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Dr. B.M.N. College_ Speciality finished for performance

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This PPT is made by SYBSc Students of Textile Science and Apparel Design Department for their Class Presentation.

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Dr. B.M.N. College_ Speciality finished for performance

  1. 1. SPECIAL FINISHES TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE SUBMITTED BY  SANJANA KOLI – 08  NIKITA MERGU – 09  AMENA PANVELWALA – 10  AMUTULLAH PATAWALA 11  CHITRA PAWAR – 12  NIKITA PAWAR – 13  JENNIFER QUADRAS - 14
  2. 2. INDEX ANTISTATIC FINISHES FLAME RETARDANT FINISH MOTH PROOFING FINISH STAIN AND SOIL RESISTANT FINISH WATER REPELLENT AND WATER PROOFING FINISH ELASTOMERIC FIBRES NOMEX AND KEVLAR
  3. 3. ANTISTATIC FINISHES DEFINITION Antistatic finishes are used for the removal in Synthetic fibres of the unwanted effects of electrostatic charge produced & wear of the fabrics & knits.  Electrostatic charge causes undesirable adhesive power & a resultant shabbiness.  It is applied by means of an antistatic chemical treatment, the effect of which may be temporary or permanent.
  4. 4. PROPERTIES OF ANTISTATIC FINISH  There are two types of antistatic finish followed as: DURABLE FINISHES NON-DURABLE FINISHES
  5. 5. DURABLE ANTISTATIC  The basic principle is to form a cross linked polymer network containing hydrophilic groups. Typically, polyamines are reacting with poly-glycols to make such structure.  The amount of hydrophilic character in the final polymer can be varied to meet individual requirement. The larger the hydrophilic portions, the more moisture are absorbed & the greater the antistatic effects obtained.  Additional difficulties in achieving the perfect balance of the desire properties, the use of durable antistatic finishes is limited
  6. 6. ANTISTATIC FINISH  The group of mostly hydroscopic materials includes surfactants, organic salts, glycols, polyethylene glycols, and polyelectrolyte, quaternary ammonium salts with fatty alkyl chain, polyethylene oxide compound & esters of salts of alkyl phosphorous acids.  Esters of phosphoric acid form the largest group of non- durable antistatic.  Quaternary ammonium are next larger group of non- durable antistatic. The most widely used are ditallodimethylammonim chloride & dehydrogenated tallowdimethylammonim chloride.  The last group of non-durable antistatic is composed of non-ionic compounds such as ethylated fatty esters, alcohol and alkyl amines.
  7. 7. Mechanism of Antistatic Finish  Antistatic property can be brought out:  By reducing the charge  By increasing the surface conduction power  By making the fibre hydrophilic  Most of the antistatic finishes are based on first mechanism e.g. By reducing the charge & By increasing the surface conduction power  Silicon emulsions, PE emulsions, PE Crysals, poly ammonium, quaternary salts, acrylic polymers can be used for this purpose  In facts the silicone emulsion when used, produce antistatic property by reducing the friction between the fibres with added advantages of soil released property, softness & suppleness etc.
  8. 8. PERFORMANCE FINISHES Antistatic, prevent garments from cling to the wearer. Crease/wrinkles resistant are treated with resins to help the fabric resist wrinkles. Durable /permanent press “heat set” fabrics or garments without using resins. Continue… .
  9. 9. Flame resistant cuts off the oxygen supply or charges the chemical make up fibres as a fabric burns. This causes the flame to extinguish itself. Mildew resistant has a metallic chemical applied to the fabric to prevent mildew from foaming. Mercerization is chemically treated fabric to improve luster, strength & absorbency
  10. 10. USES Carpets of computer room Upholstery fabrics and airbags for automobiles Filtration fabrics Parachutes Fabrics for hospital operating rooms Protective clothes for work with flammable gas, liquids and powered solids.
  11. 11. FLAME RETARDANT The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured material, such as plastics and textile, and surfaces finishes and coatings. Flame retardants inhibit or delay the spread of fire by suppressing the chemical reactions in the flame or by the formation of a protective layer on the surface of a material. They may mix with base material (additive flame retardant) or chemically bonded to it (reactive flame retardants). Mineral flame retardants are typically additive while organ halogen and organophosphorus compounds can be either reactive or additive.
  12. 12. FLAME RESISTANT FINISHES Finishes that reduce the flaming, charring, or afterglow of fibre and fabrics and important for safety. Most fabric finishes with flame retardants will still burn in the direct path of flame; however they self-extinguish when the source of flame is removed. A truly fire proof fabric will not burn even in the path of direct flame but actually only asbestos and glass fibre have this property. Continue…
  13. 13. There have been several recorded incidents of serious damage and death as a result of flash burns from brushed cellulosic fibre fabrics, such as rayon negligees or sweaters, ignited by cigarette ashes.  Flame resistant finishes are of 2 types: The first is the most important and comprises those finishes considered to be durable. The flame retardant is not durable. These finishes are removed by normal care procedures.
