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Resolution Dispute 0001 : Materiality

Resolution Dispute 0001 : Materiality
Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester.

Slides of the Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester by Rosa Menkman.
From the course "Beyond Resolution".

To establish a better understanding of our technologies, we need to acknowledge that the term »resolution« does not just refer to a numerical quantity or a measure of acutance. A resolution involves the result of a consolidation between interfaces, protocols, and materialities. Resolutions thus also entail a space of compromise between these different actors.

Resolutions are the determination of what is run, read, and seen, and what is not. In a way, resolutions form a lens of (p)reprogrammed »truths.« But their actions and the qualities have moved beyond a fold of our perspectives; and we have gradually become blind to the politics of these congealed and hardened compromises. Technology and its inherent resolutions are never neutral; every time a new way of seeing is created, a new prehistory is being written.

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Resolution Dispute 0001 : Materiality

  1. 1. The first time I encountered a work of glitch art was when I saw Jodi: http://www.wrongbrowser.org/, 2001.
  2. 2. I later wrote my master thesis on Jodi: UNTITLED GAME: Ctrl- F6. 1996. Videogame Mod Executable.
  3. 3. These works by Jodi were the first works of digital Glitch Art that inspired me to work in the ways I still do today. Technological definition of glitch: A short lived fault or break from an expected flow of operation within a digital system. Glitch Art The metaphorical, conceptual or Aesthetic use of technological glitches and other resolutions.
  4. 4. The Glitch Moment(um) Network Notebooks 04, Institute of Network Cultures, 2011. ISBN: 978-90-816021-6-7. I also wrote about Glitch Studies Studies of glitch (noise, bug, error) in technology Studies of glitch (accident, flaw, break) in art history Studies of the ‘glitch communities’ and ‘glitch ecologies’ Studies of glitch tactics && politics and glitch artefacts as aesthetic trope
  5. 5. GLI.TC/H READER[ROR] 20111 editors: Nick Briz, Evan Meaney, Rosa Menkman, William Robertson, Jon Satrom, Jessica Westbrook. Publisher: Unsorted Books. ISBN: 978-4-9905200-1-411-11-11.
  6. 6. And co-organised GLI.TC/H 2010 - 2112 with Nick Briz, Jon Satrom (2010: w/Evan Meaney, 2112: w/Antonio Roberts)
  7. 7. Nick Briz, Thoughts on Glitch[Art] (v1.0 2009 / v2.0 2015)
  8. 8. jon.Satrom: plugin-beachball-success, 2012.
  9. 9. Materiality Postmodern literary critic Katherine Hayles writes that rather than thinking of the mediums’ material as fixed in physicality, a re-definition of materiality is useful because it can open the possibility for considering any text as an embodied entity, while still maintaining a central focus on interpretation. In this view of materiality, a work is not merely an inert collection of physical properties but a dynamic entity that emerges from the interplay between the text as a physical artifact, its conceptual content, and the interpretive activities of readers and writers. Reflections on materiality should not just take place on a technological level. To fully understand an artwork, each level of materiality should be studied: the physical and technological artifact, its conceptual content, and the interpretive activities of reader, artist and audience. [the choice of any] digital material is not innocent or meaningless. With enough knowledge of the material, an investigation into digital materiality can uncover stories about the origin and history of the material, by others.
  10. 10. Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. "lossy" compression is a data encoding method which compresses data by discarding (losing) parts of the documents original. Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  11. 11. The modern binary number system, the basis for binary code, was invented by Gottfried Leibniz in 1689 and appears in his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire and uses only the characters 1 and 0. Binary systems predating Leibniz also existed in the ancient world. Leibniz encountered the I Ching, which dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary system of the I Ching, a text for divination, is based on the duality of yin and yang. Another mathematician and philosopher by the name of George Boole published a paper in 1847 called 'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic' that describes an algebraic system of logic, now known as Boolean algebra. Boole’s system was based on binary, a yes-no, on-off approach that consisted of the three most basic operations: AND, OR, and NOT. Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  12. 12. The boolean system was not put into use until Claude Shannon (a graduate student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology) noticed that the Boolean algebra he learned was similar to an electric circuit. Shannon wrote a thesis in 1937, which implemented these findings. Shannon's thesis became a starting point for the use of the binary code in practical applications such as computers, electric circuits, and more. Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  13. 13. A raster image ( vs. vector image) is a data structure generally represented by a rectangular grid of pixels (or a bitmap). Technically, a bitmap is characterized by a certain amount of pixels defining the images width and height AND the amount of bits per pixel that defines the images color depth. Gamut: the possible different color representations. When an image has a relatively low color depth, the stored color value is typically a number represented within an index of a color map or palette. Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  14. 14. Image glitching: Imagebending (reversible) vs databending (irreversible)? Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  15. 15. 8bits = 1byte A binary file = a file shown as a sequence of bytes. a file often contains formatting information. compiled the file can be run as for instance form a program, or any other kind of file format. A HEX editor such as 0xED can be used to view file data as a sequence of hexadecimal (or decimal, binary or ASCII character) values for corresponding bytes of a binary file. If a binary file is opened in a text editor, each group of eight bits will typically show as single character. The whole file will probably look like an (illegible) display of textual characters. If the file is opened in some other application, that application will have its own use for each byte: maybe the application will treat each byte as a number and output a stream of numbers between 0 and 255 — or maybe interpret the numbers in the bytes as colors and display the corresponding picture. Define Your Material(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show)
  16. 16. Corey Schafer: Understanding Binary, Hex, Decimal and more, 2014.
  17. 17. 0xED A hex editor (or binary file editor or byte editor) is a type of computer program that allows for manipulation of the fundamental binary data that constitutes a computer file.
  18. 18. Import the same RAW data into Audacity and the music software will interpret it (backwards). A simple 6 pixel wide RGB rainbow created in Photoshop (0-header, 3 channel, interleaved) for instance - can be transcoded into anything, depending the softwares that process it. For more speculation we should consider a “Rheology of Data” A rheology of data involves an exploration of the fluidity of data, or how we can keep data ‘leaky’ and ‘unstable’. These are just two features that are often compromised (precluded) by (proprietary) softwares. However, the act of Syphoning data is important for instance as critique on the constricting and exclusive architectures created by the platforms. HTML: ÿÿ ÿ ÿÿÿ ÿÿ ÿ Hexcode: FF0000 FF00FF 0000FF 00FFFF 00FF00 FFFF00
  19. 19. Beflix, 29 PARALLEL STRIPES, 2011. The art is [therefore] a one-dimensional data stream, in which all synchronisation cues between the data and the two-dimensional rendering surface are absent. Thus, any two-dimensional rendering of the data is merely one of infinitely many possible choices.
  20. 20. Header: the data placed at the beginning of a block of data (in this case the image) being stored or transmitted. interleaved vs non-interleaved The interleaved raw format stores its RGB datargbrgbrgbrgbrgbrgbrgbrgbrgb A planar (non-interleaved) format stores its data:rrrrrrrrrgggggggggbbbbbbbbb Photoshop RAW flat binary (header = 0)
  21. 21. Photoshop RAW flat binary (header = 0) A channel is the grayscale image of the same size as a color image, made of just one of these primary colors. For instance, an image from a standard digital camera will have a red, green and blue channel. A grayscale image has just one channel.
  22. 22. Wordpad effect pietjepuk666 & Stallio: (open as unicode - mac os Roman) does at least two things to a binary file. “I've found that Wordpad does at least two things to a binary file; it replaces byte 07 (ascii: BEEP) with 20 - a space - , and it replaces every lonely 0A or 0D (line feed - end of line - and carriage return - new line of text - respectively) and also 0B (vertical tab) with the bytes "0D 0A". So the rate of glitching is probably dependent on how dark the picture is, since low bytes like these give dark pixels (i suppose). in short: everytime it adds one byte.” BMP BMP is an uncompressed file format. imagebending vs databending
  23. 23. Define Your Terms(or: Kanye West Fucked Up My Show) BMP (16)
  24. 24. BMP (32)
  25. 25. GIF (8bit color depth, interlaced - 2f replaced for c0) Graphics Interchange Format is a bitmap image format that supports 8 bits per pixel and can thus consist of no more then 256 colors. The format supports animation. Dither (the grainy blocky artifacts) is an intentionally applied form of noise used to “randomize quantization error”; the difference between the actual analog value and quantized digital value. This error is caused by truncation (the discarding of less significant information).Dither thus helps to prevent from large- scale patterns such as "banding" (stepwise rendering of smooth gradations in brightness or hue). Moreover, the not available colors are approximated because the human eye perceives the diffusion as a mixture of the colors. This creates the illusion of color depth.
  26. 26. GIF (8bit color depth, interlaced - 2f replaced for c0) The gif format uses a 4 pass one dimensional interlacing strategy. This means that one half of the image, consisting of every other row of pixels is rendered after the other half. In the image on the left this shows through a gradual displacement during weaving (the putting together of the two layers), which resulted in a second “ghost image” (or combing artifacts with jagged edges).
  27. 27. GIF (1bit color depth)
  28. 28. GIF (1bit color depth, non-interlaced - 2f replaced for c0)
  29. 29. GIF (1bit color depth, interlaced)
  30. 30. Daniel Temkin, Dither Studies: 2011.
  31. 31. PNG (8bit color depth, interlaced - 2f replaced for c0) PNG is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless data compression and offers a 7-pass 2-dimensional interlacing scheme—the Adam7 algorithm. This is more sophisticated than GIF's 1-dimensional, 4-pass scheme, and often allows for a clearer low-resolution image to be visible earlier in the transfer. This is visible in image 1 which just passed its first stage of the 7 part interlacing scheme. In this stage a part of the image is rendered almost flawless, while the further it gets rendered, the more the corrupted data becomes visible.
