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Resolution Dispute 0010 : Genealogy vs. /his/tory

Resolution Dispute 0010 : Genealogy vs. /his/tory
Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester.

Slides of the Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester by Rosa Menkman.
From the course "Beyond Resolution".

To establish a better understanding of our technologies, we need to acknowledge that the term »resolution« does not just refer to a numerical quantity or a measure of acutance. A resolution involves the result of a consolidation between interfaces, protocols, and materialities. Resolutions thus also entail a space of compromise between these different actors.

Resolutions are the determination of what is run, read, and seen, and what is not. In a way, resolutions form a lens of (p)reprogrammed »truths.« But their actions and the qualities have moved beyond a fold of our perspectives; and we have gradually become blind to the politics of these congealed and hardened compromises. Technology and its inherent resolutions are never neutral; every time a new way of seeing is created, a new prehistory is being written.

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Resolution Dispute 0010 : Genealogy vs. /his/tory

  1. 1. From Artefact to effect. Critical Glitch art used to exploit medium-reflexivity, to rhetorically question technologies ‘perfect’ use, conventions and expectations. However, over time glitch art has become a genre that also fulfils certain expectations in itself (for instance, to rhetorically question the medium). This reflexive approach has become inherent to the materiality of the glitch and tends to, as Katherine Hayles would assert, re-conceptualize the glitches’ materiality into an interplay between its ‘physical characteristics and its signifying strategies’. To really understand a work from the genre of glitch art completely, each level of the notion of (glitch) materiality should be studied: the text as a physical artefact, its conceptual content, and the interpretive activities of artists and audience.
  2. 2. The glitch art genre thus relies heavily on the literacy of the spectator (it references media technology texts, aesthetics and machinic processes) and their knowledge of more ‘conventional’ canons of media-reflexive, modern art. Former disturbances have gained complex meaning beyond their technological value; with the help of popular culture, their effects have transformed into signifiers loaded with affect. For example, analogue noise conjures up the sense of an eerie, invisible power entering the frame (sometimes a ghost, or another paranormal activity), while block-artifacts often refer to time travel while monochrome data often refers to a data offence initiated by a hacker. Today a glitch prompts the spectator to engage not only with themes, but also with complex subcultural and meta-cultural narratives and gestures, presenting new analytical challenges.
  3. 3. The render ghosts’ affect, or: A Vernacular of Glitch ‘Affect’
  4. 4. Referencing a Vernacular of File Formats, a Lexicon to the Render Ghosts’s Affect offers insight into the ‘meaning’ of particular glitch aesthetics applied in popular culture, by analysing the use of distortion in the top 50 US Grossing Sci-Fi Titles Released per year. A handbook to navigate glitch clichés as employed in popular culture.
  5. 5. Watching the trailers of the top 20 Top-US—Grossing Sci-Fi Titles Released between 1998 and 2018 (the last 20 years), as indexed by the IMDB, to see if there is such a thing as a ‘Vernacular of Glitch Affect’ and if so, how this genre developed.
  6. 6. in Ringu (1998), the television signal features an analogue distortion as the ghost of Sadako crawls out of a well.
  7. 7. In The Matrix (1999), a film that features a lot of monochrome / hacker esthetics, Agent Smith specifically and directly informs Neo that Morpheus is at the top of the wanted list for “terrorism”.
  8. 8. The Matrix (1999). Monochrome vertical data streams signify the presence of hackers in the Matrix.
  9. 9. “The machines are starting to take over!” is uttered when T-X knocks out the terminator. A combination of what seems like digital and analogue, monochrome red distortions cover the ‘interface’ of the Terminators point of view as he goes down. Terminator: 3 Rise of the Machines (2003)
  10. 10. During a fighting scene between Electro, who has the ability to control electricity, and Spiderman, the billboards of Times Square go all glitchy. ÷ The Amazing Spider-Man™ 2 (2014) was shot on KODAK VISION3 Color Negative Film.
  11. 11. During the fight scene between Spider man and Electro, all the bill boards glitch and finally explode, while Kodak is the of the last billboards left standing.
  12. 12. From ‘Cool’ to ‘Hot’ Glitch artefacts In the ‘Biggest Loser (2012)’, a reality television show about losing weight, a margie cummins’ ‘snacking’ is framed via video noise artefacts that have become a trope: they emulate an ‘unstable’ signal that signifies that her snacking is ‘secret’ and ‘bad’.
  13. 13. The Verizon logo (an American telecommunications company) glitches when it is featured as one of the sponsors during the 2015 MTV music awards.
  14. 14. Diesel Creates Glitch Invitations for 2015 Fashion Show
  15. 15. Wreck-It Ralph, (2o12) introduces a character Vanellope, also known as ‘glitch’. Vanellope is a pixelating programming mistake in the candy-coated kart-racing game Sugar Rush.
  16. 16. Blade Runner 2049 (2017) Title sequence takes place in an eerie, low saturated environment featuring glitched out logos. Vade’s software toolkit was used in the opening studio title sequence created by Toros Kose. The sequence emulates the looks of GPU and CPU memory errors.
  17. 17. In The Truman Show (1998), an insurance salesman/adjuster discovers his entire life is actually a television show. We often see pieces of video shot with interlacing, and a strong Vignetting, implying that it is shot by a camera part of the television show.
