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1©2013-2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved.
September, 2015
Qualcomm Tec...
2
Making the best use of licensed and unlicensed spectrum
More licensed spectrum is the top priority
Use unlicensed spectr...
3
Multiple technologies will co-exist for best use of all spectrum
LTE Unlicensed: LTE-U/LAA aggregation with an LTE licen...
4
Extending the benefits of LTE to unlicensed spectrum
1 Downlink only in unlicensed spectrum (SDL). RF specs and coexiste...
5
Link
Aggregation
Aggregation with licensed spectrum provides best performance
LTE - Wi-Fi Link Aggregation (LWA)
for car...
6
Unlicensed 5 GHz spectrum ideal for small cells
LTE-U, LAA, MuLTEfire™, Wi-Fi (802.11ac/ax) will coexist to meet various...
7
LTE Unlicensed Solutions Carrier Wi-Fi Solutions
LTE/Wi-Fi Technology Solutions
LTE in Licensed Spectrum
LTE in Unlicens...
8
Fair Wi-Fi coexistence a key principle in LTE unlicensed design
Extensive over-the-air testing performed in the lab and ...
9
Going above and beyond minimum requirementsMinimum requirements
Ensuring fair coexistence between LTE unlicensed and Wi-...
10
LTE Unlicensed development through industry collaboration
Fair co-existence between
Wi-Fi and LTE unlicensed
LTE
Unlice...
11
Unlicensed (5 GHz)
Carrier
aggregationLicensed Anchor
LTE
LTELTE/
LTE-U
FSM9955
Industry’s first LTE-U
small cell solut...
12
• Industry-leading RF, power management, security
• Dedicated network listen—across technologies
Ease of deployment and...
13
Making best use of unlicensed spectrum for 1000x
Committed to LTE Unlicensed,
the Wi-Fi evolution, and LTE – Wi-Fi
conv...
14
LTE - Wi-Fi link aggregation
—Part of larger LTE - Wi-Fi convergence
15
Enhanced user experience
Licensed anchor for control and mobility
Unified network
Operator LTE network in full control ...
16
Operator’s assets determine solution—many will do both
Notes: Aggregation at modem-level (PDCP level) is a R13 candidat...
17
Modem-level aggregation for superior performance
HTTP Combining
HLOS HTTP
APP
HLOS
LTE/Wi-Fi link aggregation
TCP
HTTP
...
18
Aggregation part of the larger LTE - Carrier Wi-Fi convergence
LTE (LTE – R8 to R9, LTE Advanced R10 - R13)
Wi-Fi Disco...
19
Continuing to improve carrier Wi-Fi
Wi-FiWi-Fi
20-30x faster roaming
Enabling seamless real-time services
Reduced overh...
20
802.11ax for improved densification and outdoor performance
Densification
• Better capacity—especially in
dense scenari...
21
COEXISTENCE
MANAGER
CONNECTIVITY
ENGINE (CnE)
LTE-A
LTE – Wi-Fi convergence - going beyond interworking
CARRIER
SERVICE...
22
MuLTEfire™ for 5 GHz unlicensed
spectrum—no licensed anchor
23
MuLTEfire: LTE-like performance with Wi-Fi-like simplicity
LTE-based technology for unlicensed spectrum without license...
24
MuLTEfire expands small cell deployment opportunities
With seamless mobility within muLTEfire deployments
Enterprises
R...
25
MuLTEfire broadens the LTE ecosystem to more entities
Such as Internet Service Providers, Cable Operators, and enterpri...
26
MuLTEfire delivers enhanced offload for mobile networks
High-performance, neutral host offload capabilities with expand...
27
MuLTEfire benefits mobile operators as a true neutral host
Fixed broadband/ISP
• Also for own MVNO or ISP
service offer...
28
LTE-U/LAA for 5 GHz unlicensed
spectrum with licensed anchor
29
LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz for new small cell deployments
1 LTE-U and LAA R-13 will be downlink only. Both TDD or FDD aggr...
30Source: Qualcomm Research. Example from our LTE Unlicensed testing in San Diego to validate coverage and performance adv...
31
Unlicensed 5 GHz spectrum is ideal for small cells
1 Channel 120, 124 and 128 (5.6-5.65 GHz) currently not permitted in...
32
LTE-U/LAA protects Wi-Fi to ensure fair sharing of spectrum
1 CSAT - Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission required in ...
33
Going beyond Listen Before Talk (LBT) for fair sharing with Wi-Fi
For Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) deployments using ...
34
All sites
LTE + Wi-Fi
LAA Rel. 13
Live Demo
Operator 1
Operator 2
Note: The data rates shown are only for the unlicense...
35
Operator 1:
still on Wii-Fi
Wi-Fi performance
not adversely
affected
LAA Rel. 13
Live Demo
Operator 1
Operator 2
Operat...
36
F1
LTE-U forum develops coexistence specifications
For LTE-U products based on 3GPP Release 10 and beyond, see www.lteu...
