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Curricula as contested and contesting spaces: Geographies of identity, resistance and desire

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Invited presentation at "Transforming the Curriculum: South African Imperatives and 21st Century Possibilities", University of Pretoria 28 January 2016. A voice-over of the presentation is available on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFwQ6oa8_y0

A full draft version of the presentation can be found at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292502252_Curricula_as_contested_and_contesting_spaces_Geographies_of_identity_resistance_and_desire

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Curricula as contested and contesting spaces: Geographies of identity, resistance and desire

  1. 1. Curricula as contested and contesting spaces: Geographies of identity, resistance and desire By Paul Prinsloo (University of South Africa) Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1847_Levasseur_Map_of_Africa_-_Geographicus_-_Africa-levasseur-1847.jpg Presentation at Transforming the Curriculum: South African Imperatives and 21st Century Possibilities University of Pretoria, 28 January 2016
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I do not own the copyright of any of the images in this presentation. I therefore acknowledge the original copyright and licensing regime of every image used. This presentation (excluding the images) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
  3. 3. The Fight Between Carnival and Lent, Pieter Bruegel 1559, Den Bosch. Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnival
  4. 4. “… pattern-making devices that situate or locate patterns within their larger social contexts; they are [also] decentering devices” (Bedoes, Schimpf & Pawley, 2014, p.3; emphasis added) A well-chosen metaphor “is one of our most important tools for trying to comprehend partially what cannot be comprehended totally…” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 193) The metaphors we use to describe and understand phenomena are not benign but are consciously chosen to assist us in understanding a particular phenomenon, and also shape future understandings of the phenomenon to the exclusion of other understandings (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) METAPHORS AND VISUAL ELEMENTS ARE…
  5. 5. OVERVIEW OF THE PRESENTATION • Prologue – locating the debate, myself, claims and disclaimers • Introduction – possible approaches to the curriculum as contested and contesting space • Mapping the ‘field’ of curriculum transformation – who/what is on the table and who decides, and why does it matter… • Four discursive spaces of enunciation for making sense of curriculum transformation • Hope, the abandonment of hope and the future of white curriculum scholarship • (In)conclusions • Epilogue Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi le:1847_Levasseur_Map_of_Africa_- _Geographicus_-_Africa-levasseur- 1847.jpg Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/location-poi- pin-marker-position-304467/
  6. 6. TRANFORMING THE CURRICULUM: SOUTH AFRICAN IMPERATIVES AND 21ST CENTURY POSSIBILITIES Different possible approaches: • Everything is awesome – why transform the curriculum? Worst case scenario: Can we change the admission requirements to allow more disadvantaged students? Can we add a module or two? • Current curricula are fundamentally rigged and we need to address racism, capitalism, colonialism, heteropatriarchy, nationalism. Implications: We need to redefine what is valuable knowledge – epistemological change • Current curricula are unfixable and we need to formulate alternatives, hack the system, occupy the curriculum and/or hold the hand of the current system and wait for it to die. Implications: We need to redefine what it means to be human – ontological change de Oliveira Andreotti, Stein, Ahenakew, & Hunt, 2015
  7. 7. MAKING THE INVISIBLE VISIBLE We need to ask – who are the ‘we’ that must/want to transform the curriculum? Who are doing the talking? Who is included? Who is excluded? Who determines what is valuable knowledge? What are the criteria? Who are the gatekeepers? Who?
  8. 8. Who am I? What/who gives me the right to speak? How do I as a 56 years old, white, gay male talk about and participate in talking about the transformation of the curriculum? How do I disentangle my tentative contribution from my position of being a settler, having grown up in settler communities, schools, and going to a settler university where the language of tuition was a settler language, where people of displaced communities and their epistemologies were marginalised and excluded? (See Tuck & Yang, 2012; Tuck & Gaztambide-Fernández, 2013)
  9. 9. My thinking about transforming the curriculum cannot be disconnected from the intersecting and often incommensurable (see Boellstorff, 2005) dynamics of race, my sex, my gender and my age in the particular context of South Africa and the African continent. “Each of these tags has a meaning, and a penalty and a responsibility” (Achebe in an interview with Appiah, 1995, p. 103).