  14. 14. MOTH PROOFING FINISH  WOOL and SILK are especially susceptible to damage by moth and carpet beetles.  The protein keratin in WOOL and other hair fibres is to be what the moths prefer.  Carpet beetles will eat either the keratin in WOOL or the protein fibroin in SILK.  Some other fibre may be damaged bg moths and carpet beetles.  Damage may be caused by any 1 of a group of moths that are known to damage protein fibre.  The larva of the moth is the culprit. The eating period the larva increase their weight approximately 300 times.
  15. 15. PROCESS By exposing the material to sunlight or sulphur- di-oxide Using Naphthalene balls and para dichloro benzene. Using some substance containing flourine such as sodium fluoride aluminium fluoride and sodium antinomy fluoride. using soluble solvents such as dichloro beneze sulphomethylamid and dichloro Trichloro ethane. Evlan-BL-and mittin FF also produce moth proofing.there are bit mothicides
  16. 16. USES In addition to repelling or killing insects such as moths and silverfish mothballs have been suggested as a repellent to keep away mice,snakes or other pests and for areas a storepipe cleaner. Older formula mothballs have also been used by drag recers to enhance the octane lating of fuel by dissolving the mothballs in some of the fuel and filtering out the remains with a filter paper.
  17. 17. STAIN- AND SOIL- RESISTANCE FINISHES These finishes reduce the rate of soil deposition fabrics and help prevent spot staining.
  18. 18. PREVENT SPOT STAINING  Increase the surface tension so that 1. liquid stains bead up and roll off or 2. make it easy to absorb the spot with tissue or a sponge.  Important to remove any stain as quickly as possible to prevent it from being set into the fabric.  Remove any stain as quickly as possible to prevent it from being set into the fabric  Once soil or stains have become embedded into the fabric they are nearly impossible to remove.
  19. 19. SOIL –RELEASE FINISHES. The difficulty of removing of soil has increased to alleviate the problem, manufacturers have incorporated soil- release finishes with durable- press finish.  These finishes operate on one of two principles: They provide a hydrophilic surface that attracts the water and permits it to lift off soil, or they coat the fibers so that the soil does not penetrate.
  20. 20. Provide benefits, such as preventing soil re-deposition during care, introducing antistatic qualities, and improving the softness and hand of fabrics. Soil- release finish should make it possible for the consumer to remove all types of soil by home laundering with common detergents, including removal of both oil- and water borne stains.
  21. 21. Finish should not affect dyes and result in colour change during use and care. Read labels carefully to determine if a soil- release finish might be present.
  22. 22. WATER REPELLENT AND WATER PROOFING FINISH INTRODUCTION Dyeing and printing is not the ultimate steps Something is required to make the fabric more suitable for end-use Quality of the fabric in terms of appearance, handle, functionally enhanced by some physical means or by chemicals Therefore, ultimate value addition is done to the fabric by finishing Certain end use of textiles such as umbrella cloth, swim suit, sportswear, rain coat, tarpaulin etc. need water repellency or water proofing.
  23. 23. Water repellent is a coating added to fabrics at the factory to make them water resistant (or hydrophobic). Water repellent finish is different from water proof finishes. What is Water Repellent?
  24. 24. APPLICATIONS TEXTILE MATERIAL:  Raincoats  Umbrellas  Tarpaulins  Swimming suits  Diver suits etc. WETER REPELLENT JACKET
  25. 25. Diver Suit Tarpaulins Water Repellent
  26. 26.  When a uniform coating of suitable substances such as rubber is produced on the surface of the fabric, the inter stitches between the warp and weft yarns are blocked by the continuous film of that substances and water will not pass through the. fabric. This phenomena is known as water repellent or water proof finishes.  However, the rubber treated fabric becomes impermeable to air as well as moisture, when a treated fabric is impermeable to water and air then this type of finishes is called water proof finish.  When the protection from water is desired as in apparel purpose, the treated fabric should be permeable to air but not in water. This type of finish is called water repellent finish.
  27. 27. WHAT IS FINISHING? Finishing is a final process given to a textile material to  Give a good appearance Desirable feel Impart certain durable properties Stiffness Softness Wash and wear finish Water repelling finish To impart some desired functional properties.