37
LTE-U/Wi-Fi co-channel coexistence using adaptive duty cycle
Initially and
periodically: Sensing
channel utilization
LT...
38
Stress testing LTE/Wi-Fi co-channel in very harsh conditions
Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber
...
39
Wi-Fi performance not adversely affected by LTE-U
Using adaptive duty cycle (CSAT) for fair coexistence
Increasing LTE-...
40
Better performance of LTE-U while protecting Wi-Fi
Using adaptive duty cycle (CSAT)
8 Wi-Fi + 1 Wi-Fi 8 Wi-Fi + 1 LTE-U...
41
Fair LTE-U coexistence for Voice and Data
regardless of Wi-Fi vendor variation
42
Stress tests showing wide Wi-Fi vendor variation
Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber
Hyper dense ...
43
Implementation variation among Enterprise Wi-Fi vendors
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber...
44
LTE-U is a good neighbor regardless of Wi-Fi vendor
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber
Ven...
45
Significant implementation variation in retail Wi-Fi access point
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence te...
46
LTE-U ensures fair time sharing of the unlicensed channel
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamb...
47
Over-the-air campus network for testing LTE-U
Note: Wi-Fi AP 1 is above CCA-ED (CCA energy detect level at -62dBm where...
48
Over-the-air Wi-Fi VoIP coexistence and quality ensured
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus networ...
49
The role of energy detection in Wi-Fi and LTE-U
1 Per 20MHz bandwidth
Wi-Fi detects Wi-Fi signals and backs
off for oth...
50
LTE-U is a good neighbor below Energy Detect levels
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network
Ve...
51
LTE-U is a good neighbor above Energy Detect levels
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network
Wi...
52
LTE-U is a good neighbor also for the uplink
Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network
Wi-Fi wit...
53
LTE Unlicensed is a good neighbor to Wi-Fi
Committed to LTE Unlicensed,
the Wi-Fi evolution, and LTE – Wi-Fi
convergenc...
54
Questions? - Connect with Us
@Qualcomm_tech
http://www.slideshare.net/qualcommwirelessevolution
http://www.youtube.com/...
55
For more information, visit us at:
www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog
©2013-2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/...
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LTE-U/LAA, MuLTEfire™ and Wi-Fi; making best use of unlicensed spectrum

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Updated Sept 15, 2015 - LTE-U/LAA, MuLTEfire™ and Wi-Fi; making best use of unlicensed spectrum

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LTE-U/LAA, MuLTEfire™ and Wi-Fi; making best use of unlicensed spectrum

  1. 1. 1©2013-2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved. September, 2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. LTE-U/LAA, MuLTEfire™ and Wi-Fi; making best use of unlicensed spectrum
  2. 2. 2 Making the best use of licensed and unlicensed spectrum More licensed spectrum is the top priority Use unlicensed spectrum opportunistically Technologies for hyper-densification More small cells Higher efficiency More spectrum For both licensed & unlicensed spectrum
  3. 3. 3 Multiple technologies will co-exist for best use of all spectrum LTE Unlicensed: LTE-U/LAA aggregation with an LTE licensed spectrum anchor, whereas MuLTEfire can operate solely in unlicensed spectrum MuLTEfire is an initiative of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. LTE Advanced Licensed spectrum foundation, augmented with unlicensed spectrum solutions Mobile broadband services for best performance and quality-of-experience LTE Unlicensed LTE-based technologies in unlicensed spectrum, LTE-U, LAA, MuLTEfire™ Broadens LTE ecosystem to enhanced and new deployment opportunities Wi-Fi ac/ad/ax 802.11-based technology solely operating in unlicensed spectrum Also evolving for enhanced performance and expanding to new usage models
  4. 4. 4 Extending the benefits of LTE to unlicensed spectrum 1 Downlink only in unlicensed spectrum (SDL). RF specs and coexistence tests defined by LTE-U forum: coexistence and fair sharing can be obtained using techniques such as channel selection and CSAT (Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission). 2 These regions mandate specific access procedures, including Listen Before Talk (LBT),. LAA R14 targets enhancements to support aggregation for both uplink and downlink MuLTEfire Broadening LTE technology and ecosystem to new deployment opportunities Licensed Spectrum Exclusive use Unlicensed Spectrum Shared use LAA (Licensed-Assisted Access) Targeting mobile operator deployments in Europe, Japan, and beyond2 based on 3GPP Rel. 13 and beyond LTE Carrier Aggregation with licensed anchor channel LTE-based technology without licensed anchor channel LTE-U1 to boost downlink Targeting mobile operators deployments in USA, Korea, India, etc. based on 3GPP Rel. 10/11/12
