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The State of Social Media Research
After Cambridge Analytica
Anatoliy Gruzd
@gruzd
Symposium on Rethinking Digital Humanit...
Growth of Social
Media Data
The State
of Social
Media in
Canada
(Gruzd, Jacobson, Mai, & Dubois, 2018)
@Gruzd 3
Social Media Data Stewardship Defined
Social Media Data + Data Stewardship =
processes related to all aspects of managing ...
Self-
collected/
reported
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
@Gruzd ...
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Cloud &
Distributed
Computing
Dat...
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Social Media ResearchToolkit
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation 7
ht...
• Who are we studying?
• Humans or bots?
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewa...
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Example: Internet Research Agency...
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Example: Internet Research Agency...
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
https://botometer.iuni.iu.edu/#!/
Social Media Data Stewardship:...
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Terms of Service
@Gruzd SocialMed...
Social Feed Manager
https://gwu-libraries.github.io/sfm-ui/
Tweet ID Datasets
http://www.docnow.io/catalog/
Collection Sto...
“Hydrating” Tweet ID Datasets
(Recollecting)
https://github.com/DocNow/hydrator
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reu...
http://archivesocial.com/whitehouse
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardshi...
http://trumptwitterarchive.com/
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
P...
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Public Archives
+
very limited sc...
Ethical Considerations
Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation
Social Media Data Stewardship:
Ethics
Ethical Considerations For
Researchers
Research more ‘acceptable’ if:
• “it’s going to a good cause”
• “morally right”
• “...
Ethical Considerations For
Third Parties
• Recent Work:
• Privacy Concerns and Self-Disclosure in
Private and Public Uses ...
Survey of Online Adults in Canada
• Academic researcher
• Marketer
• Financial institution
• Employer
• Journalist
• Gover...
Examples of Social
Media Data Use
Banks
Who
Determine
credit score
For what purpose
Aggregated
data
What information
http:...
Examples of Social
Media Data Use
Security
Agency
Who
Identify real
or potential
threats
For what purpose
Location-
based
...
Examples of Social
Media Data Use
Car
insurance
company
Who
Price car
insurance
For what purpose
Facebook
posts and
likes
...
Examples of Social
Media Data Use
Cambridge
Analytica
Who
Political
targeted ad
campaigns
For what purpose
Facebook
user d...
Comfort by
Third Party
How comfortable would
you be if one of the
following entities
accessed information
about you or pos...
$
Comfort by
Data Type
How comfortable
would you be if a third
party accessed the
following information
about you or poste...
KeyTakeaways
• Social Media Research Ethics → not a
one size fits all framework
• Privacy varies across uses, users, and
d...
References
• Gruzd & Hernández-García. (2018). Privacy Concerns and Self-Disclosure in
Private and Public Uses of Social M...
#SMSociety
400+ Authors
250+ Attendees
28 Countries
IMPORTANT DATES
Full & WIP Papers
Due: Jan. 28, 2019
Panels,Workshops,...
The State of Social Media Research
After Cambridge Analytica
Anatoliy Gruzd
@gruzd
Symposium on Rethinking Digital Humanit...
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The State of Social Media Research After Cambridge Analytica

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Social media data is a rich source of behavioural data that can reveal how we connect and interact with each other online in real time and over time, and what that might mean for our society as we continue to speed towards an increasingly computer-mediated future. However, much of the data being collected are being used in ways that are not always transparent to the users. Also once collected, the data can be combined with other types of data and analyzed by algorithms to reveal even more sensitive information about the users. As a result, questions around why and how data consumers’ use social media data are becoming pertinent, especially in the aftermath of the Facebook’s Cambridge Analytica scandal. This talk will discuss privacy and ethical implications of working with social media data.

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The State of Social Media Research After Cambridge Analytica

