Complementary and alternative
therapies (CAT) are interventions for
improving, maintaining and promoting
health and wellbeing, preventing disease or
treating illness that are not a part of the
standard North American System Of Health
Care or Disease Prevention.
3. Complementary and alternative
medicine is a group of diverse medical and
health care systems, practices, and products
that are not generally considered part of
4. Alternative therapies are therapies
used in place of traditional allopathic
Complementary therapies are
therapies used in conjunction with
traditional allopathic therapies.
6. Balance :
• A situation in which different things exist in
equal, correct or good amount.
• The concept of balance consists of mental
physical emotional and environmental
• Physical aspect includes optimal functioning of
all body systems.
• Emotional aspect include the ability to feel and
express the entire range of human emotions .
• Mental aspect include feeling of self-worth, a
positive identity, a sense of self accomplishment
and the ability to appreciate and create.
• Spiritual aspects involve moral values, a
meaningful purpose in life and a feeling of
connectedness to others and a divine source.
• Environmental aspects include physical biologic
economic social and political conditions.
• Being in balance is a learned skill and one that
must be practiced regularly to engage in the
process of healthful living.
8. Energy :
The ability to put effort and enthusiasm
into an activity, work etc. Energy is viewed as
the force that integrates the body mind and
spirit; it is that connects everything.
• The idea that the whole of the sick person,
including their body, mind and the way of life,
should be considered when treating them, and
not just the symptom of the disease.
• Combined mental emotional spiritual relationship
and environmental components are referred to as
holism, are considered to play crucial and equal
roles in a person’s state of health.
• Interventions are individualised within the entire
context of the person’s life.
A system of thought that considers the
solving of human problems with the help of
religious beliefs. It emphasizes the fact that the
basic nature of humans is good.
• The humanist perspective includes the
• Mind and body are indivisible
• People have the power to solve their own
• People are responsible the patters of their own
• Wellbeing is a combination of personal
• Spirit is the liveliness, richness, and beauty of
• Spirituality includes the drive to become all
that one can be and is bound to intuition,
creativity, and motivation it is the dimensions
that involves relationship with oneself, with
others, and with a higher power.
13. BASIC PRINCIPLES
• The body has the ability to heal itself.
• Health and healing are related to harmony of
mind, body and spirit
• Basic good health practices build the
foundation for healing.
• Healing practices are individualized.
• People are responsible for their own healing.
14. ETHICAL ISSUES
• Issues of safety and effectiveness, as well as the
expertise and qualifications of the practitioner.
• Communication between the CAM therapist and
the traditional health care providers.
• Symptoms relieved by CAM therapies may mask
signs of serious illness causing delays in
• Potential for drug interaction and possible side
• Lack of regulation of herbal products for purity
15. NCCAM's classification for
alternative and complementary
• Mind body
• Biologically based
• Manipulative and
• Energy therapies
17. AYURVEDIC MEDICINE
Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a
system of traditional medicine native to
the Indian subcontinent and a form
of alternative medicine.
The oldest known ayurvedic texts are
the Suśruta Saṃhitā and the Charaka Saṃhitā.
These Classical Sanskrit encyclopedias of
medicine are among the foundational and
formally compiled works of ayurveda.
18. "THE SCIENCE OF EIGHT
COMPONENTS” IN AYURVEDA.
• Kaya-chikitsa: "cure of diseases affecting the body"
• Kaumara-bhṛtya "treatment of children"
• Shalya-chikitsa Surgery, "removal of any substance
which has entered the body (as extraction of darts,
of splinters, etc.)"
• Salakya-tantra "cure of diseases of the eye or ear
etc. by sharp instruments" (ophthalmology/ENT]
• Bhuta-vidya "treatment of mental diseases supposed
to be produced by demoniacal influence"
(demonology / exorcism/psychiatry)
• Agada-tantra "doctrine of antidotes" (toxicology)
• Rasayana-tantra "doctrine of elixirs
19. • Ayurveda empowers the individual to take
control of their own health and wellbeing.