  5. 5. 5 Link Aggregation Aggregation with licensed spectrum provides best performance LTE - Wi-Fi Link Aggregation (LWA) for carrier Wi-Fi deployments1 Mobile operator’s LTE anchor spectrum LTE in unlicensed (LTE-U/LAA) for new small cell deployments Licensed 400MHz to 3.8GHz Carrier Aggregation Wi-Fi in Unlicensed 2.4 & 5 GHz LTE in Unlicensed 5 GHz Enhanced user experience Better capacity and coverage Unified network Fair coexistence
  6. 6. 6 Unlicensed 5 GHz spectrum ideal for small cells LTE-U, LAA, MuLTEfire™, Wi-Fi (802.11ac/ax) will coexist to meet various needs Pico/Enterprises Residential/NeighborhoodSmall Businesses Venues Opportunistic use Shared spectrum but ‘free’, technology neutral Large amount of spectrum Could be ~500MHz but regionally dependent Shorter range Lower transmit power per regulations Wide bands available for sharing Efficiently shared amongst multiple users
  7. 7. 7 LTE Unlicensed Solutions Carrier Wi-Fi Solutions LTE/Wi-Fi Technology Solutions LTE in Licensed Spectrum LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum 802.11ac Wi-Fi 802.11ad WiGig LTE advanced Carrier Aggregation LTE-U/LAA aggregation LTE/Wi-Fi Call Continuity 802.11ai Fast Roaming Carrier Wi-Fi AP LTE/Wi-Fi Link Aggregation 802.11ac/ad Small Cell Multiple technologies to support all deployment scenarios Dual-connectivityMuLTEfire Neutral host offload 802.11ac MU-MIMOMuLTEfire/ Wi-Fi access Wi-Fi access 802.11ad (WiGig)
  8. 8. 8 Fair Wi-Fi coexistence a key principle in LTE unlicensed design Extensive over-the-air testing performed in the lab and in the field Assumptions: Two operators. 48 Pico+108 Femto cells per operator. 300 users per operator with 70% indoor. 3GPP Bursty model. 12x40MHz @ 5GHz for unlicensed spectrum. LTE 10 MHz channel at 2 GHz;. 2x2 MIMO, Rank 1 transmission, eICIC enabled; LTE-U - Phase II., 2x2 MIMO (no MU-MIMO).; Wi-Fi - 802.11ac 2x2 MIMO (no MU-MIMO), LDPC codes and 256QAM). Operator A Wi-Fi Operator A Wi-Fi 1x ≥1x >2x Gain(Median throughput) Operator B Wi-Fi 1x In many cases a better neighbor to Wi-Fi than Wi-Fi itself Operator B switches Wi-Fi to LTE in unlicensed Operator B LTE in unlicensed
  9. 9. 9 Going above and beyond minimum requirementsMinimum requirements Ensuring fair coexistence between LTE unlicensed and Wi-Fi Working together across the mobile and Wi-Fi industries 1 With dynamic channel selection and CSAT - Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission required in the small cell.. 2 LAA Licensed Assisted Access, Work item approved in 3GPP R13 June 15. In addition, New RF band support (e.g. 5GHz) needed at both device and small cell Conformance testing • Coexistence and fairness test • Expected to be more rigorous than Wi-Fi testing today • Still allowing for differentiation • Example: LTE-U forum specifications Standards & specifications • LTE-U for USA, Korea, India, other markets based on LTE R10/11/121 • LAA for Europe, Japan and beyond defined in 3GPP R132 Spectrum regulations • Power, bandwidth and emission levels • Additional specific access procedures required in Europe and Japan (Listen Before Talk features)
  10. 10. 10 LTE Unlicensed development through industry collaboration Fair co-existence between Wi-Fi and LTE unlicensed LTE Unlicensed Wi-Fi Collaboration and engagement 3GPP LAALTE-U Forum • Dialogue between 3GPP and IEEE802.11 & WFA throughout the LAA standard’s development via presentations & liaison statements • Open industry LAA workshop held 8/29/2015 in Beijing with presentations from IEEE 802.11, WFA and other key stakeholders • Started dialogue between 3GPP and WFA on coexistence testing Founding members Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, LGE, Qualcomm Technologies Inc., Samsung, Verizon all have stakes in LTE and Wi-Fi Coexistence specs published March 2nd 2015, updated June based on feedback, e.g. adding uplink and VoIP test cases Being standardized in 3GPP release 13 for completion 1H 2016 (ASN.1 freeze) Enhancements planned for release R14 and beyond 3GPP will develop coexistence / performance requirements and tests • Presented LTE-U to Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE at standards meetings • An LTE-U workshop for key cellular and Wi-Fi vendors/operators was held on May 28, 2015 with deep dive of technology • Further collaboration on coexistence with industry is ongoing— one-on-one and in industry groups