  10. 10. I accept moral innocence as an impossibility
  11. 11. SOME CLAIMS AND DISCLAIMERS • I belief there are some things that education (on its own) cannot do… Degrees cannot fix the cumulative effect of structural racism that doesn’t just reinforce the link between family wealth and returns to educational attainment in the labour market but exists as a primary function of that link (McMillan Cottom, 2014, par. 17) To “expand education in an unequal society without a redistribution of resources, you will [merely] reproduce inequality” (McMillan Cottom in Prinsloo, 2015a)
  12. 12. SOME MORE CLAIMS AND DISCLAIMERS • I also believe that knowledge is not an unqualified good. “The uses of knowledge will always be shifting and crooked as humans are themselves. Humans use what they know to meet their most urgent needs – even if the result is ruin” (Gray, 2002, p. 28; emphasis added) • I don’t belief in the redemptive power of the neoliberal mantra of progress and unchecked growth. “History is not an ascending spiral of human advance, or even an inch- by inch crawl to a better world. It is an unending cycle in which changing knowledge interacts with unchanging human needs. Freedom is recurrently won and lost in an alternation that includes long periods of anarchy and tyranny, and there is no reason to suppose that this cycle will ever end” (Gray, 2004, p. 3; emphasis added)
  13. 13. FINAL CLAIM/DISCLAIMER • No curriculum is neutral Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choice Image credit: http://www.yutanpublicschools.com/vnews/display.v/TP/525ff1 59ab3c2
  14. 14. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION Who are the ‘we’ ? What is included & excluded? The role and power of the gatekeepers The role and mandate of higher education The scope and impact of technology The macro and institutional contexts and their impact The language of the curriculum The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  15. 15. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION Who are the ‘we’ ? The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  16. 16. The edifice of the professoriate (Maserumule, 2015) • In 2014 at Unisa, of the total of 504 associate and full professors, 68% were over the age of 50 (Prinsloo, 2014) • In the South African higher education context only 14% of university professors are black (Van der Merwe, 2014) • The vast majority of researchers in South African higher education are still white and male (Habib, Price & Mabelebele, 2014) • In the context of the UK, female professors “now account for 23% of professors” (Grove, 2016, par. 8) • In the North American context, there are not only fewer women at the top of the academic hierarchy, but they are also paid less than men (Mason, 2011), and accounts for only 23% of the professoriate. Male academics have a 4-to-1 chance of being interviewed compared to female scholars in the same field (Dione, 2013)
  17. 17. • Let us also not forget the role of publishing houses such as Pearson, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer and many others in determining worthwhile and valuable knowledge • The role of celebrity professor – who also happen to be white and male – in the context of massive open online courses (MOOCs) offered by a range of Ivy League and other alliances from North- Atlantic contexts (Burd, Smith, & Reisman, 2014; Czerniewicz, Deacon, Small, & Walji, 2014; Fournier, Kop, & Durand, 2014) • We also have to consider the role of regulatory bodies, industry and accrediting authorities who, often, don’t necessarily see higher education’s role as serving social justice and interrupting neoliberal discourses and breaking cycles of economic and societal inequalities
  18. 18. Image credit: http://www.moneyweb.co.za/news/south-africa/university-students-continue-free-education-protest/ Often, missing from curriculum development projects are students as official stakeholders… Or maybe they are there – unofficially - occupying campuses, protesting, using social media campaigns to produce counter-narratives (e.g. #RhodesMustFall, #BlackLivesMatter)
  19. 19. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (2) What is included & excluded? The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  20. 20. • Our curricula is whiter than the Oscars Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/01/the-oscars-havent-been-this-white-in-19-years/384550/
  21. 21. How is it possible that the canon of thought in all the disciplines of the Social Sciences and Humanities in the Westernised university is based on the knowledge produced by a few men from five countries in Western Europe (Italy, France, England, Germany and the USA)? How is it possible that men from these five countries achieved such an epistemic privilege to the point that their knowledge today is considered superior over the knowledge of the rest of the world? How did they come to monopolise the authority of knowledge in the world? Why is it that what we know today as social, historical, philosophical, or Critical Theory is based on the socio-historical experience and world views of men from these five countries? (Grosfoguel, 2013, p. 74)
  22. 22. What are the “absences and silences” (Morley, 2012) in our curricula? And why? Who is ‘invisible’ and who is ‘invisible’ in our curricula? “…how do you make people look at you when they can’t even see you? How do you make them take notice in the first place?” (Murphy, 2016, par. 11) Image credit: https://samanthaburgoyne.wordpress.com/2014/06/15/the-invisible-man-book-cover-design/
  23. 23. The curriculum is a “contested space” (Prinsloo, 2007) and “an arena of struggle” (Shay, 2015) Image credit: Canadian Gunners in the Mud, Passchendaele by Lieutenant Alfred Bastien, 1917, oil on canvas. Retrieved from, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_art
  24. 24. Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodes_Must_Fall “The tectonic layers of our lives rest so tightly against earlier events in later ones, not as matter that has been fully formed and pushed aside, but absolutely present and alive” (Booth 1999:260; emphasis added)
  25. 25. The ‘what’ of the curriculum is determined by those who lay claim to own the future … … and they will protect their claim at all cost
  26. 26. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (3) The role and power of the gatekeepers The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  27. 27. • The professoriate, many with a “collective amnesia” (Olusoga, 2016), selective memory and/or wilful and stubborn ignorance • The retired professoriate who ‘speaks from the grave’ • Commercial curriculum development service providers • The disciplines • Regulatory bodies and industry • Accrediting authorities • Massive open online courses (MOOC) providers • Publishing houses and the oligopoly of academic publishers (Larivière, Haustein, & Mongeon, 2015)?
