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ACH 121 Lecture 14 (Finishes)

  1. 1. Finishes Purpose of Interior Finishing Interior Surfaces Wall Finishes  Floor Finishes  Ceiling Finishes  Finish Carpentry Architectural Moldings and Woodwork 
  2. 2. Why do we Finish interiors? <ul><li>Finishes include materials and systems used to make the visible surfaces of the interior floors, walls and ceilings. </li></ul><ul><li>Must cover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thermal & moisture protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanical/electrical systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why do we Finish interiors? <ul><li>Critical influence on the aesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interior finishes must be resistant to wear and cleanable </li></ul><ul><li>Additional factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire-resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal insulation value </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Applied to the interior plane of the framing </li></ul><ul><li>Additional paints and coatings are applied </li></ul><ul><li>Moldings and woodwork are applied over this surface </li></ul><ul><li>Installed around openings (doors, windows, vents) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical boxes (outlets, switches) installed flush with surfaces </li></ul>
  5. 5. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Types of Wall Finishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gypsum wall board systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaster and lath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet paneling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board paneling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tile </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Gypsum wall board systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefabricated plaster sheet material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core: slurry of calcined gypsum, starch, water, pregenerated form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faced with special paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective (least expensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical size is 4ft x 8ft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness vary: 1/8” to ¾” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular is ½” or 5/8” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Gypsum wall board systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Gypsum Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular gypsum board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water-resistant gypsum board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water-repellent paper facing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture resistant core </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in bathrooms and kitchens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type X gypsum board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required for fire-rated assemblies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core is reinforced with short glass fibers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Gypsum wall board systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Gypsum Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ceiling board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-strength board for ceilings with widely spaced joists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically ½” thick, but light enough to eliminate sag </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foil-backed gypsum board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used as an vapor retarder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veneer-plaster base board; “blueboard” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used with veneer-plaster finishing system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds the curing process of the veneer plaster </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Gypsum wall board systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Finish systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drywall Finishing System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joints and fasteners are covered with joint compound </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ mud” dries by evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joints are first covered with reinforcing tape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 2-3 coats, with sanding in between </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veneer Plaster Finishing System (Thincoat) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One coat system that produces a smoother, harder surface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiberglass mesh installed over joints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire wall is covered with 1/8” layer of plaster </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cures by hydration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sanding is required </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Corner bead Joint Compound Joint Reinforcing Tape Joint Tape Applied
  11. 11. Finishing Operations & Materials/Equipment
  12. 12. <ul><li>Screw Attachment </li></ul>Nail attachment (note damaged surface)
  13. 13. Applying Joint Compound
  14. 14. Sanding
  15. 16. Drywall Suspension System
  16. 17. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Plaster & Lath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 or 3 coat system applied over a metal or gypsum lath (mesh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in older homes built in the mid 1800’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was not used as widely after WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be applied over wood frame and masonry </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Board Paneling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in lieu of plastering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from softwoods (pine, fir, cedar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue-and-goove edge detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastened with blind nails to framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: 1” nominal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used as widely as gypsum board </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Types of Finishes applied over gypsum wall board, plaster or board paneling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latex enamel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stains and varnishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wallpaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinyl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fabric </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Ragging
  20. 21. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Sheet Paneling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefinished panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood, OSB, hardboard or veneered gypsum board with wood, fabric, paper or vinyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: 1/8” to ¾” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasteners are generally visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grooves are created to camouflage fasteners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edges are shiplapped, butted or covered with trim </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes
  22. 24. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Tile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, modular units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay or ceramic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glazed: glossy, matte finishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unglazed: hard and dense, rough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-resistant, durable, easy to clean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Ceramic Tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glazed Wall Tile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramic Mosaic Tile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarry and Paver Tiles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Interior Surfaces - Wall Finishes <ul><li>Tile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied in two processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinset Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tile is bonded to gypsum board with a thin coat of dry-set mortar or latex-portland cement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In bath and kitchen areas, glass-fiber-reinforced concrete backer is used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thickset Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tile is applied over a bed of portland-cement mortar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each process requires grout to fill spaces between tiles </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Fireplace surround & hearth using ceramic tile
  25. 27. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Major functional component </li></ul><ul><li>Affects acoustics of room </li></ul><ul><li>Floors reflect light in various ways </li></ul><ul><li>Primary wearing surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to water, grit, dust, abrasive and penetrating actions of feet and furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require more cleaning and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to deal with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sanitation issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skid resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noise reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must also serve as an aesthetic to the space </li></ul><ul><li>Additional consideration concerns fire resistance and combustibility </li></ul>