  11. 11. 11 Unlicensed (5 GHz) Carrier aggregationLicensed Anchor LTE LTELTE/ LTE-U FSM9955 Industry’s first LTE-U small cell solution Industry’s first UE solution for LTE-U WTR3950 WTR3925 X12 LTE Converged SOC with CSAT (R 10) based LTE/Wi-Fi fair coexistence X12 LTE supporting LTE-U with WTR 3950 Spearheading LTE-U commercialization WTR RF transceiver chips and FSM small cell solutions are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  12. 12. 12 • Industry-leading RF, power management, security • Dedicated network listen—across technologies Ease of deployment and management • LTE Unlicensed / Wi-Fi coexistence – like CSAT • UltraSON™ interference and mobility management • Advanced interference management like eICIC FSM9955 FSM9955 brings LTE-U to small cells For LTE-U commercial launches in 2016 FSM small cell solutions and UltraSON are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.. 1 eICIC is enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination defined by 3GPP. Foundation: 3G, LTE Hosted: Wi-Fi 802.11ac Announced: LTE-U Converged multi-mode SoC UltraSON™ elCIC1 Hotspot 2.0 CSAT
  13. 13. 13 Making best use of unlicensed spectrum for 1000x Committed to LTE Unlicensed, the Wi-Fi evolution, and LTE – Wi-Fi convergence solutions 4 LTE Unlicensed coexists fairly with Wi-Fi—coexistence is an industry wide collaboration Wi-FiLTE 3 Wi-Fi 802.11ac/ad/ax MuLTEfire™ LTE-U/LAA 1 Multiple solutions will coexist to support all use cases and deployment scenarios Aggregation with licensed spectrum for best performance: • LTE-U/LAA carrier aggregation • LTE - Wi-Fi link aggregation 2
  14. 14. 14 LTE - Wi-Fi link aggregation —Part of larger LTE - Wi-Fi convergence
  15. 15. 15 Enhanced user experience Licensed anchor for control and mobility Unified network Operator LTE network in full control of Wi-Fi Better performance Simultaneously using both LTE & Wi-Fi links LTE - Wi-Fi link aggregation for existing and new carrier Wi-Fi Notes: Aggregation on modem level (PDCP level), also leveraging dual connectivity defined inR12; Control over X2-like interface needs to be supported by Wi-Fi AP. No change to LTE & WiFi PHY/MAC. No change to core network Control Traffic Leverages new/existing, also non-collocated carrier Wi-Fi 2.4 & 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum LTE Anchor Licensed Spectrum Link Aggregation Modem-level aggregation for superior performance Work item in 3GPP Rel. 13 Wi-Fi
  16. 16. 16 Operator’s assets determine solution—many will do both Notes: Aggregation at modem-level (PDCP level) is a R13 candidate, (dual connectivity defined in R12 for licensed) ; LTE-U based on R10 for certain countries, defined as LAA R13 for other countries Better capacity and coverage Unified network Enhanced user experience Deeper aggregation and better performance LTE - Wi-Fi link aggregation Existing, new, also non-collocated carrier Wi-Fi deployments LTE-U/LAA carrier aggregation For new small cell deployments LTE-U LAAWi-Fi
  17. 17. 17 Modem-level aggregation for superior performance HTTP Combining HLOS HTTP APP HLOS LTE/Wi-Fi link aggregation TCP HTTP APP Modem PDCP LTE Wi-Fi Better load-balancing, across nodes based on information on both links Dynamically adapts to radio/traffic conditions Work item in 3GPP Rel. 13
  18. 18. 18 Aggregation part of the larger LTE - Carrier Wi-Fi convergence LTE (LTE – R8 to R9, LTE Advanced R10 - R13) Wi-Fi Discovery Service Continuity Hotspot 2.0 Load Balancing Optimized Connectivity Experience (OCE) Fast Roaming Reduced Overhead Link Aggregation Faster connections Seamless services More capacity Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11ac, MU-MIMO, ai, k, v, ax) Link aggregation
  19. 19. 19 Continuing to improve carrier Wi-Fi Wi-FiWi-Fi 20-30x faster roaming Enabling seamless real-time services Reduced overhead In dense Wi-Fi deployments MU - MIMO Next wave of efficiency 802.11 g/n 802.11 ac Breaking the Gbps barrier 802.11 ax Load balancing Steering Wi-Fi connection based on signal quality & load Today High Load Low Load Carrier Wi-Fi Enhancements Optimized Connectivity Experience (OCE) based on 11ai,k,v Today Optimized Up to 50% ~2% Management Overhead Wi-FiWi-Fi Optimized Hotspot 2.0 Notes: Faster roaming: Based on Qualcomm Technologies prototype, in typical conditions, after full authentication with the target operator; Reduced overhead: Scenario such as airport/train stations/conferences (100s of users), 4 to 16 APs visible per STA, 2.4GHz band, 1 Mbps management traffic
  20. 20. 20 802.11ax for improved densification and outdoor performance Densification • Better capacity—especially in dense scenarios • Uplink and downlink OFDMA • Adding uplink MU-MIMO Backward compatibleOutdoor deployments 2.4GHz 5 GHz 802.11n 802.11ac • Improved outdoor performance • Longer cyclic prefix and longer OFDM symbol duration • Supports both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz • Backward compatible with legacy 802.11 (n/ac) Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
