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Heart & Mind

  1. 1. Andreea Dicu, Raquel Gonzalez Martin, François-Xavier Jeanne, Carmen Neghina, Algirdas Sabaliauskas Heart & Mind in Conflict : The interplay of affect and cognition in consumer decision making Baba Shiv & Alexander Fedorikhin
  2. 2. Andreea Dicu, Raquel Gonzalez Martin, François-Xavier Jeanne, Carmen Neghina, Algirdas Sabaliauskas Theoretical framework Affective-Cognitive Model Methodology Results Conclusion and implications Heart and Mind in Conflict
  3. 3. Theoretical Framework
  4. 4. Heart and mind in conflict 4 Purpose of the article: to examine the influence of affect and cognition in consumer decision making The model proposes that on exposure to alternatives in a choice task, two types of processes might take place: Affective process: automatic Cognitive process: controlled and deliberate Tested in a binary choice task in a context in which one alternative (chocolate cake) elicits more intense positive affect, but predominantly negative consequences.
  5. 5. Theoretical framework 5 How does the model build on previous research? Interaction between Affect and Cognition Berkowitz (1993) Proposes three types of processes that can occur on exposure to a stimulus event: 1. Lower-order affective reactions 2. Higher-order cognitive processes 3. Higher-order affective processes
  6. 6. Theoretical framework 6 How does the model build on previous research? Interaction between Affect and Cognition Berkowitz (1993) Proposes three types of processes Contribution of the model that can occur on exposure to a stimulus event: Different from other empirical work that focuses on higher-order, more controlled 1. Lower-order affective affective reactions reactions Luce (1998), Garbarino and Edell (1997) 2. Higher-order cognitive Focus on positive rather than negative affect processes responses, in an attempt to prove the generalizability of Berkowitz’s findings 3. Higher-order affective processes
  7. 7. Theoretical framework 7 How does the model build on previous research? Interaction between Affect and Cognition Berkowitz (1993) Epstein (1993) Leventhal (1984, 1993) Proposes three types of Cognitive-Experiential Self- Affective reactions can processes that can occur on Theory (CEST) arise from two routes: exposure to a stimulus event: Two conceptual systems that 1. “Innate route”: primitive 1. Lower-order affective tend to operate in parallel: or partially formed reactions 1. Experiential system: affective reactions 2. Higher-order cognitive affective in nature 2. “Memory route”: processes 2. Rational system: schematic and 3. Higher-order affective cognitive in nature conceptual processing processes
  8. 8. Theoretical framework 8 How does the model build on previous research? Interaction between Affect and Cognition Berkowitz (1993) Epstein (1993) Leventhal (1984, 1993) Proposes three types of Cognitive-Experiential Self- Affective reactions can processes that can occur on Theory (CEST) arise from two routes: exposure to a stimulus event: Two conceptual systems that 1. “Innate route”: primitive 1. Lower-order affective tend to operate in parallel: or partially formed reactions 1. Experiential system: affective reactions 2. Higher-order cognitive affective in nature 2. “Memory route”: processes 2. Rational system: schematic and 3. Higher-order affective cognitive in nature conceptual processing processes
  9. 9. Theoretical framework 9 How does the model build on previous research? Interaction between Affect and Cognition Berkowitz (1993) LeDoux (1987, 1995, 1996) Proposes three types of On exposure to an external processes that can occur on stimuli, one of the three events exposure to a stimulus event: can occur: 1. Lower-order affective 1. “Low-road” processes: limbic reactions system 2. Higher-order cognitive 2. “High-road” cognitive processes processes: cortical system 3. Higher-order affective 3. “High-road” affective processes reaction
  10. 10. Affective-Cognitive Model
  11. 11. Affective-Cognitive Model 11 Valence Affective Affective processes reactions Intensity Stimulus Favorable Cognitive Consequences Unfavorable processes Stimulus based Memory based
  12. 12. Affective-Cognitive Model 12 Accept Valence Affective Affective Reject processes reactions Constrained processing resources Intensity Stimulus Available processing resources Favorable Cognitive Consequences Unfavorable processes Stimulus based Memory based
  13. 13. Affective-Cognitive Model 13 Valence Affective Affective processes reactions Constrained processing resources Intensity Stimulus Available processing resources Favorable Cognitive Consequences Unfavorable processes Stimulus based Memory based
  14. 14. Affective-Cognitive Model 14 Valence Affective Affective processes reactions Constrained processing resources Intensity Stimulus Available processing resources Favorable Cognitive Consequences Unfavorable processes Stimulus based Memory based
  15. 15. Moderating effects 15 The model proposes that the effect of processing resources will be qualified by at least two factors: The mode of presentation: real versus symbolic Consumer personality: degree of impulsivity Real mode of presentation | Impulsive Choice of affective-laden alternative when processing resources are constrained Symbolic mode of presentation | Prudent
  16. 16. Moderating effects 16 The mode of presentation: real versus symbolic The intensity of the affective reactions is likely to be higher when the presentation of the affect-laden alternative is real, rather than when the presentation is symbolic Potential cause: real presentation enhances the vividness and makes it easier to sense the gratification arising from consuming the alternative (Loewenstein, 1996) H1: The effect of restricted processing resources on the choice of an affect-laden alternative will be moderated by the presentation mode, with the effect being greater when the presentation mode is real than when it is symbolic.
  17. 17. Moderating effects 17 Consumer personality: degree of impulsivity Effect of processing resources will be influenced by a personality variable related to consumer impulsivity [based on the work of Logan (1997), Puri (1996), Rook and Fisher (1995)] Prudent versus impulsive consumers Difference: the accessibility of cognitions related to impulse behavior (Puri, 1996) H2: The effect of restricted processing resources on the choice of affect-laden alternatives will be moderated by consumer impulsivity, the effect being greater with increased levels of consumer impulsivity.