  28. 28. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (4) The role and mandate of higher education The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  29. 29. • There are multiple and often contradictory claims regarding the changing role of higher education in the 21st century (eg Barnett 2000; 2009; Blackmore, 2001) • Curricula are direct responses to the impact of neoliberal capitalisms – with higher education as the ‘handmaiden’ of corporations in an “age of money and profit, [where] academic disciplines gain stature almost exclusively through their exchange value on the market, and students now rush to take courses and receive professional credentials that provide them with the cache they need to sell themselves to the higher bidder” (Giroux 2003, p. 182)
  30. 30. • Blackmore (2001) talks about “academic capitalism” where academics “sell their expertise to the highest bidder, research collaboratively, and teaching on/off line, locally and internationally” • The corporatisation of higher education (Diefenbach, 2007) • Globalisation (Barnett 2000; Blackmore 2001) • Universities are no longer the “primary producers, determiners, transmitters, and authorisers of valued knowledge” (Blackmore, 2001, p. 353; see also Barnett, 2000) • Higher education as “moral and political practice” means to “educate students for active and critical citizenship” (Giroux, 2003, p.193)
  31. 31. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (5) The scope and impact of technology The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  32. 32. Image credit: http://brabazon.net/google I click therefore I am. I click therefore I know Networks not only include but also exclude (people, knowledge, access, power) Networks not only open up and reveal, but also close, censor, and filter (Carr, 2011; Pariser, 2011) Not everyone is connected, but everyone is affected (Castells, 2009; World Bank, 2016) The quality of information, the need for verification, the need for counter- narratives, the need for critical engagement and confrontation
  33. 33. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (6) The macro and institutional contexts and their impactThe curriculum as contested/contesting space
  34. 34. Image credit: Found on Facebook
  35. 35. • “Runaway inequality” (Oxfam, 2016) structured according to race (Moore, 2015)(Also see Piketty, 2015) • Higher education contributes to the increasing stratification of society (Wakeling & Savage, 2015) • Increasing number of unemployed – classified as “disposable”, “collateral casualties of progress” (Bauman, 2004, p.12, 15), a new underclass – the “precariat” (Standing, 2011) • “…pathological consumption has become so normalised that we scarcely notice it” (Monbiot, 2012)
  36. 36. • Looking for a middle-ground between forgiveness and restitution, revenge versus justice (Jirsa, 2004) caught in the dialectic between apartheid, Ubuntu and nation-building (Marx, 2002) • The age of the anthropocene or capitalocene (Moore, 2016), the fourth industrial revolution (Schwab, 2016), and a new Dark Age characterised by global warming, water shortages and climate refugees, unstoppable global migrations, and non-state actors with extreme weapons, to mention but a few of the elements of the 21st century explored by Martin (2007)
  37. 37. The “McDonaldisation” of higher education with the mantra of efficiency, quantification, calculability, predictability and control. Changes in funding regimes resulted in the directive that “funding … follows performance rather than precedes it” (Hartley, 1995, p. 418). (Also see Altbach, Reisberg, & Rumbley,2009) The professoriate is also compelled to do more with less, while being blamed for “the ever-expanding list of the university’s system’s shortcomings” (Altbach & Finkelstein, 2014, par. 3) Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mcdonalds-90s-logo.svg
  38. 38. Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travel_class In the North American context, “… research universities will have three classes of professors, like the airlines. A small first-class cabin of researchers, a business-class section of academics who will teach and do some research, and a large economy cabin of poorly paid teachers (Altbach & Finkelstein, 2014, par. 16)