  21. 21. 21 COEXISTENCE MANAGER CONNECTIVITY ENGINE (CnE) LTE-A LTE – Wi-Fi convergence - going beyond interworking CARRIER SERVICES LTE-U, LTE-Wi-Fi aggregation Data offload/handoff, VoLTE and VT interworking Interference mitigation Optimized connection 11ac/ad/ax INCREASING CONVERGENCE Faster connections Seamless services Spectrum & network efficiency SPECTRUM INTEGRATION Qualcomm Snapdragon …
  22. 22. 22 MuLTEfire™ for 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum—no licensed anchor
  23. 23. 23 MuLTEfire: LTE-like performance with Wi-Fi-like simplicity LTE-based technology for unlicensed spectrum without licensed anchor channel Broadens LTE technology & ecosystem to new deployment opportunities 4G LTE-like performance Enhanced capacity and range Improved mobility, quality-of-experience Hyper-dense, self-optimizing deployments Wi-Fi-like deployment simplicity Operates in unlicensed spectrum Leaner, self-contained network architecture Suitable for neutral host deployments Harmoniously coexist with Wi-Fi, LTE-U/LAA MuLTEfire
  24. 24. 24 MuLTEfire expands small cell deployment opportunities With seamless mobility within muLTEfire deployments Enterprises Residential/NeighborhoodSmall Businesses Venues Self-contained Simplified network architecture suitable for end-user deployments Unlicensed Spectrum Operates solely in unlicensed spectrum without licensed anchor channel Neutral host Any deployment can service any device—no SIM required
  25. 25. 25 MuLTEfire broadens the LTE ecosystem to more entities Such as Internet Service Providers, Cable Operators, and enterprise/venue owners Physical location Customer relationships Leverage deployment assets Fixed broadband Enhanced hotspot / enterprise services Offering SIM-less, nomadic Internet access Augment mobile broadband Providing neutral host offload to mobile networks Improved end-user experience Better capacity, range, and mobility than Wi-Fi (especially in hyper-dense environments)
  26. 26. 26 MuLTEfire delivers enhanced offload for mobile networks High-performance, neutral host offload capabilities with expanded reach to new markets Traditional mobile deployments Separate spectrum bands and deployments may prohibit reaching all venues, enterprises and homes Neutral host deployments Common spectrum and common deployment provides neutral host services (Wi-Fi like)
  27. 27. 27 MuLTEfire benefits mobile operators as a true neutral host Fixed broadband/ISP • Also for own MVNO or ISP service offering Enterprises • Also to provide access through issued certificate Neighborhood • Could also be part of providers offering (e.g. ISP) Offload agreements with Mobile operators Venues • Also to enhance venue experience—’’free’ or fee Full mobility with handovers within MuLTEfire networks Service continuity between MuLTEfire and mobile networks Mobile operators • E.g. if licensed spectrum is not available at certain locations
  28. 28. 28 LTE-U/LAA for 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum with licensed anchor
  29. 29. 29 LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz for new small cell deployments 1 LTE-U and LAA R-13 will be downlink only. Both TDD or FDD aggregation is possible with SDL; 2 Target for R14 LAA using TDD + TDD aggregation, or FDD + TDD aggregation using TDD for unlicensed spectrum 3Assumptions: Two operators. 48 Pico+108 Femto cells per operator. 300 users per operator with 70% indoor. 3GPP Bursty model. 12x40MHz @ 5GHz for unlicensed spectrum; LTE 10 MHz channel at 2 GHz;. 2x2 MIMO, Rank 1 transmission, eICIC enabled; LTE-U – LAA R13, 2x2 MIMO (no MU-MIMO).; Wi-Fi - 802.11ac 2x2 MIMO (no MU-MIMO), LDPC codes and 256QAM). LTE Unlicensed small cell Unlicensed (5 GHz) LTE & LTE-U/LAA • Initial LTE- and LAA: Supplemental Downlink (SDL) to boost downlink 1 • Later LAA phases: Carrier aggregation to boost both downlink and uplink 2 • Later LAA phases: aggregation across non- collocated nodes with dual-connectivity ~2x capacity and range Compared to Wi-Fi3 Enhanced user experience Licensed anchor for control and mobility Single unified LTE network Common management A good Wi-Fi neighbor In many cases, better neighbor to Wi-Fi than Wi-Fi itself Carrier aggregation Licensed Anchor (400 MHz – 3.8 GHz)
  30. 30. 30Source: Qualcomm Research. Example from our LTE Unlicensed testing in San Diego to validate coverage and performance advantages. LTE Thrpt (Mbps) / Wi-Fi Thrpt (Mbps) LTE Unlicensed improves coverage compared to Wi-Fi 20/2 16/2 3/x 6/x 4/x 24/26 27/27 35/27 15/9 9/1 14/3 26/23 2/x 29/16 LTE/ Wi-Fi 5GHz access point Indoor 3rd floor
