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9- PMP Training - Communication Management

  1. 8-Communication Management Project Management Training, Qais Ur Rehman Rasooli, PMP
  2. What is Communication? • Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another • A way of transferring ideas, facts, thoughts ,feelings • Bridge of meaning over the river of misunderstanding • Communication is key , PM should spends 90% of his time communicating, • Two way communication Process (8 steps) Develop idea Encode Transmit Receive Decode Understand/Accept Use Bridgeof meaning Message Feedback
  3. Communication management • Include process that are required to ensure timely and appropriate: Planning,Collection,creation,distribution,storage,retrieval, management,control,monitoring and ultimate disposition of project information, • Can be internal or external, verbal or written, formal or informal,Verticle or horizontal • Carried out in three steps: Plan , Manage and Control Communications
  4. 1 - Plan Communication Management, 2 – Manage Communications 3 – Control Communications
  5. Plan Communication Management • Process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications, • Based on - stakeholder information needs and requirements, - Available OPAs, and Project complexity • Inadequate communication planning can lead to delay in message delivery, communication to wrong audience, misunderstanding, misinterpretation, insufficient communication • Communication need to be effective and efficient
  6. Types of Communication • Type of communication include: Formal,informal,verbal, written and a combination of these Communication type Situation used Formal Written Complex Issues, PMP,Charter,Scope statement, communicating over long distances Formal Verbal Presentation, Speeches Informal Written Email, text messaging, Informal Verbal Meetings, discussions
  7. Communication Models • Three main parts: Message, Sender and receiver • Factors like receiver environment , language , experience, culture affect the way the receiver decodes the message • Communication disturbed by Noise, • Effective Communication: Encode message carefully, select the appropriate communication model to send it, confirm the receipt and understanding, • Pay attention to these factors: Nonverbal, Para lingual,
  8. Effective listening • Watch the speaker to capture facial expression and body language, • pay attention to the tone of voice, • Focus on the content of the message without judgement, distraction, interpretation, • Think before responding • Receiver confirms s/he is listening, express agreement or disagreement and asks for clarification, • 7 Steps of effective listening by Mark Horstman: Stop what you are doing, face the speaker, make eye contact, Smile, nod and take notes
  9. Communication technology • Part of planning communications it to identify how to communicate each item • Examples include: Face to face interactions, by telephone, email, instant messaging, blogs, fax, • To determine the right technology to use for your communications think of: What technology works best in this instance, effectiveness? What technology is the team very much familiar with and is easy for them to use? urgency and confidentiality of the information to be communicated
  10. Communication Methods • Interactive Communication (converstions,meetings,instant messaging, conference calls) • Push communication (Status reports, emailed updates ,blogs and company memos) • Pull communication (Communicating large amount of data to a large number of users)
  11. Meetings • Meetings are used during communication planning for the What,when,how,how often of communication, • Meetings will be used on the project for exchange of informations, • Plan effective meetings, to have effective ones during the project, • Set specific timing for the meeting, set reoccurrence, • Meet with team regularly, based on needs, • Have an agenda ready for the meeting and distribute it beforehand, Stick to the AGENDA, • Bring the right people together, • Record Action items, decisions and postponed items, • Distribute to all the attendees of the meeting and ask for questions additions or omissions.
  12. Communication channels • Meetings are used during communication planning for the What,when,how,how often of communication, • Meetings will be used on the project for exchange of informations, • Plan effective meetings, to have effective ones during the project, • Set specific timing for the meeting, set reoccurrence, • Meet with team regularly, based on needs, • Have an agenda ready for the meeting and distribute it beforehand, Stick to the AGENDA, • Bring the right people together, • Record Action items, decisions and postponed items, • Distribute to all the attendees of the meeting and ask for questions additions or omissions.
  13. Roles & Responsibilities – Functional Managers • Responsibility dependent on the Org Structure, • Avoid conflict by coordinating need of resources with PM • Let the PM know how other project will impact resources, • Provide subject matter expertise, • Contribute to planning and estimating, • Approve final PMP, • Recommend changes, • Improve staff utilization and influence productivity, • Assist with problem of team member performance and development
  14. Roles & Responsibilities – Project Managers • Manages the project to meet project objectives • On big projects they have a team to help them out, • Responsibilities dependent on the Org structure, • Read the list on page 342 of Rita PMP Exam prep.