  39. 39. The “all administrative university” (Ginsberg quoted by Giroux, 2014a, par. 1) Professorships as tenured or full-time faculty are becoming increasingly disposable features of neoliberal higher education (Giroux, 2014b) as the number of adjunct faculty and administrative staff members far exceed the appointment of academics (Giroux, 2014a)… Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leviathan
  40. 40. MAPPING CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION (7) The language of the curriculum The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  41. 41. It is impossible (and disingenuous) to disentangle the language of the curriculum from structural arrangements resulting from and endorsed by colonialism and apartheid. We cannot and should not underestimate the role language as vehicle of worldview, knowledge claims and ways-of-being-in-the-world played and continue to play in curriculum development The language of the curriculum provides me not only with the curriculum, but also coerces me into seeing the world through the eyes of that language and forces me to participate in using that language as meaning-making-system in positioning my scholarship and being in the world
  42. 42. How do we empower students to not only be competent in settler languages but also have a critical understanding of the embedded and often hidden assumptions, epistemologies and ontologies that are part of the DNA of disciplinary, settler and other languages?
  43. 43. We also cannot and should not ignore the fact that our students and graduates need to be able to understand and participate in local and international scholarly and societal discourses which use settler languages. How will we empower our students to participate in these discourses in settler languages and formulate contesting and counter-narratives and worldviews? The language of the curriculum is not neutral. The issues surrounding choosing a language of curricula and teaching are complex and often contradictory. Despite these difficulties, we cannot and should not ignore thinking critically about the language of the curriculum.
  44. 44. ENGAGING WITH THE CURRICULUM AS CONTESTED AND CONTESTING SPACE Who are the ‘we’ ? What is included & excluded? The role and power of the gatekeepers The role and mandate of higher education The scope and impact of technology The macro and institutional contexts and their impact The language of the curriculum The curriculum as contested/contesting space
  45. 45. Soft-reform space Radical-reform space Beyond-reform space Modernity’s life support Modernity’s palliative care Recognitionofepistemologicalhegemony Never have been happier, healthier, wealthier Problems addressed through personal transformation Problems addressed through institutional change The game is awesome! Everyone can win once we know the rules The game is rigged, so if we want to win we need to change the rules The game is harmful and makes us immature, but we’re stuck playing Playing the game does not make sense Recognitionofontologicalhegemony Recognitionofmetaphysicalentrapment Racism Capitalism Colonialism Heteropatriarchy Nationalism Race, capital, heteropatriarchy as modernity (unfixable) Alternatives with guarantees Hacking Hospicing Other modes of existence based on different cosmologies ? ? (Adapted from de Oliveira Andreotti, Stein, Ahenakew, & Hunt, 2015,p. 25) FOUR SPACES OF ENUNCIATION
  46. 46. (IN)CONCLUSIONS The game is awesome! Everyone can win once we know the rules The game is rigged, so if we want to win we need to change the rules The game is harmful and makes us immature, but we’re stuck playing Playing the game does not make sense Soft-reform space Radical-reform space Beyond-reform space
  47. 47. EPILOGUE “… we [I] cannot not be White. And we [I] cannot undo what Whiteness has done. We [I] can only start from where we are and who we are” (Michael, 2015, par. 13). I therefore cannot undo my whiteness. I carry with my race its legacy, its guilt, its penalties and its futures (also see Hall, 2015) “As White scholars, we are overwhelmed by the weight of our own complicity, and unable to submit to racism’s irreconcilability, we yearn to rationalise it, cure it, erase it, control it. We do this, in part, by fitting it into our progress narrative, asserting that we have valiantly overcome our own racism and imaging a future in which racism will no longer exist” (Maudlin, 2014, p. 147)
  48. 48. EPILOGUE “We must acknowledge the ways that White supremacy continues to shape the field, and relinquish the hope that we can preserve the humanist project without invoking its racist assumptions” (Maudlin, 2014, p. 148) Image credit: http://genius.com/Dante-alighieri-inferno-canto-3-annotated
