SOLAR HYBRID ENERGY
In this project we present hybrid energy generation
which will soon be the indispensable source of energy in
the coming years.
We are taking two basic sources of energy solar and wind
The output of solar and wind energy is DC voltage
which is converted to AC using inverter
Other two sources of energy which we have used in this
project are piezoelectricty and dynamo breaker.
Innovative use of these energies has been explained later
IDEA BEHIND THE PROJECT
Current status of energy resources inflame us to search
for the other ways of energy which are cheap as well
Our non renewable sources are on the verge of extinction
and the way in which humans are using them it clears the
picture that these resources will last for few years only.
Other sources of energy such as wind ,solar, tidal etc
have limitations which restricts their usage.
For example during rainy season you cannot use solar
energy , so to pervade these limitations we have to
concentrate on other phenomenons.
Solar energy from sun.
Wind energy from air current on earth.
Piezo-electricity from mechanical stress.
Breaker dynamo from generator concept.
WHAT IS HYBRID ENERGY
Generation by one or more source of energy.
This incorporates several electric energy generating
The term 'hybrid' describes a combined power and
energy storage system.
• Energy present in radiation of sun, these are the sun rays
reaching the earth surface.
• Radiation consist photon known as 'energy packet'.
• The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy
that reaches the Earth. Only this much amount is usable.
These photon when strike on any material, it pass on its
energy to the electron.
Excited electron moves in material.
Movement of electrons generate electricity or heat.
SOLAR ENERGY POWER
Solar Energy harnessed using photovoltaic cells.
Photovoltaic cells are capable of directly converting sunlight
A simple wafer of silicon with wires attached to the layers.
Current is produced based on types of silicon (n- and p-types)
used for they layers.
It consists of 3 basic components:-
• PV cells - Electricity is generated by PV cells, the
smallest unit of a PV system.
• Modules - PV cells are wired together to form modules
which are usually a sealed, or encapsulated.
• Arrays – Groups of panels make up an array.
1. Unlimited and free source of energy.
2. Easy in maintenance.
3. Sustainable for long duration.
1. Not a continuous source.
2. Depend on area of installation.
Water pumping installations systems of automatic
Radio/television relay stations.
Lighting of streets.
Fully transparent solar panel developed recently which use
even in home windows.
Form of solar energy.
Wind flow due to pressure difference on earth and its
Can be use for electrical and mechanical power.
WIND ENERGY POWER
Generated by wind turbine (vertical or horizontal axis) or
Convert kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy
through wind turbine.
Generator convert mechanical energy into electrical.
Depends on wind direction and speed.
Flow of wind rotate the blades and shaft.
Gearbox makes movement more efficient.
This rotate generator rotor as a result
electrical power generated.
D.C generator or alternator use for this
1. Easily available
2. No gases or pollutant produce.
3. Less area required for installation.
1. Not always produce constant electricity.
2. Very costly for individual purpose.
3. Moving parts required frequent manitenance
1. For producing electricity which store as backup.
2. For off- grid lighting.
3. For sailing purpose.
A new design of wind turbine with 'no blades' has been
develop. Connected with hydraulic motor or generator.
Conversion of mechanical stress into electricity through
some specific material.
Occurs in polycrystalline materials like Quartz, lead-
zirconate-titanate, Rochelle salt etc.
Generate A.C voltage as output.
Electricity is generated by
A crystal sandwiched
between two metal plates.
A pressure on plates
produce vibration in crystal,
generate low AC voltage
Transform mechanical pressure applied into voltage as
Gives high output when piezoelectric material deforms
Output voltage increase with applied stress.
crystal of Quartz and topaz are naturally available with
Ceramic lead zirconate titanate is man-made
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
1. Direct energy conversion.
2. Environment friendly.
3. Small in size and weather resistant.
1. Produce voltage just for an instant.
2. Require continuous pressure for voltage generation.
APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENTS
1. In digital weighing machine.
2. As sensor and actuators.
3. In breaker system for producing electricity.
it can be employed at metro gates ,pedestrian at crowded
areas such as markets, malls etc.
Recently world's thinnest piezo-electric transducer is
constructed, have a thickness of one atomic layer.atomic
WHAT IS DYNAMO?
Convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Its an electrical generator which produce direct current.
Rotor coil rotate mechanically inside a magnetic field.
Commutor use to collect D.C.
WHAT IS DYNAMO BREAKER?
A roller attach with the shaft of
Roller use as breaker on the
Movement of vehicles rotate the
breaker and so the dynamo
Can use DC motor with gear
chain arrangement or stepper
STEPPER MOTOR AS
• No brushes so there is high voltage for low rpm.
• Consist multi pole permanent magnet rotor and two
• Turning rotor generate AC in each winding.
• Bridge rectifier use to turn AC to DC
• Rotation of shaft does not affect output polarity.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
1. Used as almost renewable resource.
2. Provide road safety as well.
3. Very effective the cities where the traffic density is high .
1. Large no. of motors will be required which can be costly.
2. Cost of installation is high.
3. Affected by weather.
APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENT
1. At busy roads.
2. At multilevel parking.
3. For lighting street lights combining with other sources.
Use of stepper motor in place of DC motor is more
beneficial. For road installation we have used NEMA
stepper motor which fulfill the purpose.
1. Power generated by all the four sources.
2. Rectifying circuit used to convert AC to DC.
3. After that rectified output will store in the battery.
4. Battery output gives input to the opto-coupler.
5. Opto-coupler which is used for isolation.
6. Now we have buffer circuit where logic to yield priority
will be decided.
7. Digital Phase selector which forward maximum input
pin to the output.
8. Now, at the end maximum output power will drive load.
WORKING OF OUR PROJECT
Opto-coupler :- For isolation
ULN 2003:- DIGITAL phase selection
IC 555 timer:- For increasing pulse width
As the power demands are increasing rapidly due to
increase in population so we have to face the scarcity of
We are trying to harness energies from small and readily
Our project in the coming time will be more developed
as researches are going
Hybrid energy is the future energy source for the coming
It is an non conventional type, of producing the energy.
The existing source of energy such as coal, oil etc may
not be adequate to meet the ever increasing energy
Consequently sincere and untiring efforts shall have to
be made by engineers in exploring the possibilities of
harnessing energy from several non-conventional energy
This project is a one step to path of that way. The overall
goal was to design power generation system which in
one way or the other provide the supply which is cheap
and readily available.
1. Dr Anders Brandt & MSc Johan Granlund, Swedish
Road Administration (2008). "Bus Drivers’ Exposure to
Mechanical Shocks Due To Speed Bumps". Society for
Experimental Mechanics, IMAC XXVI Conference and
Exposition on Structural Dynamics.
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