  15. Roles & Responsibilities – Program Managers • Works on project and program goals, • Manages related projects toward program goal, • Ensure selected project support strategic goals, • Adjust projects for the program benefits, • Guiding and supporting individual project manager’s efforts
  16. Roles & Responsibilities – Portfolio Managers • Works on project and program to meet strategic goals, • Responsible for governance at the executive level , • Ensure value added by unrelated projects and programs • Working with senior executives to gather support for projects and programs, • Getting the best return from resources invested
  17. Exercise
  18. Plan Human Resource Management • Process of identifying and documenting project roles and responsibilities, • Required skills, • Reporting relationships, • Staffing management Plan Inputs include, PMP, EEF, OPA, Org charts and Position descriptions, these include: RAM, RACI Chart
  19. Plan Human Resource Management- Tool & Techniques • Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), • RACI Chart • OBS, • RBS,
  20. Output- Plan Human resource management • Human Resource Management Plan: - Roles and Responsibilities - Project Org Charts, - Staffing Management Plan • Staffing Management Plan: Answer questions like, Where will the staff come from? Resource Calendars, Staff release plans, trainings required, What are the Rewards and Recognitions and their criteria?, how will resources comply with any HR rules? What are the safety requirements
  21. 1 - Plan Human Resource Management, 2 – Acquire Project team 3 – Develop Project team 4- Manage Project team
  22. Develop Project Team • Improve team members’ competencies and interaction, • Improve overall team environment, encourage team work • PM should provide opportunities and challenges, • PM provides support and feedback whenever required, • PM should recognize and reward good performance • Use of soft skills (mentoring, leadership, negotiation, emotional intelligence, empathy etc.) • Communicate effectively, honestly and timely with team • Capitalize on cultural differences, • Hold team building activities and encourage good decision making
  23. Develop Project Team – Tools and Techniques Team building Activities: • Build trust among team members, • WBS is a team building tool, • Tuckman's ladder model of team building Forming, Storming, Norming, Perform Adjourning, • Team building is planned before team is created and implemented all the way through the end of the project, • Includes things like: taking classes together, milestone parties, holiday and birthday celebrations, WBS Creation, outside of work trips, involving in planning.
  24. Develop Project Team – Tools and Techniques Ground rules: • Help establish standards and expectations for the team, • Honesty, conflict resolution techniques, • methods to coordinate and approve changes to team members calendars, • How meetings will be held Colocation, Recognition and Reward, Output: Team Performance assessment (Team Effectiveness)
  25. 1 - Plan Human Resource Management, 2 – Acquire Project team 3 – Develop Project team 4- Manage Project team
  26. Manage Project Team • Tracking team member’s performance and providing feedback, • Resolving issues and conflicts, • Manage team changes to optimize team performance, • Inputs include: HRM Plan, Project staffing, Team performance assessment, Issue log, Work performance report, PA
  27. Management and Leadership Styles • No one way fits all, every situation asks for a specific style, • Underlying factors are personal style, skill and expertise of team members and complexity of the project, • Directing: tell others what to do • Facilitating: coordinates input from others • Coaching: helps team member achieve their goals • Supporting: provides assistance along the way • Autocratic: Top down approach, power lies with the manager • Consultive; bottom up approach, uses influence to achieve results • Consultive-Autocratic:solicits input but retains decision making
  28. Management and Leadership Styles • Consensus: Problem solving and decision making based on group agreement, • Delegating • Bureaucratic: procedure focused- appropriate for work where details are very important • Charismatic: Energizes and encourages team • Democratic: encourages team participation in decision-making • Laissez-faire: Allow to act – used for skilled resources • Analytical: Interview style communication make tech decisions • Driver: constantly giving directions • Influencing: emphasizes teamwork, team building, team DM
  29. Conflict Management • PM can avoid many conflicts by: Informing the team, Clearly assigning work Making work assign- ments interesting, Following good project management • Sources of conflict: Schedules, Project Priorities, Resources, Technical Opinions, Administrative procedures and Personality
  30. Conflict resolution techniques • Collaborating (Problem Solving) – Win-win situation • Compromising (Reconciling) – Lose-lose situation • Withdrawal (Avoidance) • Smoothing (Accommodating) • Forcing (Directing)
  31. Problem solving method Identify Solutions Analyze the problem Define the real or Root problem , not the TIP OF THE ICEBERG Pick a solution and Implement the solution Review the solution , and make sure the solution solved the problem Lessons Learned YesNo
  32. Motivation Theories • McGregor’s Theory of X and Y: Theory X: people need to watched every minute, employees are incapable, avoid responsibility , and avoid work whenever possible, Theory Y: People are working willing to work without supervision and want to achieve, employees can direct their own efforts. • Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: people are not most motivated by money instead they most motivated by contribution and use of their skills,
  33. Motivation Theories • Herzberg’s Two factor Model -Hygiene/Maintenance factors -Motivational Factors Self actualization and Fulfillment Esteem and Status Belonging and Social needs Safety and Security Physiological needs ModelofMaslow’sHierarchyofneeds Self actualization and Fulfillment and Responsibility Advancement Recognition, Professional growth Relation with supervisors , peers, quality of supervision Company policy and pay Working Conditions Herzberg’smotivationand maintenanceModel
  34. Motivation Theories David McClelland’s Theory of needs: • Affiliation (Seek approval and work better when cooperating) • Achievement (prefer challenges and recognition) • Power: need of power socially oriented, are effective leaders , like to organize and influence others.
  35. The Active PMP Learner Research “Supportive leadership and Servant Leadership”
  36. PM Quote of the day Without open communication, without tons of it, you won’t succeed… ~David Deleo
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