  18. 18. Methodology
  19. 19. Experiments 19 Independent variables Dependent Processing variable Resources Choice of the Experiment 1 Hypothesis 1 two snacks Presentation Mode
  20. 20. Experiment 1 20 Sample 136 students High Processing Low Processing Resources Resources Presentation Presentation Presentation Presentation Mode: Real Mode: Symbolic Mode: Real Mode: Symbolic
  21. 21. Experiment 1 21 Sample 136 students 2 digit number 7 digit number Real snacks Picture of snacks Real snacks Picture of snacks Control variables: 4 control groups Able to see snack carts, but not the actual snacks Exiting individually Identical instructions Price stickers Pretest for the symbolic mode (38)
  22. 22. Measures 22 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of about snacks snack 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision basis
  23. 23. Measures 23 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number Comparison with the tickets: 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of about snacks snack Perfect match 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision basis
  24. 24. Measures 24 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number 2 independent judges 92% interjudge agreement 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of Expectations: about snacks snack a higher number of thoughts for the high- processing resource group 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision basis
  25. 25. Measures 25 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number Five 7-point items 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of Adapted – previous lit. about snacks snack Cronbach’s alpha: 0.91 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols My final decision was driven by: 3. Decision basis 1. My thoughts / my feelings 2. My willpower / my desire 3. My prudent self / my imprudent self 4. The rational / the emotional side of me 5. My head / my heart
  26. 26. Measures 26 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number Cronbach’s alpha: 0.97 cake 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of 0.95 fruit salad about snacks snack Two variables: Affect cake Affect fruit 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision Are these apt descriptions of the two snacks: basis 1. I could sense a desire to grab it. 2. I felt a strong, irresistible urge to take it. 3. I felt an impulse to take it. 4. The emotional side of me was aroused when I saw it.
  27. 27. Measures 27 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number Cronbach’s alpha: 0.88 cake 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of 0.84 fruit salad about snacks snack Two variables: Cog cake Cog fruit 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision Cognitions about consuming each snack: basis 1. Harmful / beneficial 2. Not good for health / good for health 3. A foolish choice / a wise choice 4. Useless / useful
  28. 28. Measures 28 0. Recall 6. Covariates previous number Gender 5. Cognitions 1. Choice of Health consciousness about snacks snack Cake / fruit fanatics 4. Presentation 2. Thought mode factor protocols 3. Decision basis
  29. 29. Results 29 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91 Between - subject ANCOVA - independent variables: - processing resources - presentation mode
  30. 30. Results 30 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91
  31. 31. Results 31 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91
  32. 32. Results 32 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91
  33. 33. Results 33 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91
  34. 34. Results 34 Influence of processing resources & presentation mode on manipulation-check and stimulus-related measures Low processing resources High processing resources Real Symbolic Real Symbolic presentation presentation presentation presentation Total thoughts 2.30 2.35 3.54 3.28 Affect cake 4.28 3.47 4.15 3.36 Affect fruit 3.32 3.29 3.11 3.12 Cog cake 3.06 3.34 3.24 3.26 Cog fruit 6.12 5.88 5.94 5.91
  35. 35. Choice Measurement 35 Choice of cake Availability of processing resources
  36. 36. Decision Basis Measurement 36 Availability of processing resources
  37. 37. Experiments 37 Independent variables Dependent Processing variable Resources Choice of the Experiment 2 Hypothesis 2 two snacks Impulsivity
  38. 38. Experiment 2 38 Sample 69 students Real presentation mode High Processing Low processing Resources resources Impulsive Not Impulsive Impulsive Not Impulsive
  39. 39. Experiment 2 39 Difference from Experiment 1: Questions on impulsivity Impulsive, careless, easily tempered Cronbach‘s alpha: 0.77 Test-retest procedure to ensure reliability Same sample – 4 weeks apart Correlation: 0.79 Similar results for processing resources manipulations
  40. 40. Results 40 Choice of cake Availability of processing resources
  41. 41. Experiment 2 41 Availability of processing resources
  42. 42. Conclusions and Implications
  43. 43. Findings 43 • Constrained Affect Processes resources • Available Cognition • Real Affect Presentation mode • Symbolic Cognition Impulsivity • High Affect • Low Cognition
  44. 44. Managerial Implications 44 Reduce the availability of processing resources Distracting music or displays Reduce checkout time Presentation Mode Real Internet and cyber-shopping involve symbolic presentation modes Mental imaginary: Consumers imagine themselves using the product
  45. 45. Future Research 45 Consumer view of impulsivity Consumer postdecision processes Examine situations where respondents make delayed choices Assess the reliability of the variable Decision Basis Psychological and biological approaches to understanding affect Different products Same products and different brands
  46. 46. Reflexions 46 Structure Conceptual of the model article Just impulsivity Implementation No differences between women and No men explanation Experiment in of the controlled measures environment

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Idea behind the experiment: when faced with two alternatives, you have an initial urge to choose the emotional one and only the cognitive rational brain can suppress that emotion
  • Previous research did empirically test the effect of presentation mode, but the present model also incorporates processing resources and impulsivity
  • ANCOVA tests whether certain factors have an effect on the outcome variable after removing the variance for which quantitative predictors (covariates) account.

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