  32. 32. PNG (24 bits)
  33. 33. PSD
  34. 34. A JPG compression consists of 6 subsequent steps: 1. Color space transformation 2. Downsampling 3. Block splitting 4. Discrete cosine transform 5. Quantization 6. Entropy coding LOSSY: JPG
  35. 35. 1. Initially, images have to be transformed from the RGB color space to another color space (called Y′CbCr), Here the Y refers to the luma or brightness and the Cb and Cr values stand for the chroma or color values for the blue and the red channel. 2. Because the human eye doesn’t perceives small differences within the Cb and Cr space very well, these elements are downsampled. 3. After the color space transformation, the image is split into tiles or macroblocks. Rectangular regions of the image that are transformed and encoded separately. 4. Next, a Discrete Cosine Transform (which works similar to the Fourier Transform function, exploited in datamoshing and macroblock studies) is used to create a frequency spectrum, to transform the 8×8 blocks to a combination of the 64 two-dimensional DCT basis functions or patterns (as differentiated by the red lines). 5. During the Quantization step, the highest brightness-frequency variations become a base line (or 0-value), while small positive and negative frequency differentiations get a value, which take many fewer bits to represent.
  36. 36. Because the RGB color values are described in such a complex algorithms, some random data replacement often results into dramatic discoloration and other effects. The very high compression ratio of this jpg effects the quality of the image and the size of the artifacts. When using quantization with block-based coding, as in these JPEG- compressed images, several types of often unwanted artifacts can appear, for instance ringing or ghosting. In the bend image to the left, the low quality and corruption have made these artifacts more apparent. 6. finally, entropy coding is applied. Entropy coding is a special form of lossless data compression that involves arranging the image components in a "zigzag" order. This allows the quantized coefficient table to be rewritten in a zigzag order to a sequence of frequencies. A run-length encoding (RLE) algorithm groups similar frequencies together and after that, via "Huffman coding" organizes what is left.
  37. 37. While sequential encoding (or baseline) encodes coefficients of a single block at a time (in a zigzag manner), progressive encoding encodes similar-positioned coefficients of all blocks in one go, followed by the next positioned coefficients of all blocks, and so on. JPG (progressive)
  38. 38. JPG (baseline standard)
  39. 39. JPG (baseline optimized)
  40. 40. JPG 2000 The JPEG 2000 standard was mainly developed because of the many edge and blocking artifacts of the JPG format. JPEG 2000 has “improved scalability and edit-ability”. In JPG 2000, after the color transformation step, the image is split into so-called tiles, rectangular regions of the image that are transformed and encoded separately. Tiles can be any size, and it is also possible to consider the whole image as one single tile. This results into a collection of sub-bands which represent several approximation scales.
  41. 41. TARGA The gif format uses a 4 pass one dimensional interlacing strategy. This means that one half of the image, consisting of every other row of pixels is rendered after the other half. In the image on the left this shows through a gradual displacement during weaving (the putting together of the two layers), which resulted in a second “ghost image” (or combing artifacts with jagged edges).
  42. 42. TARGA (C replaced for F5)
  43. 43. TIFF (ZIP, Interleaved - m substituted for r)
  44. 44. Rosa Menkman, A Vernacular of File Formats: 2010.
  45. 45. Rosa Menkman, A Vernacular of File Formats, 2010. By compressing the source image via a different compression language and subsequently implementing a same (or similar) error into each file, the otherwise invisible compression language presents itself on the surface of the image.
  46. 46. Rosa Menkman and Johan Larsby, Monglot, 2011. Mongrel: Animal from a mixed background, bastard, crossbreed. Monoglot: (person) knowing one language only. Glitch transcoding software that automates the transcoding of the same error within different file formats, to visualize compression languages.
  47. 47. Nick Briz, Glitch Codec Tutorial: 2010-2011. This tutorial is equal parts workshop and artist lecture the subject of which is "glitch art." Glitch art is the aestheticization, recognition, and/or instigation of a glitch, a break and/or disruption of the expected flow of a system.
  48. 48. EXTRAFILE Kim Asendorf, ExtraFile: 2011. ExtraFile is conceptual software art but with a practical usage. Its main intention is to wiggle the static system of image file formats. All started with the idea of inventing a new image file format, a format as a piece of art. Far away from the mainstream and commercial standards. Just to express the feeling of using and saving data in a new, fictitious or artificial way. Getting the filename extension into the scope of the artwork itself. In simple terms: Creating an exclusivity. The freedom not to have to pay attention to the file size or the loading and saving times provides the option to implement artistically byte orders, odd quality behaviors and visual designed formats.
  49. 49. Kim Asendorf, Extrafile, 2011. “New image file formats for artistic purposes. Digital artists and collectors deserve exclusive formats to personalize their files, including custom headers and comments. In an Extrafile, every bit can be placed and compressed in the way the artist prefers it.” - Kim Asendorf.
  50. 50. BLINX Bascii from: Extrafile.