• For example terminalia arjuna is useful in
alleviating pain of angina pectoris and treating
heart failure and coronary artery diseases,
• Black pepper and long pepper are combined
with ginger to form the traditional trikadu
mixture in Ayurveda. This mixture increases
appetite, promotes the secretion of digestive
juices, and cures certain gastric disorders
particularly achlorhydria, and
20. SIDDHA MEDICINE
It is assumed that when the normal equilibrium of
three humors (vata, pitha, and kapha) is disturbed,
disease is caused.
• The factors, which assumed to affect this equilibrium
are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical
activities, and stress.
• According to siddha medicine system, diet and lifestyle
play a major role not only n health but also in curing
21. • Treatment is classified into three
1. devamaruthuvum (Divine method)
2. manuda maruthuvum (rational method)
3. asura maruthuvum (surgical method).
22. • In Divine method, medicines
like parpam, chendooram, guru, kuligai made
of mercury, sulfur and pashanams are used.
• In the rational method, medicines made of
herbs like churanam, kudineer, or vadagam are
• In surgical method, incision, excision, heat
application, blood letting, or leech application
23. According to therapies the treatments of siddha
medicines could be further categorized into
• purgative therapy
• emetic therapy
• fasting therapy
• steam therapy
• oleation therapy
• physical therapy
• solar therapy
• blood-letting therapy
• yoga therapy etc.
• According to
substance that causes
the symptoms of a
disease in healthy
people will cure
similar symptoms in
25. • Underlying causes of disease were phenomena
that he termedmiasms
• The remedies are prepared by repeatedly
diluting a chosen substance in alcohol or
distilled water, followed by forceful striking on
an elastic body, called succussion.
• Homeopaths select remedies by consulting
reference books known as repertories.
26. UNANI- TIBB MEDICINE
This system observes the influence of
surroundings and ecological conditions such as
air, food, drinks, body movement and repose,
psychic movement and repose, sleep and
wakefulness and excretion and retention on
the state of health.
• Unani believes that it is this dominance which
gives a man his individual habit and
• Unani practitioners not only cure bodily
diseases but also act as an ethical instructor.
27. Treatment in unani medicine are,
• Regimental therapy – It includes venesection, cupping,
diaphoresis, dieresis, Turkish bath, massage,
cauterization, purging, emesis, exercise and leeching.
• Dietotherapy – It deals with certain aiments by
administration of specific diets or by regulating the
quantity and quality of food.
• Pharmacotherapy – It deals with the use of naturally
occurring drugs mostly herbal drugs of animal and
It is a system of therapy based on
preventive care, and on the use of heat,
water, light, air, and massage as primary
therapies for disease.
29. Therapies considered to be of primary
importance in the naturopathy are,
• Nutrition and dietetic
• Structural adjustment
• Healthy lifestyle
30. MIND BODY THERAPIES
Mind-body techniques are based on the
theory that mental and emotional factors can
influence physical health. Behavioral,
psychologic, social, and spiritual methods are
used to preserve health and prevent or cure
31. MIND BODY THERAPIES
• Hypnotherapy (hypnosis)
• Relaxation techniques
• Guided imagery
• In meditation, people regulate their attention or
systematically focus on particular aspects of
inner or outer experience.
• Meditation usually involves sitting or resting
quietly, often with the eyes closed. Sometimes
it involves the repetitive sounding of a phrase
(a mantra) meant to help the person focus.
33. Guidelines for meditation
– Create a special time and place for meditation.
– Sit either cross –legged on the floor or upright in a straight
backed chair, keeping the spine straight and body relaxed.
– Support the palms on the thighs and close the eyes.
– Follow deep breathing or progressive relaxation exercise
– Focus attention completely on either breathing or a chosen
mental image. If using a mantra, repeat the word or phrase
either aloud or silently while exhaling.
– Practice this procedure daily for 10-20 minute periods.