  18. 18. Legacy Russel vs Beautifulwhites.com The same glitch aesthetics, color shifts in the red and blue channel and the dislocation of particular color blocks, are used in Legacy Russel ’s glitch feminism manifesto and as part of racist Memes on the Alt-Right website beautifulwhites.com
  19. 19. 5. The gospel of glitch art also tells about new standards implemented by corruption. *Glitch Studies Manifesto 2010 Not all glitch art is progressive or something new. The popularization and cultivation of the avant-garde of mishaps has become predestined and unavoidable. Be aware of easily reproducible glitch effects automated by softwares and plug-ins. What is now a glitch will become a fashion.
  20. 20. New Aesthetic James Bridle: “the increasing appearance of the visual language of digital technology and the Internet in the physical world, and the blending of virtual and physical”
  21. 21. I first noticed the Render Ghosts on the hoardings surrounding a new development near Finsbury Square. On the balconies of some vast, virtual tower, two pixelated figures looked out over a darkened London, a perfect red-pink gradient sunset behind them. He had short dark hair and stubble, wore a black jacket and blue jeans. She had a cropped red bob, white jacket, and a purple knee-length skirt. I didn’t know who they were, but I started seeing them everywhere. - James Bridle, 2013.
  22. 22. A genealogy of the use of Macroblocks - specifically datamoshing - in moving image.
  23. 23. “The poor image is no longer about the real thing—the originary original. Instead, it is about its own real conditions of existence: about swarm circulation, digital dispersion, fractured and flexible temporalities. It is about defiance and appropriation just as it is about conformism and exploitation. In short: it is about reality.” - Hito Steyerl, 2009.
  24. 24. Colorado Impression 10a (after Dan Hays, Colorado) 2002, oil on canvas, 152 x 203cm
  25. 25. Dan Hays/Self-Portrait 2005, oil on canvas, 76 x 203cm
  26. 26. Thomas Ruff's JPEGs series (2004-2007) consists of enlarged, low-resolution images from the web, creating monumental ‘tableaus’ of highly pixilated and blurred views. The images are author less, anonymous and generic documents or appropriated readymades
  27. 27. Bertrand Planes, divxprime: 2004-2007. Divxprime is a modified video codec, installed and used like any other classic codec. It was programmed from sources Xvid (open source version of Divx). The interface proposes several modifications, some of the settings generated original graphic effects peculiar to the mpeg4 algorithm.
  28. 28. Sven Koenig, APpRoPiRaTe!: 2005. APpRoPiRaTe! is an attempt to appropriate movies found in file-sharing networks and turn them into art by revealing the real nature of such video files. This software's aim is to hack a found video file by just changing the structure of the file to turn it into something visually completely different without any video processing. The technical aspect of the idea is inspired by a bug I've encountered in a media player when testing downloaded movie files.
  29. 29. !mediengruppe bitnik and sven könig, .download finished: 2005. download finished transforms and re-publishes films from p2p networks and online archives. found footage becomes the rough material for the transformation machine, which translates the underlying data structure of the films onto the surface of the screen. the original images dissolve into pixels, thus making the hidden data structure visible. through download finished, file sharers become authors by re-interpreting their most beloved films.
  30. 30. Nicolas Maigret, The Pirate Cinema: 2012-2014.
  31. 31. The Presets, Are You the One: 2005.
  32. 32. Venetian Snares, Szamar Madar (2005)
  33. 33. Takeshi Murata, pink dot: 2007.
  34. 34. Paper Rad, umbrella zombie mistake: 2007.
  35. 35. “On C is a short PDF that explains why JPEGs look the way they do. These kinda documents are quite common around the internet (it seems many CS departments require students to make them) so it was really an exercise in understanding it myself.” - Arcangel. On C.
  36. 36. Chairlift, Evident Utensil: 2009.
  37. 37. Kanye West, Welcome to Heartbreak: 2009.
  38. 38. Datamosher, How to Datamosh: 2009.
  39. 39. Paul B. Davis, Define your Terms: 2009.
  40. 40. Paul B. Davis, Codec: 2010.
  41. 41. Nick Briz: A New Ecology for the Citizen of a Digital Age, 2009.
  42. 42. Yung Jake, E.m-bed.de/d: 2012. The screen becomes a display - an environment featuring interactive windows.
  43. 43. Samuel H Goldstein, Goldmosh: 2012.
  44. 44. Enda o’Donoghue. Discrete (2012) Oil on Canvas, 30x30cm. His “work presents a forensic interest into the construction, the language and the mediated world of digital images together with an ongoing dialogue with the medium and process of painting.”
  45. 45. Ted Davis, FFD8: 2012. “Revealing both the surface and the structure of the very latest Flickr uploaded image, it allows the used to find and replace all instances of one particular HEX byte, therefore glitching the stream as it comes in.”
  46. 46. David OReilly: A Glitch is A Glitch, 2013.
  47. 47. Karolina Sus. Die Hure N. 2013. 309 oil paintings, sound from sonified paintings.
  48. 48. Donald Trump's Argument For America: 2016.
  49. 49. Donald Trump's Argument For America: 2016.
  50. 50. (ᴳ̐litch) Art Genealogies *19.03.2113 - 23.03.2113, curated in collaboration with LEAP Berlin. An effort to show just five of the many threaded glitch discourses that play a role in the curators subjective understanding of glitch art at this present. In these threads, generations of different communities of (visual) glitch artists and their working methods, conceptual themes and politics are (inter)connected and/or juxtaposed.
  51. 51. Rosa Menkman, Glitch Timond, 2014. In A Vernacular of Glitch ‘Affect’, I tried to illustrate my collection of noise tropes from popular culture. Here dither is co-opted by the punks, green and black binary code refers to hacker action, macroblocking signifies AI and analogue noise implies the presence of ghosts etc.