  1. 1. The State of Social Media Research After Cambridge Analytica Anatoliy Gruzd @gruzd Symposium on Rethinking Digital Humanities CRIHN, Université de Montréal October 26, 2018
  2. 2. Growth of Social Media Data
  3. 3. The State of Social Media in Canada (Gruzd, Jacobson, Mai, & Dubois, 2018) @Gruzd 3
  4. 4. Social Media Data Stewardship Defined Social Media Data + Data Stewardship = processes related to all aspects of managing social media data including Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 4
  5. 5. Self- collected/ reported Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 5 Data ResellersPublic APIs Web Scraping?
  6. 6. Social Media Data Stewardship: Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Cloud & Distributed Computing Data & Information Organization Analytics Visualization 6
  7. 7. Social Media Data Stewardship: Social Media ResearchToolkit Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation 7 http://socialmediadata.org/social-media-research-toolkit/
  8. 8. • Who are we studying? • Humans or bots? Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: The Rise of Social Bots (and Cyborgs)
  9. 9. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Example: Internet Research Agency (IRA) –Twitter Dataset 2011 - 2018 3,836 IRA-associated accounts 9M tweets & RTs https://about.twitter.com/en_us/values/elections- integrity.html#data
  10. 10. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Example: Internet Research Agency (IRA) –Twitter Dataset Oct 8 – Nov 8, 2016 (200k tweets) 38k nodes | 190k edges red nodes = IRA-associated accounts edges = RTs/replies
  11. 11. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation https://botometer.iuni.iu.edu/#!/ Social Media Data Stewardship: Bot DetectionTool
  12. 12. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Terms of Service @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 13
  13. 13. Social Feed Manager https://gwu-libraries.github.io/sfm-ui/ Tweet ID Datasets http://www.docnow.io/catalog/ Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Example:Twitter Data Sharing @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 14
  14. 14. “Hydrating” Tweet ID Datasets (Recollecting) https://github.com/DocNow/hydrator Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Example:Twitter Data Sharing @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 15
  15. 15. http://archivesocial.com/whitehouse Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Public Archives
  16. 16. http://trumptwitterarchive.com/ Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Public Archives
  17. 17. Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Public Archives + very limited scope+ = = no longer archives all tweets @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 18 main focus on politically driven manipulation campaigns =
  18. 18. Ethical Considerations Collection Storage Analysis Publishing Reuse Preservation Social Media Data Stewardship: Ethics
  19. 19. Ethical Considerations For Researchers Research more ‘acceptable’ if: • “it’s going to a good cause” • “morally right” • “general public good” • non-profit or academic Social media users care about data quality, accuracy, representation. Special consideration when studying sensitive topics and vulnerable groups (e.g., minors, the deceased, mental health). (Golder et al. 2017)
  20. 20. Ethical Considerations For Third Parties • Recent Work: • Privacy Concerns and Self-Disclosure in Private and Public Uses of Social Media (Gruzd & Hernández-García, 2018) • Journalists’ Use of Social Media to Infer Public Opinion: The Citizens’ Perspective (Dubois, Gruzd, & Jacobson., 2018) • Employers’ Use of Young People’s Social Media: Extending Stakeholder Theory to Social Media Data (Jacobson & Gruzd, 2018)
  21. 21. Survey of Online Adults in Canada • Academic researcher • Marketer • Financial institution • Employer • Journalist • Government • Legal professional • … • Credit check • Insurance claim • Public health monitoring • Law enforcement • Political polling • Suicide prevention • Tenant application review • … • Posting frequency • Location • Photos • Posts • Topics • Sentiment • Communication network • Friends’ list • … Who Why What data (Gruzd, Jacobson, Mai, & Dubois, 2018)
  22. 22. Examples of Social Media Data Use Banks Who Determine credit score For what purpose Aggregated data What information http://uk.businessinsider.com/yasaman-hadjibashi-at-barclays-africa-banks- using-big-data-and-social-media-2016-9 @Gruzd 24
  23. 23. Examples of Social Media Data Use Security Agency Who Identify real or potential threats For what purpose Location- based information What information https://www.forbes.com/sites/kalevleetaru/2016/10/12/geofeedia-is-just-the-tip- of-the-iceberg-the-era-of-social-surveillence/#10b6941a40e2 @Gruzd 25
  24. 24. Examples of Social Media Data Use Car insurance company Who Price car insurance For what purpose Facebook posts and likes What information https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/02/admiral-to-price-car- insurance-based-on-facebook-posts @Gruzd 26
  25. 25. Examples of Social Media Data Use Cambridge Analytica Who Political targeted ad campaigns For what purpose Facebook user data What information https://www.theguardian.com/news/series/cambridge-analytica-files @Gruzd 27
  26. 26. Comfort by Third Party How comfortable would you be if one of the following entities accessed information about you or posted by you publicly on social media? % Uncomfortable
  27. 27. $ Comfort by Data Type How comfortable would you be if a third party accessed the following information about you or posted by you publicly on social media? % Uncomfortable
  28. 28. KeyTakeaways • Social Media Research Ethics → not a one size fits all framework • Privacy varies across uses, users, and data types • Academic researchers > Employer > FinancialCompanies, Government bodies, Marketers • Aggregated > Raw > Social Network Data • No difference in privacy concerns when asked about private vs. public social media data • People are adopting different privacy protection strategies @Gruzd 30
  29. 29. References • Gruzd & Hernández-García. (2018). Privacy Concerns and Self-Disclosure in Private and Public Uses of Social Media. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 21(7), 418–428. • Dubois, Gruzd, & Jacobson. (2018). Journalists’ Use of Social Media to Infer Public Opinion:The Citizens’ Perspective. Social Science Computer Review. • Jacobson & Gruzd. (2018). Employers’ Use ofYoung People’s Social Media: Extending StakeholderTheory to Social Media Data. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, p. 18217). • Gruzd,A., Jacobson, J., Mai, P., & Dubois, E. (2018).The State of Social Media in Canada 2017. Public Report. • Gruzd,A., Jacobson, J., Mai, P., & Dubois, E. (2018). Social Media Privacy in Canada. Public Report. • Image credit: https://pixabay.com @Gruzd SocialMediaData.org 31
  30. 30. #SMSociety 400+ Authors 250+ Attendees 28 Countries IMPORTANT DATES Full & WIP Papers Due: Jan. 28, 2019 Panels,Workshops, Posters Due: Mar. 18, 2019 Conference Dates July 19-21, 2019
  31. 31. The State of Social Media Research After Cambridge Analytica Anatoliy Gruzd @gruzd Symposium on Rethinking Digital Humanities CRIHN, Université de Montréal October 26, 2018

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