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LET REVIEW 2013
SPEECH AND ORAL COMMUNICATION
the process of sharing meaning through
audible and visual codes as voice, facial
expression, gestures, movement, posture and
a process that includes
participants, context, messages, channels, nois
e and feedback.
The ability to talk with others to give and
exchange information and ideas, such as: ask
question, give directions, coordinate work
tasks, explain and persuade.
How we use this skill:
Greeting people and taking messages
Reassuring, comforting or persuading
Seeking information and resolving conflicts
Facilitating or leading group
Vowel Sounds – are produced without
blocking or constricting the
passage of air
are oral sounds
/ ^ / accented schwa
/ ǝ / unaccented schwa
/ Ʒ / accented er schwa sound
/ ɚ / unaccented er schwa sound
Diphthong – is a combination of two vowel
sounds blended into one syllable.
/ aI /
/ ͻI /
Consonants- are speech sounds produced
through a modification of the outgoing breath by
the organs of articulation. Therefore, there is
blocking, narrowing, or diverting of the breath
stream in their production.
Classification of Consonants
Voiced- the vocal cords vibrate
[b] [d] [g] [v] [ð] [z] [dƷ] [l] [m] [n] [ɳ ] [r] [w] [j]
Voiceless- the vocal cords do not vibrate
[p] [t] [k] [ƒ] [θ] [ ʃ ] [s] [ʧ ] [h] [ ƕ/Ϻ]
Points of Articulation
Bilabial- upper and lower lips
Labiodentals- lip and teeth
Lingua-dental (interdental)- tongue and teeth
Alveolar- tongue and gum ridge
Post alveolar (alveopalatal)- tongue and alveopalatal region
Palatal- tongue and palate
Velar- tongue and velum
Glottal- vocal folds
Manner of Articulation
Stops (stop-plosives) are characterized by an oral
block, building up of pressure and a sudden explosive release
Fricatives- are sounds produced when the breath stream
passes through a narrowed oral opening and friction sounds
Nasals- are sounds produced by the blocking of the oral
passage and diverting of the vocalized breath through the
Affricatives- are stops that move toward a fricative position.
Laterals- are sounds produced by closing the center of the oral
passage and opening the sides.
Glides (semi-vowels)- are sounds produced with the tongue
starting at a position and gliding rapidly to another.
Points of articulation
Noun Plurals are spelled as
Rule 1. If you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiceless
consonant phonemes (sounds) it is pronounced / s /.
Rule 2: if you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiced
consonant phonemes as a vowel phoneme the “s” ending is
Rule 3: if you add “es” suffix to a word ending in one of the /s, z, š, ž, ϐ,
j/ it is pronounced as / ðz/
Pronunciation: “ed” suffixes
after voiceless sounds
after voiced sounds
Prosodic – the rhythm of spoken
language, including stress and intonation,
or the study of these patterns
Stress also called accent refers to the prominence given to a
syllable or word which makes the word or syllable stand out
above the adjacent syllable or word.
-It can be word stress or sentence stress.
-It is the relative loudness or softness with which a syllable is
-A stressed syllable is pronounced louder and has a higher
pitch and longer duration than unstressed syllable.
Four Degrees of Stress
/’/ primary stress
very loud and very long
/ ‘/ secondary stress
loud and long
/ ”/ tertiary stress
weak and short
/^/ weak stress
very weak and very short
Most English words, especially nouns that contain two
syllables are stressed on the first syllable.
Verbs are stressed on the second syllable
Words to which suffixes like –tion, -sion, -ic, -ity, are
added, carry the strong stress on the syllable before
Compound nouns are stressed on the first noun to
distinguish them from an adjective and a noun
When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the
second word begins also with vowel sound, you blend the
When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the
second word begins with a consonant, you also blend the
When the first word ends with a consonant sound and the
second word begins with a vowel sound, blending is also
Intonation, also known as inflection is the movement of
the voice up or down, along the line of sound.
It is the rising and falling of pitch in the delivery of a
syllable or a word in a phrase or a sentence.
It is determined partly by the mind and mood of the
Through the rising and falling of the speaker’s
voice, particular words in a phrase or sentence are given
emphasis and significance.
Stress and intonation are closely related to each other.
An increase of stress is generally accompanied by a rise
Four Levels of Pitch
Levels 1,2, and 3 are used in normal
conversation, while level 4 is used when the
speaker is excited, emotional, or emphatic.
Shift and Glide
Shift occurs when there is a movement from
one tune to another that takes place
Glide happens when the voice slides from
one tune to another while a syllable is spoken.
Basic Intonation Patterns
Intonation or 2-3-1
Intonation or 2-3-3
Intonation or 3-1
Intonation or 2-3-2
Pitch or 4