  26. 28. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Types of Floor Finishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood Flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilient Flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrazzo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tile </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Wood Flooring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue-and-grooved strips or planks of wood nailed to subflooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White oak, red oak, pecan or maple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strips are held tightly together and blind nailed by driving nails diagonally through upper interior corners of the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strips are sanded smooth, stained and finished with clear coating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low fire-resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Types of wood flooring systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard strip flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefinished wood plank flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes Parquet tiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glued to subfloor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanding and finishing not required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating floor system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laminated veneered planks are glued together, not to subfloor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laid over a polystyrene sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor expands and contracts with humidity or temperature change; gap is left around edges at walls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Resilient Flooring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet or tile flooring made with linoleum or vinyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linoleum made of ground cork in a lindseed oil binder over burlap backing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s flooring is made from polyvinyl chloride in combination with reinforcing fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooring is glued to subfloor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range of colors and patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately high degree of durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Carpet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet of fibers (or pile) woven on a fiberglass mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a style or pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plush </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shag </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loop (Berber) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many weaves & colors available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretched over a carpet pad and attached around the perimeter of the room using a tackless strip fastened to subfloor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low to moderate durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs vary </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Terrazzo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic floor material consisting of concrete with an aggregate of marble or stone chips which is ground and polished smooth after curing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marble and granite chips are selected for size and color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors and patterns are separated with metal or plastic divider strips, then terrazzo mixture is poured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed-in-place or factory-made tiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly durable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. http://www.ntma.com/07__honor_awards.php
  33. 39. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes <ul><li>Tile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarry tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramic tile </li></ul></ul>
  34. 40. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes STONE TILE <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting Bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouted joints </li></ul></ul>
  35. 41. Marble Flooring
  36. 42. Granite Flooring
  37. 43. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes QUARRY TILE <ul><li>Fired Clay tiles </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple shapes/sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting Bed (typical) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin Set </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grout Joints </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Interior Surfaces - Floor Finishes CERAMIC TILE <ul><li>Fired Clay - Typ. Smaller than Quarry tile </li></ul><ul><li>Often Glazed Finish </li></ul><ul><li>Floors & Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sizes & colors </li></ul>
  39. 45. Ann Sacks Daltile
  40. 46. Ceramic Tile Flooring
  41. 49. Interior Surfaces – Ceiling Finishes <ul><li>Applied to the interior plane of the framing </li></ul><ul><li>Affects acoustics of room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents passage of sound vertically from floor to floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed to resist the passage of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of conditioned air, artificial light, electrical energy and fire suppression (sprinklers) </li></ul><ul><li>Must also serve as an aesthetic to the space </li></ul>
  42. 50. Interior Surfaces – Ceiling Finishes <ul><li>Types of Ceiling Finishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gypsum Wall Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustical Ceiling Tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended Acoustical Ceiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty Ceilings </li></ul></ul>
  43. 52. The what and why of Architectural Woodwork : <ul><li>Interior and exterior finishes typically found on walls, ceilings and passages </li></ul><ul><li>Often ornamental in design </li></ul><ul><li>Used as reproduction for historical authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes structural (less common) </li></ul>
  44. 53. Some examples of Architectural Woodwork : Mouldings Mantles Columns
  45. 54. Columns <ul><li>Greek origin; structural in design </li></ul><ul><li>Orders (styles) developed over Greek and Roman periods in history </li></ul><ul><li>Typical uses today are generally ornamental and to define spaces </li></ul>
  46. 55. Standard Column Orders Doric Ionic Corinthian
  47. 56. Rendering of an Ionic column from top to bottom: Abacus Volute Echinus Shaft
  48. 57. Examples of Greek and Roman Column Orders Roman Doric Roman Tuscan Greek Ionic Greek Corinthian
  49. 58. Columns Outdoor structural use
  50. 59. Columns Indoor structural use
  51. 60. Columns Outdoor decorative use
  52. 61. Columns Indoor decorative use
  53. 62. <ul><li>Originally used indoors as a functional need at the beginning in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Became a decorative element in the late Gothic period </li></ul><ul><li>Used today as a decorative element </li></ul><ul><li>More ornate designs will be a focal point in the room </li></ul>Mantles
  54. 63. Rendering of part of a mantle in a traditional paneled style with a carved medallion. Mantels
  55. 64. Mantels
  56. 65. Mantels Historically influenced mantles with columns and broken pediments
  57. 66. Mantels Mantles as the focal point of a room
  58. 67. Mouldings <ul><li>Typically used as finish work on floors; these are known as base mouldings </li></ul><ul><li>Also used on all portions of walls (dado/main field/cornice) as well as doors/doorways and windows </li></ul><ul><li>Can be very simple to quite ornate </li></ul><ul><li>Are used to formalize a room’s décor </li></ul><ul><li>Are used as a historical element when decorating or restoring a space </li></ul>
  59. 68. Rendering of part of a crown moulding in a traditional style with a dentil trim. Mouldings
  60. 69. Passage into a Room Mouldings
  61. 70. Historical influence Mouldings
  62. 71. Architects and Designers must specify : <ul><li>Species and cut of wood; </li></ul><ul><li>Grain direction and articulated joints; </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental details for scale, aesthetics and historical integrity (if applicable); </li></ul><ul><li>Joinery for proper function; </li></ul><ul><li>Fire retardant rating (if applicable) and preservative treatment (exterior only) </li></ul>
  63. 72. <ul><li>Specification of grade level (for quality of workmanship) </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothness of flat and moulded surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Installation recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-retardant solid lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Sources for wood ornamentation </li></ul>Architects and Designers must specify :
  64. 73. Criteria for Specifications: <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Machining and joinery </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothness of exposed surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Tightness and flushness of plant assembled joints </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of grain and color </li></ul>
  65. 74. Specification Requirements <ul><li>The Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) lists the quality standards for engineering, fabricating, finishing and installing architectural woodwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum requirements are listed in three grades: premium, custom and economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The architect/designer must specify which grade in order to ensure materials meet expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Any additional requirements must be explicitly made known to woodworkers and carpenters. </li></ul>
  66. 75. End of Lecture Series Prepare for Final Exam Final Exam: Dec. 12 th at 10:00am