  49. 49. “After all, without hope there is little that we can do” (Freire, 1994, p. 9) ‘Maybe’ comes with no guarantees, only a chance. But ‘maybe’ has always been the best odds the world has offered to those who set out to alter its course – to find a new land across the sea, to end slavery, to enable women to vote, to walk on the moon, to bring down the Berlin Wall. ‘Maybe’ is not a cautious word. It is a defiant claim of possibility in the face of a status quo we are unwilling to accept… (Young in the Foreword to Westley, Zimmerman & Patton 2006)
  50. 50. THANK YOU Paul Prinsloo (Prof) Research Professor in Open Distance Learning (ODL) College of Economic and Management Sciences, Office number 3-15, Club 1, Hazelwood, P O Box 392 Unisa, 0003, Republic of South Africa T: +27 (0) 12 433 4719 (office) T: +27 (0) 82 3954 113 (mobile) prinsp@unisa.ac.za Skype: paul.prinsloo59 Personal blog: http://opendistanceteachingandlearning.wordpress.com Twitter profile: @14prinsp
  51. 51. References and additional reading list Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Philip_Altbach/publication/225084084_Trends_in_Global_Higher_Educati on_Tracking_an_Academic_Revolution/links/551ac4020cf251c35b4f5d0d.pdf Altbach, P.G., & Finkelstein, M.J. (2014, October 7). Forgetting the faculty. InsideHigherEd. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/10/07/essay-way-many-reformers-higher-education-are-ignoring- faculty-role Amory, D.P. (1997). ‘Homosexuality’ in Africa: issues and debates. Issue: A Journal of Opinion, 25(1): 5-10. Anonymous. (2014, 15 August). Universities focus too much on measuring activity, not quality. The Guardian. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education- network/blog/2014/aug/15/academics-anonymous-universities-measure-activity-not-quality Anderson, C. (2008, July 23). The end of theory. Wired (online). Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2008/06/pb-theory/ Appiah, K.A. (1995). African identities. In L. Nicholson & S. Seidman (eds.). Social postmodernism: beyond identity politics (pp. 103—115). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Appiah, K.A. (2006). Cosmopolitanism. Ethics in a world of strangers. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Bakhtin, M.M. (1984). Rabelais and his world. Translated by H. Iswolsky. Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press. Baldwin, A. (2012). Whiteness and futurity Towards a research agenda. Progress in human geography, 36(2), 172-187. Barnett, R. (2000). University knowledge in an age of supercomplexity. Higher Education, (40), 409-422.
  52. 52. References and additional reading list Barnett, R. (2009). Knowing and becoming in the higher education curriculum, Studies in Higher Education, 34(4), 429- 440. Bauman, Z. (1995). Searching for a centre that holds, in M. Featherstone, S. Lash, & R. Robertson (Eds.), Global modernities (pp. 140-154). London: Sage. Bauman, Z. (1998). Globalisation: The human consequences. New York: Columbia University Press. Bauman, Z. (2004). Wasted lives. Modernity and its outcasts. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Bauman, Z. (2011). Collateral damage. Social inequalities in a global age. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Bauman, Z. (2012). On education. Conversations with Riccardo Mazzeo. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Beddoes, K., Schimpf, CM., Pawley, AL. (2014). New metaphors for new understandings: ontological questions about developing grounded theories in engineering education. Paper presented at the 121st ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana, June 15-18. Retrieved from http://www.asee.org/public/conferences/32/papers/9010/download Belfanti, C.M. (2004). Guilds, patents, and the circulation of technical knowledge. Northern Italy during the early modern age. Technology and Culture, 45(3), 569–589. Blackmore, J. (2001). Universities in crisis? Knowledge economies, emancipatory pedagogies, and the critical intellectual. Educational Theory, 51(3), 353-370. Boellstorff, T. (2005). Between religion and desire: being Muslim and Gay in Indonesia. American Anthropologist 107(4), 575-585. Booth, W.J. (1999). Communities of memory: on identity, memory, and debt. The American Political Science Review 93(2), 249-263.
