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Resolution Dispute 0000 : Habitual, Evil Media
Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester.
Slides of the Kunst Hochschule Kassel New Media Slides Summer Semester by Rosa Menkman.
From the course "Beyond Resolution".
To establish a better understanding of our technologies, we need to acknowledge that the term »resolution« does not just refer to a numerical quantity or a measure of acutance. A resolution involves the result of a consolidation between interfaces, protocols, and materialities. Resolutions thus also entail a space of compromise between these different actors.
Resolutions are the determination of what is run, read, and seen, and what is not. In a way, resolutions form a lens of (p)reprogrammed »truths.« But their actions and the qualities have moved beyond a fold of our perspectives; and we have gradually become blind to the politics of these congealed and hardened compromises. Technology and its inherent resolutions are never neutral; every time a new way of seeing is created, a new prehistory is being written.
“A glitch reveals itself as political when it reminds us that
technologies are not neutral tools, but rather are symptoms of our
worldview and cultural norms: when encryption breaks, leaking
user credentials – how have we come to view privacy?”
- Cloninger, Curt. One Per Year, 2014.
Updating to Remain the Same, 2016. Wendy Chun.
“Habit is not the same as instinct, habit is a learned action that becomes
automatic. Crucially, habit is always something you learn from others, or in
response to the environment. […]
I understand habit as the scar of others within the self. […]
Habits internalise the external; they remain by disappearing from memory.”
Settings either ossify as requirements and de facto standards, or are
notated as norms by standardizing organizations, such as the
International Organization for Standardization. This is what we call
The International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) (1926)
ISA was suspended in 1942 during World War II, and re-Founded on 23 February 1947
as ISO with new headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), uses a
7-bit binary code to represent text and other characters within computers,
communications equipment, and other devices. Each letter or symbol is
assigned a number from 0 to 127. For example, lowercase "a" is
represented by 1100001 as a bit string (which is 97 in decimal). UTF-8,
dominantly used by websites (over 90%), uses one byte for the first 128
code points, and up to 4 bytes for other characters.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding,
representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's
writing systems. While ASCII is limited to 128 characters, Unicode has a
much wider array of characters and as such, it supplements ISO/IEC 8859
ASCII was incorporated into the Unicode (1991) character set as the first
128 symbols, so the 7-bit ASCII characters have the same numeric codes
in both sets. This allows UTF-8 to be backward compatible with 7-bit
ASCII, as a UTF-8 file containing only ASCII characters is identical to an
ASCII file containing the same sequence of characters.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added
to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from
The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of
the letters to which they are added.
In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions. Vowel
pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat ( َـ, ُـ, ِـ, etc.) and the Hebrew niqqud ( ַ◌, ֶ◌,
ִ◌, ֹ◌, ֻ◌, etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet.
The Indic virama ( ◌् etc.) and the Arabic sukūn ( ْــ ) mark the absence of vowel.
Cantillation marks indicate prosody. Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke ( ◌҃ )
and the Hebrew gershayim ( ,) ״ which, respectively, mark abbreviations or acronyms,
and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used
as numerals. In the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are
used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.
In the following example, there is a common Swedish surname Åström written in the two
alternative methods, the first one with a precomposed Å (U+00C5) and ö (U+00F6),
and the second one using a decomposed base letter A (U+0041) with a combining ring
above (U+030A) and an o (U+006F) with a combining diaeresis (U+0308).
Åström (U+00C5 U+0073 U+0074 U+0072 U+00F6 U+006D)
Åström (U+0041 U+030A U+0073 U+0074 U+0072 U+006F U+0308 U+006D)
Except for the different colors, the two solutions are equivalent and should render
identically. In practice, however, some Unicode implementations still have difficulties with
decomposed characters. In the worst case, combining diacritics may be disregarded or
rendered as unrecognized characters after their base letters, as they are not included in
all fonts. To overcome the problems, some applications may simply attempt to replace
the decomposed characters with the equivalent precomposed characters.
Tibetan Alphabet and its use of consonant clusters
The unique aspect of the Tibetan script is that the consonants can be written as radicals
(sounded out with the root of the tongue), or other forms, such as subscript and
superscript, in these cases forming consonant clusters.
To understand how this works, one can look at the radical ཀ /ka/ and see what happens
when it becomes " /kra/ or # /rka/. In both cases, the symbol for ཀ /ka/ is used, but
when the ར /ra/ is in the middle of the consonant and vowel, it is added as a subscript.
On the other hand, when the ར /ra/ comes before the consonant and vowel, it is added as
a superscript. ར /ra/ actually changes form when it is above most other consonants; thus #
Some of these glyphs are called ‘diacritics’
“@crashtxt / exq=.s.te =n.c&de/s” by Jim Punk, 2012.
exq=.s.te =n.c&de/s .../txt #glitch #scratch #twitterart #unicodes
#keyboard GOTO ▶▶▶ & ⌨ crashtxt/
Net artist JimPunk’s unicode keyboard, which also includes emoji, allows
users to type the characters in any combination and submit it to the
main twitter feed of crashtxt as a form of Unicode art (in the material
tradition of ASCII and ANSI art).
Library of Babel - Jorge Luis Borges - 1941
Though the order and content of the books is random and meaningless
gibberish, the library must also contain every coherent book ever written,
or that might ever be written. Moreover, somewhere there must be a
perfect index of the library unlocking all knowledge inside of it.
Infidels claim that the rule in the Library is not "sense," but "non-sense," and that
"rationality" (even humble, pure coherence) is an almost miraculous exception. They
speak, I know, of "the feverish Library"...Those words, which not only proclaim disorder
but exemplify it as well, prove, as all can see, the infidels' deplorable taste and
desperate ignorance. For while the Library contains all verbal structures, all the variations
allowed by the twenty five orthographic symbols, it includes not a single absolute piece
quote from ‘thoughts on everyday glitch art’ by Nick Briz
Evil Media Distribution Centre
Transmediale 2013, by YoHa (Matsuko Yokokoji and Graham Harwood)
Based on Matthew Fuller and Geoffrey ‘Evil Media’ (MIT Press, 2012).
Just as rules on information processing are build on top and in connection to other rules,
protocols refer or are encapsulated in other protocols <href: Galloway 'Protocol', MIT,
It addresses the grey zones in which media exist as corporate work systems, algorithms and
data structures, twenty-first century self-improvement manuals, and pharmaceutical techniques
in a Wunderkammer type of display.
Ranciere: Distribution of the Sensible.
1984 Apple's Macintosh Commercial
An American television commercial introducing the Apple Macintosh
personal computer. Directed by Ridley Scott with Anya Major performing
the unnamed heroine. Its only U.S. daytime televised broadcast was on
January 22, 1984 during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII.
The commercial was rebroadcast in an updated version in 2004 on its
20th anniversary with the heroine modified to be listening to an iPod.
Viewers generally saw the Big Brother target of the Apple advertisement as
being Microsoft with the original villain IBM being all but forgotten.