34. Relaxation Techniques
Relaxation techniques are practices
specifically designed to relieve tension and strain.
The specific technique may be aimed at reducing
activity of the nerves that control the stress
response (sympathetic nervous system), lowering
blood pressure, easing muscle tension, slowing
metabolic processes, or altering brain wave
36. GUIDED IMAGERY
Guided imagery involves the use of
mental images to promote relaxation and
wellness, reduce pain, or facilitate healing
of a particular ailment, such as cancer or
In hypnotherapy (hypnosis), people are
guided into an advanced state of relaxation
and heightened attention. Hypnotized
people become absorbed in the images
suggested by the hypnotherapist and are
able to suspend disbelief.
Biofeedback is a method of bringing
unconscious biologic processes under conscious
control. Biofeedback involves the use of
electronic devices to measure and report back to
the conscious mind information such as heart
rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and brain
surface electrical activity.
It is a method of physical movement and
exercise designed to stretch, strengthen,
and balance the body, in particular the core
centre including the abdominal region. It is
based on the principle of yoga and
45. YOGA THERAPY
Yoga is one of the most helpful and healthy
forms of experience to manage the influence of
thinking by turning psychological and physical
force into spiritual energy. Its daily practice is
often seen as a way of gaining control over
In chiropractice, the relationship
between the structure of the spine and
function of the nervous system is thought
to be the key in maintaining or restoring
health. The main method for achieving
balance is spinal manipulation.
49. TAI CHI & QIGONG
It has recently been considered as an
alternative method for lowering the blood
• This discovery has big implications for patients
who are suffering from chronic hypertension.
• Knowing this makes it possible for such people to
avoid negative effects of continuous intake of
prescribed anti-hypertension drugs.
50. ENERGY THERAPIES
• Massage therapy
• Hand mediated bio field therapies
51. Massage therapy
Body tissues are manipulated to promote
wellness and reduce pain and stress. The
therapeutic value of massage for many
musculoskeletal symptoms and stress is
Specific points on the body are
stimulated, usually by inserting thin
needles into the skin and underlying
tissues. Sometimes additional
stimulation is added by using a very low
voltage electrical current, by twisting
the needle, or by warming the needle.
A variant of massage therapy, relies on
manual pressure applied to specific areas of
the foot; these areas are believed to
correspond to different organs or body
systems via meridians.
55. HAND MEDIATED BIO-FIELD THERAPIES
Therapeutic touch (TT) is a mostly
secular variant of faith healing, started by Dolores
Krieger in the early 1970s.
The TT practitioner moves his hands
over the patient’s body, specifically the affected
area, without actually touching the patient. TT
adherents claim that this directs the flow of chi so
that the patient can heal.
56. OTHER THERAPIES
• Traditional Chinese Medicine
• Aroma Therapy
• Spiritual Therapy
• Faith and prayer
• Music therapy
• Humour and laughter
• Bio electromagnetic therapy
• Photoenergy therapy
57. OTHER THERAPIES
• Detoxification therapy
• Alexander Technique
• Auto-Urine Therapy
• Holotropic Breath work
• Bach Flower Remedies
• Cellular Therapy
62. NURSING MANAGEMENT
• Nurse must be aware of & sensitive to patients interpretation
about health , illness, promotion & prevention aspects.
• Unique health practices &beliefs must be identified &
• Nurses needs to knowledgeable about cultural beliefs &
• Deliver effective individualized holistic care.
• Nurses need to be knowledgeably about CATs & their
complication ,contraindications ,potential benefit & adverse
63. Use of special prayers, special foods are integrated into
the plan of care whenever possible.
Success may be small(cultural food ,relaxation exercise)
but their cumulative effect can be powerful.
Suggest to the patients to keep a daily log of therapy used
and document symptom improvement & side effects.
Help patients explore CAT therapies that are suitable for
It is important for patients to know how to access &
evaluate safe & competent practitioners.