  53. 53. References and additional reading list Brabazon, T. (2007). The university of Google. Education in the (post)information age. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate. Burd, E. L., Smith, S. P., & Reisman, S. (2014). Exploring business models for MOOCs in higher education. Innovative Higher Education, 40(1), 37-49. Carr, N. (2010). The shallows. How the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. London, UK: Atlantic Books. Castells, M. (2009). Communication power. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chisholm, L. (2005). The politics of curriculum review and revision in South Africa in regional context. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education 35(1), 79-100. Coates, T-N. (2014, May 22). The case for reparations: an intellectual autopsy. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/05/the-case-for-reparations-an-intellectual- autopsy/371125/ Coates, T-N. (2015). Between the world and me. Melbourne: Text Publishing. Czerniewicz, L., Deacon, A., Small, J., & Walji, S. (2014). Developing world MOOCs: A curriculum view of the MOOC landscape. Journal of Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies, 2(3), 122-139. Retrieved from http://joglep.com/files/7614/0622/4917/2._Developing_world_MOOCs.pdf Davenport, T.H., & Prusak, L. (2000). Working knowledge: how organisations manage what they know. Ubiquity, 2000 (August 1 - August 31). Retrieved from http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=348775 Deem, R., & Brehony, K.J. (2005). Management as ideology: the case of ‘new managerialism’ in higher education. Oxford Review of Education, 31(2), 217—235. DOI: 10.1080/03054980500117827 Deem, R. (2011). ‘New managerialism’ and higher education: the management of performances and cultures in universities in the United Kingdom. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 8(1), 47—70. DOI: 10.1080/0962021980020014
  54. 54. References and additional reading list de Oliveira Andreotti, V., Stein, S., Ahenakew, C., & Hunt, D. (2015). Mapping interpretations of decolonization in the context of higher education. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 4(1), 21-40. Diefenbach, T. (2007). The managerialistic ideology of organisational change management. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 20(1), 126-144. Dione, E. (2013, July 8). Why do we have more female scholars but few public intellectuals? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://bitchmagazine.org/post/why-do-we-have-more-female-scholars-but-few-public- intellectuals Epprecht, M. (2013). Sexuality and Social Justice in Africa. London, UK: Zed Books. Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth (translated by Constance Farrington). New York, NY: Grove Press. Fenwick, T. (2006). The audacity of hope: Towards poorer pedagogies. Studies in the Education of Adults, 38(1), 9-24. Fournier, H., Kop, R., & Durand, G. (2014). Challenges to research in MOOCs. Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 10(1), 1-15. Freire, P. (1973). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of hope. London: Continuum. Friedman, T.L. (2016, January 13). The age of protest. The New York Times (online). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/13/opinion/the-age-of-protest.html?_r=0 Frum, D. (2016, January, 19). Trump-Palin: An alliance of the aggrieved. The Atlantic. (Online). Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/01/the-alliance-of-the-aggrieved/424764/ Giroux, H.A. (2003). Selling out higher education. Policy Futures in Education, 1(1), 179-311. Giroux, H.A. (2014a, March 19). Beyond neoliberal miseducation. TruthOut. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/22548-henry-giroux-beyond-neoliberal-miseducation
  55. 55. References and additional reading list Giroux, H. (2014b, April 8). Neoliberalism and the machinery of disposability. TruthOut. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/22958-neoliberalism-and-the-machinery-of- disposability Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Edited by Q. Hoare and G. N. Smith. New York, NY: International Publishers. Gray, J. (2002). Straw dogs. Thoughts on humans and other animals. London, UK: Granta Books. Gray, J. (2004). Heresies. Against progress and other illusions. London, UK: Granta Books. Gray, J. (2008). Black mass. Apocalyptic religion and the death of Utopia. London, UK: Penguin Books. Grosfoguel, R. (2013). The structure of knowledge in Westernized universities: Epistemic racism/sexism and the four genocides/epistemicides of the long 16th century. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self- Knowledge, 11(1), 8, 73-90. Grove, J. (2016, January 22). Higher education workforce exceeds 400,000. Times Higher Education (online). Retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/higher-education-workforce-exceeds- 400000?platform=hootsuite Habib, A., Price, M., & Mabelebela, J. (2014). Internationalisation; research and innovation in South Africa’s universities. Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on Higher Education and Training, Cape Town, 3 September. Retrieved from http://db3sqepoi5n3s.cloudfront.net/files/140903hesa.pdf Hall, B. (2015). Beyond epistemicide: Knowledge democracy and higher education. Retrieved from http://unescochair-cbrsr.org/unesco/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Beyond_Epistemicide_final.pdf Hartley, D. (1995). The ‘McDonaldisation’of higher education: food for thought? Oxford Review of Education, 21(4), 409-423. Hiebert, T. (2003). Becoming carnival: performing a postmodern identity. Performance Research 8(3), 113-125.
