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Application of Microbes in Human Welfare

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Application of Microbes in Human Welfare

  1. 1. By G.PRANAVATHIYANI B.Sc BIO-INFORMATICS
  2. 2. "Microbes can do anything they want, wherever they want - without microbes, humans wouldn't be alive"
  3. 3. Microbes include a diverse group of simple life-forms such as Protozoans, Algae, Molds, Bacteria, and Viruses.
  4. 4. Microorganisms live in all parts of the biosphere where there is liquid water, including soil, hot springs, on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth's crust.
  5. 5.  Scientific study of these microorganisms is termed as “MICROBIOLOGY”.  It is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of these organisms and with ways of controlling and using their activities.
  6. 6. Though pathogenic microbes are harmful, as they invade and grow within other organisms, causing diseases that kill humans, other animals and plants, they provide many welfare to the human society.
  7. 7. In addition, means of channeling the activities of various microorganisms to benefit human lives have been discovered. Molds, for example, produce antibiotics, notably penicillin.
  8. 8. MICROBES • Industrial Products • Food & Dairy Industries • Agriculture • Medicine • Genetic Engineering • Biotechnology
  9. 9. Decomposition (or rotting) is the process by which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter.
  10. 10. One can differentiate abiotic from biotic decomposition (biodegradation). The former means "degradation of a substance by chemical or physical processes, eg: hydrolysis. The latter one means "the metabolic breakdown of materials into simpler components by living organisms", typically by microorganisms.
  11. 11.  Various sciences study the decomposition of bodies under the general rubric of forensics because the usual motive for such studies is to determine the time and cause of death for legal purposes.  Microbes are critical to the processes of decomposition required to cycle nitrogen and other elements back to the natural world.
  12. 12. Methanogenesis: Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. The production of methane is an important and widespread form of microbial metabolism. In most environments, it is the final step in the decomposition of biomass.
  13. 13. MICROBES IN PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS: Biogas is a mixture of gases (containing predominantly methane) produced by the microbes and which may be used as fuel. Certain bacteria, which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material, produce large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called methanogens, and one such common bacterium is Methanobacterium.
  14. 14. -These bacteria are found in the anaerobic sludge during sewage treatment. These bacteria are also present in the rumen (a part of stomach) of cattle. -A lot of cellulosic material present in the food of cattle is also present in the rumen. In rumen, these bacteria help in the breakdown of cellulose and play an important role in the nutrition of cattle. -Thus, the excreta (dung) of cattle, commonly called gobar, is rich in these bacteria. Dung can be used for generation of biogas, commonly called gobar gas.
  15. 15. The biogas plant consists of a concrete tank (10-15 feet deep) in which bio-wastes are collected and slurry of dung is fed. A floating cover is placed over the slurry, which keeps on rising as the gas is produced in the tank due to the microbial activity. The biogas plant has an outlet, which is connected to a pipe to supply biogas to nearby houses.
  16. 16. The spent slurry is removed through another outlet and may be used as fertilizer. Cattle dung is available in large quantities in rural areas where cattle are used for a variety of purposes. So biogas plants are more after build in rural areas. The biogas thus produced is used for cooking and lighting.
  17. 17. Stages in anaerobic digestion: Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy.
  18. 18. The solid, fibrous component of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to increase the organic content of soils. It can be used as a manure to the plants.
  19. 19. Biogas Appliances: Biogas is a lean gas that can, in principle, be used like other fuel gas for household and industrial purposes, especially for: · Gas cookers/stoves · Biogas lamps · Radiant heaters · Incubators · Refrigerators · Engines
  20. 20. Using anaerobic digestion technologies can help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in a number of key ways:  Replacement of fossil fuels.  Reducing or eliminating the energy footprint of waste treatment plants.  Reducing methane emission from landfills.  Displacing industrially produced chemical fertilizers.  Reducing vehicle movements.  Reducing electrical grid transportation losses.
  21. 21. Generation of Oxygen in the Atmosphere. Recycling nutrients stored in organic matter to an inorganic form. Fix nitrogen from the Atmosphere into a Useable Form.
  22. 22. Give Plant Roots Access to Nutrients in the Soil. Allow Herbivores to Consume Poor Quality Food. Involve in BIOGEOCHEMICAL cycles such as N2 ,O2,K,S cycles.
  23. 23. Degradation of oil spills. Wastewater treatment uses microbes to decompose organic matter in sewage. Biofertilizers- are the organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil.
  24. 24. Human digestion: Microorganisms can form an endosymbiotic relationship with other, larger organisms. For example, the bacteria that live within the human digestive system contribute to gut immunity, synthesize vitamins such as folic acid and biotin, and ferment complex indigestible carbohydrates.
  25. 25. Recent researches in ”MICROBES”
  26. 26. May 23, 2011: Using bacteria to generate energy is a significant step closer following a breakthrough discovery by scientists at the University of East Anglia (UEA).This can be used to generate power.
  27. 27. March 1, 2012: “The research provides some of the first tangible details about the fascinating symbiotic relationship between leafcutter ants, fungi and bacteria”.

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