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  1. 1. SOLAR HYBRID ENERGY PRESENTED BY: LAKSHYA RAJOR MOHIT LARIA PRASHANT RANJAN ANKIT GUPTA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  In this project we present hybrid energy generation which will soon be the indispensable source of energy in the coming years.  We are taking two basic sources of energy solar and wind energy.  The output of solar and wind energy is DC voltage which is converted to AC using inverter  Other two sources of energy which we have used in this project are piezoelectricty and dynamo breaker.  Innovative use of these energies has been explained later
  3. 3. IDEA BEHIND THE PROJECT  Current status of energy resources inflame us to search for the other ways of energy which are cheap as well readily available.  Our non renewable sources are on the verge of extinction and the way in which humans are using them it clears the picture that these resources will last for few years only.  Other sources of energy such as wind ,solar, tidal etc have limitations which restricts their usage.  For example during rainy season you cannot use solar energy , so to pervade these limitations we have to concentrate on other phenomenons.
  4. 4. ENERGY SOURCES  Solar energy from sun.  Wind energy from air current on earth.  Piezo-electricity from mechanical stress.  Breaker dynamo from generator concept.
  5. 5. WHAT IS HYBRID ENERGY GENERATION?  Generation by one or more source of energy.  This incorporates several electric energy generating components.  The term 'hybrid' describes a combined power and energy storage system.
  6. 6. SOLAR ENERGY • Energy present in radiation of sun, these are the sun rays reaching the earth surface. • Radiation consist photon known as 'energy packet'. • The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this much amount is usable.  These photon when strike on any material, it pass on its energy to the electron.  Excited electron moves in material.  Movement of electrons generate electricity or heat.
  7. 7. SOLAR ENERGY POWER GENERATION  Solar Energy harnessed using photovoltaic cells.  Photovoltaic cells are capable of directly converting sunlight into electricity.  A simple wafer of silicon with wires attached to the layers.  Current is produced based on types of silicon (n- and p-types) used for they layers.
  8. 8. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM It consists of 3 basic components:- • PV cells - Electricity is generated by PV cells, the smallest unit of a PV system. • Modules - PV cells are wired together to form modules which are usually a sealed, or encapsulated. • Arrays – Groups of panels make up an array.
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages:- 1. Unlimited and free source of energy. 2. Easy in maintenance. 3. Sustainable for long duration. Disadvantages:- 1. Not a continuous source. 2. Depend on area of installation.
  10. 10. APPLICATION AND ADVANCEMENT  Water pumping installations systems of automatic irrigation.  Radio/television relay stations.  Lighting of streets.  For refrigeration. Advancement:- Fully transparent solar panel developed recently which use even in home windows.
  11. 11. WIND ENERGY  Form of solar energy.  Wind flow due to pressure difference on earth and its rotation.  Can be use for electrical and mechanical power.
  12. 12. WIND ENERGY POWER GENERATION  Generated by wind turbine (vertical or horizontal axis) or sail.  Convert kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy through wind turbine.  Generator convert mechanical energy into electrical.  Depends on wind direction and speed.
  13. 13. WIND TURBINE Components of turbine:- 1. Tower 2. Blades 3. Shaft 4. Gearbox 5. Generator
  14. 14.  Flow of wind rotate the blades and shaft.  Gearbox makes movement more efficient.  This rotate generator rotor as a result electrical power generated.  D.C generator or alternator use for this purpose.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages:- 1. Easily available 2. No gases or pollutant produce. 3. Less area required for installation. Disadvantages:- 1. Not always produce constant electricity. 2. Very costly for individual purpose. 3. Moving parts required frequent manitenance
  16. 16. APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENT Applications:- 1. For producing electricity which store as backup. 2. For off- grid lighting. 3. For sailing purpose. Advancement:- A new design of wind turbine with 'no blades' has been develop. Connected with hydraulic motor or generator.
  17. 17. PIEZO-ELECTRICITY  Conversion of mechanical stress into electricity through some specific material.  Occurs in polycrystalline materials like Quartz, lead- zirconate-titanate, Rochelle salt etc.  Generate A.C voltage as output.