  31. 31. 31 Unlicensed 5 GHz spectrum is ideal for small cells 1 Channel 120, 124 and 128 (5.6-5.65 GHz) currently not permitted in the US. 2 5725MHz-5850MHz has been assigned to ISM services in China 3 Study of 5350MHz-5470MHz and 5725MHz-5925MHz use for license exempt is being planned in EU’. 4 5470-5650 MHz in Korea* These 5GHz channels typically require DFS, Dynamic Frequency Selection LTE-U will use UNII-1 & UNII-3 (200MHz ) per LTE-U forum LAA expected to cover additional 5 GHz bands 20 MHz 120 MHz could be available in e.g. the US4/EU3 US, Korea, China, Europe, Japan, India US1, Korea5, Europe, Japan US, Korea, India, China2, considered in EU3 5.15 GHz 5.33 GHz 5.49 GHz 5.835 GHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 5.71 GHz * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** 5.735 GHz UNII-1 5150-5250 MHz UNII-2 5250-5350 MHz UNII-2 5470-5725 MHz UNII-3 5725 – 5850 MHz ISM 5725 – 5850 MHz
  32. 32. 32 LTE-U/LAA protects Wi-Fi to ensure fair sharing of spectrum 1 CSAT - Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission required in the small cell Meeting regulatory requirements, in addition ensures fairness as defined by LTE-U forum 2 Part of 3GPP Rel 13, Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) for regions with specific access procedures and CCA Clear Channel Assessment, aka Listen Before Talk (LBT) LTE-U adaptive duty cycle (CSAT)1 for deployments in USA, Korea, India etc. using 3GPP Rel. 10/11/12 LAA Listen Before Talk (LBT) with adaptive utilization2 for deployments in Europe, Japan and beyond using 3GPP Rel. 13 LAA LTE is off Sensing channel availability per CCA Select clear channel: Dynamically avoid Wi-Fi If no clear channel: Fair sharing with Wi-Fi 1 2 Up to 500 MHz available Unlicensed 5 GHz band 20 MHz . . . . . . . . Time Time LTE is on 20 MHz Release unlicensed channel at low traffic 3 Variable on, max 50ms continuously Variable on, max 10ms continuously LTE is off Wi-Fi medium utilization estimation LTE is on
  33. 33. 33 Going beyond Listen Before Talk (LBT) for fair sharing with Wi-Fi For Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) deployments using 3GPP Rel. 13 LTE “OFF” Time LTE “OFF” Sensing channel availability per LBT Every 20us per CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) Hold off when detecting other user per LBT Sense every 20us and decrement random counter before transmitting per extended CCA LTE “ON” LTE “ON” LTE “ON” LTE “ON” LTE “ON” Adaptive “ON” 1ms to 10ms based on load—similar to CSAT
  34. 34. 34 All sites LTE + Wi-Fi LAA Rel. 13 Live Demo Operator 1 Operator 2 Note: The data rates shown are only for the unlicensed spectrum, with only control and signaling traffic going over licensed spectrum
  35. 35. 35 Operator 1: still on Wii-Fi Wi-Fi performance not adversely affected LAA Rel. 13 Live Demo Operator 1 Operator 2 Operator 2: One site changed to LTE Unlicensed ~ 2x Improvement Note: The data rates shown are only for the unlicensed spectrum, with only control and signaling traffic going over licensed spectrum LAA LAA
  36. 36. 36 F1 LTE-U forum develops coexistence specifications For LTE-U products based on 3GPP Release 10 and beyond, see www.lteuforum.org * These 5GHz channels typically require DFS, Dynamic Frequency Selection • To ensure fair-sharing coexistence between Wi-Fi and LTE-U, and between LTE-U • Formed by Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, LGE, Qualcomm Technologies Inc., Samsung, Verizon • Specifications published March 2nd 2015 and have been updated based on feedback from Wi-Fi industry Licensed spectrum UplinkDownlink 20 MHz 5.15 GHz 5.33 GHz 5.49 GHz 5.835 GHz 20 MHz* * * * * * * * * * * * ** UNII-1 5150-5250 MHz UNII-2 5250-5350 MHz UNII-2 5470-5725 MHz UNII-3 5725 – 5850 MHz Supplemental downlink U-NII-1 and U-NII-3 5 GHz unlicensed spectrum *
  37. 37. 37 LTE-U/Wi-Fi co-channel coexistence using adaptive duty cycle Initially and periodically: Sensing channel utilization LTE-U estimates # of active Wi-Fi APs and determines utilization1 LTE “OFF” Provision for latency sensitive apps (e.g. Voice over Wi-Fi) LTE “ON” 2/6th of the time in the example shown LTE “OFF” 4/6th of the time in the example shown Share channel with Wi-Fi proportionally to active numbers of access points2 LTE “ON” 2/6th of the time in the example shown LTE-U LTE-U Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Time Carrier Sensing Adaptive Transmission (CSAT) example Variable on, max 50 ms continuously From 10ms to 100ms timeframe 1LTE reads Wi-Fi preamble to determine # of Wi-Fi APs and their usage; 2.Proportional time , here 2/6th of time is the upper limit for LTE ON.
