Applications of remote sensing in geological aspects

Geologist um University of Mysore
6. Jun 2017

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Applications of remote sensing in geological aspects

  2. Introduction. Types of Remote Sensing Basic Principles of Remote Sensing Applications in geology Conclusion References
  4.  It is defined as the science of: Acquiring images refers to the technology employed eg electro-optical scanning system. Processing refers to the procedures that convert raw data into images. Interpreting converts an image information that is useful for human use cont…
  5. Remote Sensors are mechanical devices where informations are stored or recorded about the object or scene under study. They are classified as Active or Passive Image or Non-Image forming Commercial or Military
  6.  Passive Remote Sensing:  If the observation is made based on the electromagnetic radiation from the sun or self- emitted radiance.  E.g. Photography during daytime with the help of Sunlight.
  7.  Active Remote Sensing: It is also possible to produce electromagnetic radiation of a specific wavelength or band of wavelength to illuminate the object or terrain. The interaction of this radiation can then be studied by sensing the scattered radiance from the target. E.g. Photography at night with the help of Flash Light.
  8.  “The vehicle or carrier for remote sensor is borne is called the Platform.”  The typical platforms are satellite and aircraft, but they can also include radio controlled airplanes, balloons, and kites for low altitude remote sensing, as well as ladder and cherry pickers for ground investigation.
  9.  Air borne plat form  Space borne plat form  Ground borne plat form (Cherry-picker with passive microwave radiometer)
  10. The basic principle of remote sensing is governed by 2 processes viz. Data acquisition and Data analysis.
  11. It comprises of the following distinct elements: a). Energy source. b). Propagation of energy through the atmosphere. c). Energy interaction with the Earth’s surface feature. d). Air borne/Space borne sensors to record the reflected energy. e). Generation of sensor data in the form of pictures or digital information.
  12.  It involves examining the data using various viewing instruments to analyse pictorial data or a computer to analyse digital sensor data.  Reference data or Ground truth check is an essential part of data analysis.  The acquisition of reference data involves collection of information about objects, area or any phenomena that are remotely being sensed.  Finally the information is presented to users who apply it to their decision making process.
  13. A. Radiation and the atmosphere B. Interaction with target C. Energy recorded and converted by sensor D.Reception and processing E.Interpretation and analysis A A B D E C 12 65 28 33 76 Process of Remote Sensing
  14. The Electromagnetic Spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. The light which our eyes can detect is part of the visible spectrum (small) There is a lot of radiation around us which is "invisible" to our eyes, but can be detected by other remote sensing instruments and used to our advantage The visible wavelengths cover a range from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 micro meter (violet to red)
  15. There are four forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes, or is incident upon the surface: •Transmission (T): radiation passes through a target •Reflection (R): radiation "bounces" off the target and is redirected •Scattering (S): scattering occurs when incident electromagnetic radiation is dispersed in all directions from a rough surface. •Absorption (A): radiation is absorbed into the target The proportions of each interaction will depend on the wavelength of the energy and the material and condition of the feature.
  16.  Agriculture  Geology  Archeology  Oceanography  Architecture  Forestry  Land-cover and land-use
  17.  Geology involves the study of landforms, strucures, and the sub surface to understand the processes operating in the earths crust.  Geological studies are not limited only to the earth- remote sensing has been used to examine the composition and structure of other planets.  Remote sensing is used as a tool to extract information about the land surface , composition or sub-surface.
  18.  Multi-spectral data can provide information on lithology or rock composition based on spectral reflectance.  Radar provides an expression of surface topography and roughness.  It is not limited only to direct geological applications but it is also used to support logistics,such a route planning for access into mining area,reclaimation monitoring and generating base maps upon which geological data can be referenced or superimposed.
  19.  Mapping of surficial deposit/bedrock.  Lithological mapping.  Structural mapping.  Lineament extraction.  Mineral exploration.  Exploration of hydrocarbon.  Environmental geology.  Geobotany.  Mapping and monitoring.  Geohazard mapping.  Planetary mapping.
  20.  Structural geology plays an important role in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and potential hazard identification and monitoring.  Structural mapping is the identification and characterization of structural expressions.  Structures can indicate potential location for oil and gas reserve and provide clues to potential hazards such as earthquakes landslides and volcanic activities.  Aerial photos can be used in temperate areas where large scale imagery is used, particularly to map potential geohazards.
  21.  Geological Unit Mapping consists primarily identifying physiographic units and determining the rock lithology or coarse stratigraphy of exposed units.  Remote sensing can be used to describe the lithology by the color, weathering and erosion characteristics, drainage patterns and thickness of bedding.  Unit Mapping is useful in oil and mineral exploration since this resource are often associated with specific lithologies.
  22.  Regional lineaments and structural trends along which groups of mining districts may occur.  Mapping local fracture patterns that may control individual ore deposits.  Detecting hydrothermally altered rocks associated with ore deposits.  Providing basic geologic data.
  23.  It deals with different landforms that characterize the earth’s topography, origin, sequence of evolution, present status and their future trend.  Until space age, scientists conducted most geomorphic analysis by mapping (generally topographic and geologic) and by field observation and measurements.  Eventually, aerial photographs became a prime tool for mapping and interpreting.  Modern macro-geomorphology makes extensive use of global observation from space crafts that employs a variety of imaging and sensing systems. Eg: Vidicon imaging, multi spectral scanning, radiometers and Radars.
  24.  Hydrology is inherently related to many other applications of remote sensing, particularly forestry, agriculture and land cover.  Most hydrological processes are dynamic and require frequent observation.  Remote Sensing offers a synoptic view of the spatial distribution and dynamics of hydrological phenomena, often unattainable by traditional ground surveys
  25. Examples of Hydrological applications:  Flood delineation and mapping Remote sensing techniques are used to measure and monitor the real extent of the flooded areas to efficiently target rescue efforts and to provide quantifiable estimates of the amount of land affected. Incorporating remotely sensed data into a GIS allows for quick calculation and assessment of water levels, damage, and areas facing potential flood danger
  26.  Remote Sensing based groundwater prospect zone map serve as a base for further exploration using hydrogeological and geophysical methods to locate well sites.  If remote sensing data are used at first level to delineate prospective zones and further follow up by hydrogeological and geophysical surveys, higher success could be achieved besides saving in terms of cost, time and work.  Remote Sensing data helps in identifying suitable areas for recharging groundwater.
  27.  Remote Sensing means acquiring information about an object or phenomenon from a distance, without actually coming in contact with the object under study.  The quantity most frequently used in present day remote sensing systems is the Electromagnetic Energy emanating from the object of interest.  Principally, there are two types of Remote Sensing viz. Active and Passive Remote sensing.
  28.  It has two phases: Data acquisition phase and Data analysis phase.  The underlying principle on which the whole Remote Sensing technique is developed is that all objects on the Earth’s surface have characteristic spectral signatures.  The applications of Remote Sensing in the Earth’s science as a whole, especially in Geology is manifold.
  29. BOOKS:  A.N. Patel and Surendra Singh, “Principles of Remote Sensing” Edition-1999, Page No. 1, 27, 113. Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur.  Basuded bhatta, ”remote sensing and GIS”2008,2011,oxford university press.  Flyod F .Sabins, “ remote sensing,principles and interpretation,1996.3rd edition .

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