  18. 18. PIEZO-ELECTRICITY GENERTION  Electricity is generated by piezo-electric transducer.  A crystal sandwiched between two metal plates.  A pressure on plates produce vibration in crystal, generate low AC voltage signal.
  19. 19. PIEZO-ELECTRIC TRANSDUCER  Transform mechanical pressure applied into voltage as output  Gives high output when piezoelectric material deforms initially.  Output voltage increase with applied stress.  crystal of Quartz and topaz are naturally available with this property.  Ceramic lead zirconate titanate is man-made
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages:- 1. Direct energy conversion. 2. Environment friendly. 3. Small in size and weather resistant. Disadvantages:- 1. Produce voltage just for an instant. 2. Require continuous pressure for voltage generation.
  21. 21. APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENTS Applications:- 1. In digital weighing machine. 2. As sensor and actuators. 3. In breaker system for producing electricity. Advancements:- it can be employed at metro gates ,pedestrian at crowded areas such as markets, malls etc. Recently world's thinnest piezo-electric transducer is constructed, have a thickness of one atomic layer.atomic layer.
  22. 22. WHAT IS DYNAMO?  Convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.  Its an electrical generator which produce direct current.  Rotor coil rotate mechanically inside a magnetic field.  Commutor use to collect D.C.
  23. 23. WHAT IS DYNAMO BREAKER?  A roller attach with the shaft of dynamo.  Roller use as breaker on the road.  Movement of vehicles rotate the breaker and so the dynamo shaft.  Produces electricity.  Can use DC motor with gear chain arrangement or stepper motor.
  24. 24. STEPPER MOTOR AS GENERATOR • No brushes so there is high voltage for low rpm. • Consist multi pole permanent magnet rotor and two windings. • Turning rotor generate AC in each winding. • Bridge rectifier use to turn AC to DC • Rotation of shaft does not affect output polarity.
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages:- 1. Used as almost renewable resource. 2. Provide road safety as well. 3. Very effective the cities where the traffic density is high . Disadvantages:- 1. Large no. of motors will be required which can be costly. 2. Cost of installation is high. 3. Affected by weather.
  26. 26. APPLICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENT Applications:- 1. At busy roads. 2. At multilevel parking. 3. For lighting street lights combining with other sources. Advancement:- Use of stepper motor in place of DC motor is more beneficial. For road installation we have used NEMA stepper motor which fulfill the purpose.
  27. 27. 1. Power generated by all the four sources. 2. Rectifying circuit used to convert AC to DC. 3. After that rectified output will store in the battery. 4. Battery output gives input to the opto-coupler. 5. Opto-coupler which is used for isolation. 6. Now we have buffer circuit where logic to yield priority will be decided. 7. Digital Phase selector which forward maximum input pin to the output. 8. Now, at the end maximum output power will drive load. WORKING OF OUR PROJECT
  28. 28. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  29. 29. COMPONENTS  Opto-coupler :- For isolation  IC 4081  IC 4049  ULN 2003:- DIGITAL phase selection  IC 555 timer:- For increasing pulse width
  30. 30. FUTURE SCOPE  As the power demands are increasing rapidly due to increase in population so we have to face the scarcity of the resources  We are trying to harness energies from small and readily available sources  Our project in the coming time will be more developed as researches are going  Hybrid energy is the future energy source for the coming generation
  31. 31. CONCLUSION  It is an non conventional type, of producing the energy. The existing source of energy such as coal, oil etc may not be adequate to meet the ever increasing energy demands.  Consequently sincere and untiring efforts shall have to be made by engineers in exploring the possibilities of harnessing energy from several non-conventional energy sources.  This project is a one step to path of that way. The overall goal was to design power generation system which in one way or the other provide the supply which is cheap and readily available.
  32. 32. REFERENCES 1. Dr Anders Brandt & MSc Johan Granlund, Swedish Road Administration (2008). "Bus Drivers’ Exposure to Mechanical Shocks Due To Speed Bumps". Society for Experimental Mechanics, IMAC XXVI Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics. 2. www.engineers.com 3. www.scribd.com 4. www.youtube.com 5. www.electriccircuit.com
  33. 33. THANK YOU

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