  38. 38. 38 Stress testing LTE/Wi-Fi co-channel in very harsh conditions Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Hyper dense network • Up to 9 Access Points (AP) placed ~1m apart • All APs set to the same channel • Commercial, off-the-shelf Wi-Fi and test LTE-U APs Extreme interference for devices • No isolation between neighboring APs and devices
  39. 39. 39 Wi-Fi performance not adversely affected by LTE-U Using adaptive duty cycle (CSAT) for fair coexistence Increasing LTE-U penetration 7 Wi-Fi + 1 Wi-Fi 4 Wi-Fi + 4 LTE-U Wi-Fi performance improved 7 Wi-Fi + 1 LTE-U 6 Wi-Fi + 2 LTE-U Wi-Fi Average throughput
  40. 40. 40 Better performance of LTE-U while protecting Wi-Fi Using adaptive duty cycle (CSAT) 8 Wi-Fi + 1 Wi-Fi 8 Wi-Fi + 1 LTE-U Wi-Fi average throughput LTE - U Target AP with Wi-Fi Target AP Average throughput Wi-Fi (3.3 Mbps) LTE-U (6.7 Mbps) Target AP with LTE-U
  41. 41. 41 Fair LTE-U coexistence for Voice and Data regardless of Wi-Fi vendor variation
  42. 42. 42 Stress tests showing wide Wi-Fi vendor variation Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Hyper dense network on same channel • Up to 8 Access Points (AP) placed ~1m apart • No isolation between neighboring APs and devices • Up to 8 devices placed ~1m apart Vendor variation tests • Test 1) Vendor A and B enterprise grade Wi-Fi APs with controller. 8 Aps with test AP—Wi-Fi or LTE-U • Test 2) 5 top-selling retail APs (11ac) based on ‘best- seller lists’. Mix of 4 APs from different vendors
  43. 43. 43 Implementation variation among Enterprise Wi-Fi vendors Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Vendor A and B enterprise grade Wi-Fi APs with controller. 8 Aps with test AP—Wi-Fi or LTE-U Baseline: 8 Wi-Fi + Wi-Fi Stress Test: 8 Wi-Fi + LTE-U Vendor A Vendor B Wi-Fi vendor A less aggressive Wi-Fi vendor B more aggressive Mixture of Vendor A and B’s enterprise Wi-Fi APs
  44. 44. 44 LTE-U is a good neighbor regardless of Wi-Fi vendor Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Vendor A and B enterprise grade Wi-Fi APs with controller. 8 Aps with test AP—Wi-Fi or LTE-U Vendor A Vendor B Mix of vendor A/B LTE-U maintains overall Wi-Fi performance 8 Wi-Fi + Wi-Fi 6.5 8 Wi-Fi + LTE-U 6.5 8 Wi-Fi + LTE-U 8 Wi-Fi + Wi-Fi 3.9 4.9 8 Wi-Fi + LTE-U 8 Wi-Fi + Wi-Fi 5.8 5.8 Average Wi-Fi throughput (Mbps) or with Wi-Fi LTE-U Wi-Fi 8X
  45. 45. 45 Significant implementation variation in retail Wi-Fi access point Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Product diversity of 5 OEMs and 3 chipset-vendors. One common STA (11ac, 1x1) – a top-selling mobile-device used for all cases 5 top-selling retail APs determined from top industry magazines and online-retailers Mix of vendors in a network of 4 Wi-Fi APs Wide variation—also without most aggressive Wi-Fi AP One Wi-Fi AP grabbing ~10x more resources APs Throughput (Mbps) Aggregate (Mbps)AP 1 AP 2 AP 3 AP 4 AP 1 AP 2 AP 3 AP 4 A B C D 40.9 3.9 5.6 3.4 53.7 B C D E 19.4 8.2 7.4 12.9 47.9 C D E A 3.7 2.2 3.6 49.8 59.3 D E A B 4.8 4.6 40.8 4.7 54.9 E A B C 3.9 49.0 2.4 4.3 59.6
  46. 46. 46 LTE-U ensures fair time sharing of the unlicensed channel Using Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE/Wi-Fi coexistence test chamber Testing pair-wise airtime sharing across 4 Wi-Fi AP models and between Wi-Fi/LTE-U Points corresponding to all 4 Wi-Fi AP models 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Duty Cycle Percentage CDF W in 1W+1W W in 1W+1L L in 1W+1L LTE-U ensures a fair ~50% sharing Wi-Fi LTE-U Or with with Average across 4 Wi-Fi AP models Wide variation in Wi-Fi to Wi-Fi sharing Anomaly due to one Wi-Fi not following spec Duty cycle distribution Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
  47. 47. 47 Over-the-air campus network for testing LTE-U Note: Wi-Fi AP 1 is above CCA-ED (CCA energy detect level at -62dBm where Wi-Fi backs off for other non-Wi0Di users). and Wi-Fi AP 2 is below CCA-ED,, which is used for some of the following test to show that LTE-U CSAT works well below Wi-Fi’s ED Building WC OTA Campus Network Wi-Fi AP1 (Above CCA-ED) LTE-U eNB Building WB Wi-Fi AP2 (Below CCA-ED)
