for pharmaceutical tablets, capsules.  Blister packs consist of two principal components :  1) a formed base web creating the cavity inside which the product fits and  2) the lidding foil for dispensing the product out of the pack.  There are two types of forming the cavity into a base web sheet: thermoforming and cold forming 9/12/2014 25
  26. 26. 9/12/2014 26 Thermoforming In the case of thermoforming, a plastic film or sheet is unwound from the reel and guided though a pre-heating station on the blister line The temperature of the pre-heating plates (upper and lower plates) is such that the plastic will soften and become moldable.
  27. 27. • Cold forming • In the case of cold forming, an aluminum-based laminate film is simply pressed into a mold by means of a stamp. • The aluminum will be elongated and maintain the formed shape. • Advantage of cold form foil blisters is that the use of aluminum is offering a near complete barrier for water and oxygen, allowing an extended product expiry date. • The disadvantages of cold form foil blisters are the slower speed of production compared to thermoforming and the lack of transparency of the package and the larger size of the blister card 9/12/2014 27
  28. 28.  Aluminium Foils for Blister Packing  Aluminium Foil suitable for blister packing of Pharmaceutical Products such as Tablet, Capsules, etc. 9/12/2014 28
  29. 29. STRIP PACKING  It is commonly used for the packaging of tablets and capsules. A strip package is formed by feeding two webs of a heat sealable flexible film through a heated crimping roller .The product is dropped into the pocket formed before forming the final set of seals. A continuous strip of packets is formed which is cut to the desired number of packets in length.  The materials used for strip package are cellophane, polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride. 9/12/2014 29
  30. 30. SYMBOLS USED ON PACKAGES AND LABELS Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized. For product certifications, trademarks, proof of purchase, etc. identification code . Fragile This way up Keep away from sunlight Keep away from water 9/12/2014 30
  31. 31. References:  Mehta R.M., “Pharmaceutics- 1”Published by vallabh prakashan, delhi, 2nd edition.  Lachman leon, Lieberman Herbert A., Kanig Joseph L., “The theory & practice of industrial pharmacy” published by Varghese publishing house, bombay, 3rd edition,1991.  www.google.com (images) 9/12/2014 31
  32. 32. 9/12/2014 32

×