  28. 28.  Mechanisms of repellency  Repellent finishes achieve their properties by reducing the  free energy at fiber surfaces.  If the adhesive interactions between a fiber and a drop of liquid placed on the fiber are  greater than the internal cohesive interactions within the liquid, the drop will spread.  If the adhesive interactions between the fiber and the liquid are  less than the internal cohesive interactions within the liquid, the drop will not spread.
  29. 29. MECHANISMS OF REPELLENCY
  30. 30. WATER REPELLENT FINISHWATER PROOF FINISH WATER REPELLENT FINISH  Water repellent are chemical finish.  Resist the penetration of water into or through the fabric.  Permits the passage of moisture or air through the fabric. METHODS  The yarns are coated with water repellent material like wax.  The water repellent do not permit the water drop to spread and penetrate.  Could be of durable and non-durable types.
  31. 31.  A water-proof fabric, unlike a water repellent fabric, is completely moisture proofed.  The fabric is coated or laminated with a film of natural or synthetic rubber or plastic, such as vinyl or polyurethane .  Water proof fabrics are not necessarily more desirable than water-repellent fabrics.  Water proof fabrics are uncomfortable .  Water proof fabric possesses a rather firm, non-capable hand. WATER PROOF FINISH
  32. 32. PRINCIPLES OF WATER REPELLENT Water repellent fabric is coated with a finish that is resistant but not impervious to penetration by water. In this finish, there are some micro hole, which is smaller than water, but bigger than vapors. So water can not passed by this fabric, but vapor can pass.
  33. 33. WHICH FIBER ARE USED FOR WATER REPELLENT ??????? Synthetic fiber are used.  5%-10% natural fiber are used. (Hydrophobic fiber are used)
  34. 34. ELASTOMERIC FIBRES INTRODUCTION Polymer with property of elasticity. Extremely high elongations. Recovers fully and rapidly. Various elastomeric fibers are rubber (natural and synthetic), spandex, anidex and the side-by-side bi- constituent of nylon and spandex (Monvelle)
  35. 35. RUBBER Thick, gummy liquid obtained from tress of Heavea species. Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization process. Growth of synthetic rubber after World War II
  36. 36. PROPERTIES Inherently hard High tensile strength Very high elongation (up to 7 times) High resiliency Flexible Continue…
  37. 37. PROPERTIES Impermeable to water and air Resistant to electricity Water repellant Resistant to alkalis and weak acids Continue…
  38. 38. PROPERTIES Certain properties however can cause problems. Deterioration by sunlight and smog Loss of strength and elasticity through aging. Damage from body oils and other solvents while cleaning. Temperature sensitivity.
  39. 39. USES  Uncured rubber for cements, adhesive, insulating tapes  Vehicle tires, Conveyer belts, piping, rollers for printing presses etc.  Air hoses, balloons, balls and cushions Continue…
  40. 40. USES Rainwear, diving gear, chemical and medical tubing, lining for storage tanks Protective gloves, shoes and blankets Indian rubber balls Latex products such as surgeon’s gloves, condoms etc.
  41. 41. SPANDEX Anagram of the word ‘expands’. Stretchable segments of polyurethane DuPont Company created spandex under the trademark ‘lycra’ in 1959. Stretches about 5-7 times and returns immediately to the relaxed state.
  42. 42. PROPERTIES High strength High elasticity Highly flexible and resilient Good draping quality continue…
  43. 43. PROPERTIES Not a good conductor of heat Low absorbency Unaffected by seawater Doesn’t shrink easily Continue…
  44. 44. PROPERTIES Excessive exposure to heat causes damage. No serious damage due to light Excellent resistance to mildew and insects Gradually gets affected by alkalis. Discoloration occurs upon reaction with acids High resistance to body oils, lotions etc.
  45. 45. USES Athletic, aerobic and exercise apparel Belts, bra straps and side panels, Swimwear, wetsuits, bathing suits Cycling jerseys and shorts Gloves, ski pants, socks, Leggings, jeggings, skinny jeans, slacks Hosiery Home furnishings
  46. 46. NOMEX The invention of nomex goes to Dr. Wilfred Sweeny(1926-2011). A Scottish born scientist. Working at world famous DuPont laboratory. nomex was introduced in 1967. Best used as barrier to fire and heat. It is strong having high elongation and good elastic recovery ,low moisture regain
  47. 47. NOMEX FIRE SUITS ,MOTOR INSULATIONS
  48. 48. NOMEX PRODUCTS
  49. 49. KEVLAR Kevlar was developed by Stephanie kwolek at DuPont in 1965. this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s. It is used in variety of specialized applications It is an organic fiber. Care of Kevlar is similar to nomex and nylon
  50. 50. KEVLAR HOSES, CONVEY BELTS
  51. 51. KEVLAR BULLETPROOF VEST

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