  56. 56. References and additional reading list Jacques, G. (2014). 'Coming out' or coming in? Social exclusion of sexual minorities in Africa: challenges for social work education and practice. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 26(1): 91-110. DOI: 10.1080/10538720.2013.829396 Jirsa, J. (2004). Forgiveness and revenge: where is justice? in Thinking together, edited by A. Cashin & J. Jirsa. Proceedings of the IWM Junior Visiting Fellows’ Conference, Winter 2003, Vienna: IWM Junior Visiting Fellows’ Conferences, vol 16. Retrieved from http://www.iwm.at/wp-content/uploads/jc-16-05.pdf Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lanier, J. (2014). Who owns the future? London, UK: Penguin Books. Larivière, V., Haustein, S., & Mongeon, P. (2015). The oligopoly of academic publishers in the digital era. PloS one, 10(6), 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0127502&representatio n=PDF Martin, J. (2011). The meaning of the 21st century. A vital blueprint for ensuring our future. (Paperback). London, UK: Transworld Publishers. Marx, C. (2002). Ubu and Ubuntu: on the dialectics of apartheid and nation building. Politikon. South African Journal of Political Studies, 29(1), 49-69. Maserumule, M.H. (2015, November 25. Why Africa’s professors are afraid of colonial education being dismantled. The Conversation. (Online). Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/why-africas-professors-are- afraid-of-colonial-education-being-dismantled-50930 Mason, M.A. (2011, March 9). The pyramid problem. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://chronicle.com/article/The-Pyramid-Problem/126614/
  57. 57. References and additional reading list Maton, K. (2012). Habitus. In Michael Grenfell (Ed.), Pierre Bourdieu. Key concepts (pp. 48—64).Durham, UK: Acumen Publishing. Maudlin, J. G. (2014). The Abandonment of Hope: Curriculum Theory and White Moral Responsibility. Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 11(2), 136-153. Max-Neef, M., Elizalde, A., & Hopenhayn, M. (1991). Human scale development conception, application and further reflections. New York, NY: APEX Press. Retrieved from http://www.area- net.org/fileadmin/user_upload/papers/Max-neef_Human_Scale_development.pdf McMillan Cottom, T. (2014, May 22). Reparations: what the education gospel cannot fix. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://tressiemc.com/2014/05/22/reparations-what-the-education-gospel-cannot-fix / Michael, A. (2015, 16 June). I sometimes don’t want to be White either. Huffington Post [online]. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ali-michael/i-sometimes-dont-want-to-be-white-either_b_7595852.html Monbiot, G. (2012, December 10). The gift of death. [Personal web log}. Retrieved from http://www.monbiot.com/2012/12/10/the-gift-of-death/ Moore, A. (2015, June 13). America's financial divide: The racial breakdown of U.S. wealth in black and white. Huffington Post. (online). Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/antonio-moore/americas-financial- divide_b_7013330.html Moore, J.W. (Ed.).(2016). Anthropocene or Capitalocene?: Nature, history, and the crisis of capitalism. New York, NY: PM Press. Morley, L. (2012). Researching absences and silences in higher education: Data for democratisation. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(3), 353-368. Morrey, A.I. (2004). Globalisation and the emergence of for-profit higher education. Higher Education, 48, 131— 150.
