3. Organizational behavior.اخالق اړوند سازمان د
• Organizational behavior (OB) is "the study of human behavior in organizational
settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the
• Actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward
the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organization's functioning and
4. Disciplines that contribute to the organizational field. څانګی کومکی اړوند سره اخالق اړوند سازمان د
Psychology رواشناسی یا پوهنه اروا
• Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change
the behavior of humans and other animals.
• To use psychological and organizational theory and research to improve
organizational effectiveness and the work life of all individuals.
• Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles.
• Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings to improve
5. Anthropology پوهنه بشر
• The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
• Study on culture and environment has helped us understand differences in
fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries
and within different organizations
Political science پوهه سیاسی(علم)
• The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment
6. What managers DO? کوی؟ څه مدیر یو
• 1) Sets objectives. The manager sets goals for the group, and decides what work
needs to be done to meet those goals.
• 2) Motivates and communicates. The manager creates a team out of his people,
through decisions on pay, placement, promotion, and through his communications
with the team.
• 3) Measures. The manager establishes appropriate targets and yardsticks, and
analyzes, appraises and interprets performance.
• 4) Develops people. With the rise of the knowledge worker, this task has taken on
added importance. In a knowledge economy, people are the company’s most
important asset, and it is up to the manager to develop that asset
7. Management functions, Roles and skills. مهارتونه او برخه ،وظایف مدیر د
• Management Functions
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action &
deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing
productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has
assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in
size of business, complexity of human behavior etc.
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work
efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes
8. Management Role دنده مدیریت د
• Figurehead – As a manager, you have social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. You're expected to be a
source of inspiration. People look up to you as a person with authority, and as a figurehead.
• Leader – This is where you provide leadership for your team, your department or perhaps your entire
• Informational Role - Management is also about managing information.
• Decisional Role - Managers are decision makers. In fact, failure to make decisions will often lead to failure.
• Liaison – Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts
Management skills مهارتونه مدیریت د
1. Management and leadership skills مهارتونه رهبری او مدیریت د
2. Communication skills. مهارتونه اترو خبرو د
3. Collaboration skills. مهارتونه همکاری د
4. Project Management skills. مهارتونه اړوند پروژی یو د
5. Critical thinking skills. مهارتونه کولو فکر د کی حالت نازک او حساس د
6. Problem solving skills. مهارتونه حل مشکالتو د
9. Managing workforce Diversity. مدیریت والي ورته نه کارګرانو د
Diversity in the workplace means bringing together people of different ethnic
backgrounds, religions and age groups into a cohesive and productive unit.
• Confirm that all of your personnel policies from hiring to promotions and raises are
based on employee performance.
• Rate the qualifications of the candidate based on the quality of his experience, not age
or any other category, when hiring.
• Treat complaints of favoritism or discrimination seriously. Encourage employees to
report all instances of discriminatory behavior.
• Hold quarterly trainings for the entire staff on the benefits of diversity in the
workplace. Encourage discussions at these meetings on how the company can better
manage workplace diversity.
10. Globalization. نړیوالتوب
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the
people, companies, and governments of different nations.
A process driven by international trade and investment and aided
by information technology.
This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political
systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human
physical well-being in societies around the world.
11. Improving customer Service. انکشاف خدماتو د لپاره اخیستونکو د
• 1. Treat your customers like they are your boss.
• 2. Focus on measuring customer satisfaction.
• 3. Build customer loyalty to increase customer satisfaction.
• 4. Avoid making these customer retention mistakes.
• 5. Set customer expectations early.
• 6. Learn how to survey your customers the right way.
12. Improving people skills. انکشاف مهارتونو د افرادو د
• Show that you are an approachable and pleasant person to interact
with by smiling honestly and with your whole face, not just your
• Actively listen to what others have to say. Show your interest in the
message that your peers and customers are communicating .
• Take your time and communicate clearly. Recognize that people will
be more at ease with you if you have a comparatively relaxed posture.
• Don’t take yourself too serious.
13. Creating positive work environment جوړول محیط کاری مثبت
• 1. Give positive reinforcement تقویه ډول مثبت په
• I appreciate the way you…
• I’m impressed with…
• I really enjoy working with you because…
• 2. Show gratitude ښودنه خوښی د
• Thank Someone for something they did.
• 3. Motivate others. (encourage reward system) تشویقول
• 4. Celebrate wins لمانځل ګټو د
• 5. Encourage positive thinking تشویقول فکر او عمل مثپت
• 6. Change the way you respond بدلول عادات منفی خپل
14. Improving ethical behavior.
• Empowerment ورکول واک
One way to improve the ethical climate of your organization is to give employees more power over their
• Communication څرګندونه فکر د مفاهمه
Improve your communication policies and procedures so that information will flow more smoothly and
frequently between employees and managers.
• Discipline انتظام ، سمون
You can't expect all employees to comply with the ethics policy without some kind of discipline.
• Change بدلول
As you look at employee behaviors and enforce your ethics policy, you might see patterns of unethical
behavior. This might indicate that some rules and procedures need to be changed in the organization,
even it affects ways of doing things that save time or money or increase profits.