  48. 48. 48 Over-the-air Wi-Fi VoIP coexistence and quality ensured Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network 1 Compliant with Wi-Fi Alliance's VoIP Enterprise specification: One way Delay < 50 ms maximum, maximum Jitter < 50ms maximum, Packet loss < 1%, Consecutive lost packets, no more than 3. Overall statics from 5 pairs of WiFi VoIP with LTE-U Presence. Provision for Wi-Fi VoIP 2ms puncturing introduces gaps to help Wi-Fi flush delay-sensitive data that may be queued due to LTE-U LTE “OFF” Time 40ms LTE “ON” LTE “ON” 40ms Downlink (Max one-way delay) Uplink (Max one-way delay) Probability of Jitter > 50ms Packet loss rate No change 0% No change 0% Increased to 0.76% Increased to 0.08% Wi-Fi + Wi-Wi 48ms Wi-Fi + LTE-U 42ms Wi-Fi + Wi-Wi 40ms Wi-Fi + LTE-U 50ms Compliant with WFA’s requirements1
  49. 49. 49 The role of energy detection in Wi-Fi and LTE-U 1 Per 20MHz bandwidth Wi-Fi detects Wi-Fi signals and backs off for other users—not for LTE-U Detect and decode a Wi-Fi signal (and Wi-Fi preamble) to determine if channel is busy— carrier sensing. Example -62dbm1 Example -82dbm1 Threshold for backing off to LTE-U By detecting non-Wi-Fi energy. (Clear Channel Assessment Energy Detect CCA-ED). Wi-Fi Receiver cannot detect anything below noise floor Received signal LTE-U Energy Detect LTE-U detects a Wi-Fi signal to account for fair sharing Detect and decode a Wi-Fi signal (Wi-Fi preamble) e.g. to estimate active Wi-Fi APs LTE-U design will ensure fair sharing with Wi-Fi below ED level, e.g. with Wi-Fi network listen Example -90dbm1 CCA-CS: required threshold for Wi-Fi to detect other Wi-Fi
  50. 50. 50 LTE-U is a good neighbor below Energy Detect levels Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network Vendor A Vendor B Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U 34.5 52.6 30.2 48 Vendor C Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U Wi-Fi better off with LTE-U as neighbor 30.0 37.9 Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U The APs are below Energy Detect -62dbm levels to each other Downlink throughput (Mbps) Wi-Fi LTE-U Or with with Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
  51. 51. 51 LTE-U is a good neighbor above Energy Detect levels Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U 30.7 28.0 23.7 24.1 Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U LTE-U is a good neighbor to Wi-Fi 20.2 25.2 Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U The APs are above Energy Detect -62dbm levels to each other Wi-Fi LTE-U Or with with Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Vendor A Vendor B Vendor C Downlink throughput (Mbps)
  52. 52. 52 LTE-U is a good neighbor also for the uplink Using Qualcomm Technologies’ over-the-air outdoor campus network Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U 34.8 33.5 20.6 36.8 Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U LTE-U is a good neighbor to Wi-Fi 39.2 37.2 Uplink throughput (Mbps) Wi-Fi with other Wi-Fi Wi-Fi with LTE-U The APs are above Energy Detect -62dbm levels to each other Wi-Fi LTE-U Or with with Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Vendor A Vendor B Vendor C
  53. 53. 53 LTE Unlicensed is a good neighbor to Wi-Fi Committed to LTE Unlicensed, the Wi-Fi evolution, and LTE – Wi-Fi convergence solutions 4 Extensive collaboration on coexistence across mobile and Wi-Fi industries. 3 Wi-Fi MuLTEfire™ LTE-U/LAA 1 Fair coexistence with Wi-Fi a key principle in the design of LTE unlicensed 2 Extensive LTE-U over-the-air testing in lab/field proves fair coexistence with Wi-Fi Wi-FiLTE LTE-U Forum 3GPP
  54. 54. 54 Questions? - Connect with Us @Qualcomm_tech http://www.slideshare.net/qualcommwirelessevolution http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8AD95E4F585237C1&feature=plcp www.qualcomm.com/wireless BLOG www.qualcomm.com/news/onq
  55. 55. 55 For more information, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog ©2013-2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. MuLTEfire and UltraSon are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other product and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT. Thank you Follow us on:

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