  58. 58. References and additional reading list Murphy, M. (2016, January 9). The costs of being invisible. Social Theory Applied (online). Retrieved from http://socialtheoryapplied.com/2016/01/09/the-invisible-man/ Olusoga, DE. (2016, January 23). Wake up, Britain. Should the empire really be a source of pride? The Guardian (online). Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/23/britain-empire-pride-poll Oxfam. (2016). An economy for the 1%. How privilege and power in the economy drive extreme inequality and how this can be stopped. Oxfam Briefing Paper. Retrieved from http://policy- practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/an-economy-for-the-1-how-privilege-and-power-in-the-economy-drive- extreme-inequ-592643 Oswin, N. (2007). Producing homonormativity in neoliberal South Africa: recognition, redistribution, and the quality project. Signs, 32(3): 649-669. Pariser, El. (2011). The filter bubble. What the Internet is hiding from you. London, UK: Viking. Petrina, S. (2004). The politics of curriculum and instructional design/theory/form: critical problems, projects, units and modules. Interchange 34(1), 81-126. Peters, M.A. (2013). Managerialism and the neoliberal university: prospects for new forms of ‘open management’ in higher education. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 5(1), 11—26. Piketty, T. (2015). Capital in the twenty-first century. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, Mass: The Bellknap Press of Harvard University Press. Prinsloo, P. (2007). The curriculum as contested space: An inquiry. In Contesting spaces: The curriculum in transition. A monograph containing selected papers from the African Conference on Higher Education held in September 2006, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. University of South Africa, 44–59.
  59. 59. References and additional reading list Prinsloo, P. (2014, October 22). Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin: researcher identity and performance. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul_Prinsloo/publication/267395307_Mene_mene_tekel_upharsin_res earcher_identity_and_performance/links/544f2f200cf29473161bf642.pdf Prinsloo, P. (2015a). Making sense of access: Access to what? At what cost? For whom? [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://opendistanceteachingandlearning.wordpress.com/2015/10/26/making-sense-of-access- access-to-what-at-what-cost-for-whom/ Prinsloo, P. (2015b). Of heresies, heretics, and the (im)possibility of hope in higher education. [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://opendistanceteachingandlearning.wordpress.com/2015/11/23/of-heresies-heretics-and- the-impossibility-of-hope-in-higher-education/ Rhoades, G., & Slaughter, S. (2004). Academic capitalism in the new economy: markets, state, and higher education. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Saccaro, M. (2014, September 21). Professors on food stamps: The shocking true story of academia in 2014. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/2014/09/21/professors_on_food_stamps_the_shocking_true_story_of_academia_in_20 14/ Scott, N.A. (1986). The house of intellect in an age of carnival: some hermeneutical reflections. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 55(1), 3-19. Scott, D.L. (2012, October 16). How higher education in the US was destroyed in 5 basic steps. AlterNet. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.alternet.org/how-higher-education-us-was-destroyed-5-basic-steps
  60. 60. References and additional reading list Schwab, K. (2016, 14 January). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. World Economic Forum (online). Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial- revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond Shay, S. (2015). Curriculum reform in higher education: a contested space. Teaching in Higher Education, 20(4), 431-441. Staley, D.J. (2015). The future of the university: speculative design for innovation in higher education. EDUCAUSEReview (online). Retrieved from http://er.educause.edu/articles/2015/11/the-future-of-the- university-speculative-design-for-innovation-in-higher-education Standing, G. (2011). The precariat. The new dangerous class. London, UK: Bloomsbury. Taylor, C. (2015, October 25). University strategic plans: a world of superlatives and meaningless aspiration. Times Higher Education (online). Retrieved from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/university- strategic-plans-world-superlatives-and-meaningless-aspiration Thomson, P. (2012). Field. In M. Grenfell (ed.). Pierre Bourdieu. Key concepts (pp. 65—82) Durham, UK: Acumen Publishing. Tuck, E., & Yang, K. W. (2012). Decolonization is not a metaphor. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1(1), 1-40. Tuck, E., & Gaztambide-Fernández, R. A. (2013). Curriculum, replacement, and settler futurity. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 29(1), 72-89. Van der Merwe, J. (2014, August 3). Where are our black academics? City Press. Retrieved from http://www.citypress.co.za/news/black-academics/
  61. 61. References and additional reading list Verhaeghe, P. (2014, September 29). Neoliberalism has brought out the worst in us. [Web log post]. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/29/neoliberalism-economic- system-ethics-personality-psychopathicsthic Watters, A. (2012). Unbundling and unmooring: technology and the higher ed tsunami. EDUCAUSEreview, [online]. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/unbundling-and-unmooring-technology-and- higher-ed-tsunami Westley, F., Zimmerman, B. & Patton, M.Q. (2006). Getting to maybe: how the world is changed. Canada: Random House. World Bank. (2016). World development report – digital dividends. Washington: Word Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/23347