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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  1. 1. Edson Mutandwa MBBS IV
  2. 2. TRIAD OF COPD  Chronic bronchitis- Chronic bronchitis is defined as a chronic productive cough for three months in each of two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough (eg, bronchiectasis) have been excluded  Emphysema- defined by abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles that is accompanied by destruction of the airspace walls, without obvious fibrosis (ie, there is no fibrosis visible to the naked eye  Asthma(chronic obstructive asthma)- Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. The chronic inflammation is associated with airway responsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing, particularly at night or in the early morning. These episodes are usually associated with widespread, but variable, airflow obstruction within the lung that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment
  3. 3. Signs and symptoms  Cough, usually worse in the mornings and productive of a small amount of colorless sputum  Cough, usually worse in the mornings and productive of a small amount of colorless sputum  Wheezing: May occur in some patients, particularly during exertion and exacerbations  Hyperinflation (barrel chest)  Diffusely decreased breath sounds  Hyperresonance on percussion  Prolonged expiration  Coarse crackles beginning with inspiration in some cases
  4. 4. DIAGNOSIS The formal diagnosis of COPD is made with spirometry when the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) is less than 70% of that predicted for a matched control, it is diagnostic for a significant obstructive defect.
  5. 5. CXR findings Rapidly tapering vascular shadows, increased radiolucency of the lung, a flat diaphragm, and a long, narrow heart shadow on a frontal radiograph Chest radiograph shows marked hyperexpansion with paucity of vascular structures at the bases and redistribution of vascular flow to the lesser involved upper lobes. These findings are typical of severe panacinar emphysema
  6. 6. CXR findings A flat diaphragmatic contour and an increased retrosternal airspace on a lateral radiograph The PA (A) and lateral (B) chest x- rays of a 71-year-old female with emphysema show increased lung volumes with flattened hemidiaphragms on the lateral examination (long yellow arrow) and increase in the retrosternal space (short white arrow). The normal retrosternal airspace is less than 2.5 cm. A prominent pulmonary artery on the posteroanterior view (blue arrowhead) reflects secondary pulmonary hypertension
  7. 7. CXR findings Bullae-They are due to locally severe disease, and may or may not be accompanied by widespread emphysema Chest radiograph shows large bilateral collections of gas devoid of any vascular structures with a sharp edge concave laterally, which is a differentiating feature from pneumothorax. The functioning lung is retracted to the bases.
  8. 8. Computed tomography  Computed tomography (CT) has greater sensitivity and specificity than standard chest radiography for the detection of emphysema, but not chronic bronchitis or asthma  CT scanning is not needed for the routine diagnosis of COPD. Usually, it is performed when a change in symptoms suggests a complication of COPD (eg, pneumonia, pneumothorax, giant bullae), an alternate diagnosis (eg, thromboembolic disease), or when a patient is being considered for lung volume reduction surgery  Certain CT scan features can determine whether the emphysema is centriacinar (centrilobular), panacinar, or paraseptal, although this is usually not necessary for clinical management
  10. 10. Centriacinar emphysema Axial CT images confirm the presence of centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema (A) and pulmonary hypertension (B). The lung parenchyma shows lucent spaces of parenchymal destruction interspersed among normal lung tissue best appreciated in the right upper lobe (A). The main pulmonary artery (arrow) measures 3.8 cm (normal <2.9 cm). The pulmonary artery and aorta should be about the same size and in this case the main pulmonary artery is larger than the companion ascending aorta
  11. 11. Panacinar emphysema Panacinar emphysema more commonly involves the lung bases and involves the entire secondary pulmonary lobule. Panacinar emphysema can cause a generalized paucity of vascular structures HRCT shows a paucity of vascular structures in both lower lobes, most evident in the anterior-basal segment of the right lower lobe.
  12. 12. Paraseptal (distal acinar) emphysema Paraseptal (distal acinar) emphysema produces small, sub pleural collections of gas located in the periphery of the secondary pulmonary lobule Several sub pleural emphysematous spaces are present in the periphery of the left upper lobe (arrows) in a patient with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema
  13. 13. Paraseptal emphysema in the periphery of both upper lobes and in the left lower lobe on a background of centrilobular emphysema. Several large sub pleural bullae are visible in both lungs and are the result of paraseptal emphysema.
  14. 14. MANAGEMENT  Stage I (mild obstruction): Short-acting bronchodilator as needed  Stage II (moderate obstruction): Short-acting bronchodilator as needed; long-acting bronchodilator(s); cardiopulmonary rehabilitation  Stage III (severe obstruction): Short-acting bronchodilator as needed; long-acting bronchodilator(s); cardiopulmonary rehabilitation; inhaled glucocorticoids if repeated exacerbations  Stage IV (very severe obstruction or moderate obstruction with evidence of chronic respiratory failure): Short-acting bronchodilator as needed; long-acting bronchodilator(s); cardiopulmonary rehabilitation; inhaled glucocorticoids if repeated exacerbation; long-term oxygen therapy (if criteria met); consider surgical options such as lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and lung transplantation
  15. 15. references  www.uptodate.com  http://emedicine.medscape.com