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STAIN AND SOIL
NOMEX AND KEVLAR
Antistatic finishes are used for the removal in
Synthetic fibres of the unwanted effects of
electrostatic charge produced & wear of the
fabrics & knits.
Electrostatic charge causes undesirable adhesive
power & a resultant shabbiness.
It is applied by means of an antistatic chemical
treatment, the effect of which may be temporary
PROPERTIES OF ANTISTATIC FINISH
There are two types of antistatic finish followed as:
DURABLE FINISHES NON-DURABLE FINISHES
The basic principle is to form a cross linked polymer
network containing hydrophilic groups. Typically,
polyamines are reacting with poly-glycols to make
The amount of hydrophilic character in the final
polymer can be varied to meet individual
requirement. The larger the hydrophilic portions, the
more moisture are absorbed & the greater the
antistatic effects obtained.
Additional difficulties in achieving the perfect balance
of the desire properties, the use of durable antistatic
finishes is limited
The group of mostly hydroscopic materials includes
surfactants, organic salts, glycols, polyethylene glycols,
and polyelectrolyte, quaternary ammonium salts with
fatty alkyl chain, polyethylene oxide compound & esters
of salts of alkyl phosphorous acids.
Esters of phosphoric acid form the largest group of non-
Quaternary ammonium are next larger group of non-
durable antistatic. The most widely used are
ditallodimethylammonim chloride & dehydrogenated
The last group of non-durable antistatic is composed of
non-ionic compounds such as ethylated fatty esters,
alcohol and alkyl amines.
Mechanism of Antistatic Finish
Antistatic property can be brought out:
By reducing the charge
By increasing the surface conduction power
By making the fibre hydrophilic
Most of the antistatic finishes are based on first
mechanism e.g. By reducing the charge & By increasing
the surface conduction power
Silicon emulsions, PE emulsions, PE Crysals, poly
ammonium, quaternary salts, acrylic polymers can be
used for this purpose
In facts the silicone emulsion when used, produce
antistatic property by reducing the friction between the
fibres with added advantages of soil released
property, softness & suppleness etc.
Antistatic, prevent garments from cling to
Crease/wrinkles resistant are treated with
resins to help the fabric resist wrinkles.
Durable /permanent press “heat set”
fabrics or garments without using resins.
Flame resistant cuts off the oxygen
supply or charges the chemical make up
fibres as a fabric burns. This causes the
flame to extinguish itself.
Mildew resistant has a metallic
chemical applied to the fabric to prevent
mildew from foaming.
Mercerization is chemically treated
fabric to improve luster, strength &
Carpets of computer room
Upholstery fabrics and airbags for
Fabrics for hospital operating rooms
Protective clothes for work with
flammable gas, liquids and powered
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse
group of chemicals which are added to
manufactured material, such as plastics and
textile, and surfaces finishes and coatings. Flame
retardants inhibit or delay the spread of fire by
suppressing the chemical reactions in the flame
or by the formation of a protective layer on the
surface of a material. They may mix with base
material (additive flame retardant) or chemically
bonded to it (reactive flame retardants). Mineral
flame retardants are typically additive while
organ halogen and organophosphorus
compounds can be either reactive or additive.
FLAME RESISTANT FINISHES
Finishes that reduce the flaming, charring, or
afterglow of fibre and fabrics and important
for safety. Most fabric finishes with flame
retardants will still burn in the direct path of
flame; however they self-extinguish when
the source of flame is removed. A truly fire
proof fabric will not burn even in the path of
direct flame but actually only asbestos and
glass fibre have this property.
There have been several recorded incidents
of serious damage and death as a result of
flash burns from brushed cellulosic fibre
fabrics, such as rayon negligees or sweaters,
ignited by cigarette ashes.
Flame resistant finishes are of 2 types:
The first is the most important and comprises
those finishes considered to be durable.
The flame retardant is not durable. These
finishes are removed by normal care
MOTH PROOFING FINISH
WOOL and SILK are especially susceptible to damage
by moth and carpet beetles.
The protein keratin in WOOL and other hair fibres is
to be what the moths prefer.
Carpet beetles will eat either the keratin in WOOL or
the protein fibroin in SILK.
Some other fibre may be damaged bg moths and
Damage may be caused by any 1 of a group of
moths that are known to damage protein fibre.
The larva of the moth is the culprit. The eating period
the larva increase their weight approximately 300
By exposing the material to sunlight or sulphur-
Using Naphthalene balls and para dichloro
Using some substance containing flourine such as
sodium fluoride aluminium fluoride and sodium
using soluble solvents such as dichloro beneze
sulphomethylamid and dichloro Trichloro ethane.
Evlan-BL-and mittin FF also produce moth
proofing.there are bit mothicides
In addition to repelling or killing insects such as
moths and silverfish mothballs have been
suggested as a repellent to keep away
mice,snakes or other pests and for areas a
Older formula mothballs have also been used
by drag recers to enhance the octane lating of
fuel by dissolving the mothballs in some of
the fuel and filtering out the remains with a
STAIN- AND SOIL- RESISTANCE FINISHES
These finishes reduce the rate of soil
deposition fabrics and help prevent spot
PREVENT SPOT STAINING
Increase the surface tension so that
1. liquid stains bead up and roll off or
2. make it easy to absorb the spot with tissue
or a sponge.
Important to remove any stain as quickly as
possible to prevent it from being set into the
Remove any stain as quickly as possible to
prevent it from being set into the fabric
Once soil or stains have become embedded
into the fabric they are nearly impossible to
SOIL –RELEASE FINISHES.
The difficulty of removing of soil has
increased to alleviate the problem,
manufacturers have incorporated soil-
release finishes with durable- press finish.
These finishes operate on one of two
principles: They provide a hydrophilic
surface that attracts the water and
permits it to lift off soil, or they coat the
fibers so that the soil does not penetrate.
Provide benefits, such as preventing
soil re-deposition during care,
introducing antistatic qualities, and
improving the softness and hand of
Soil- release finish should make it
possible for the consumer to remove all
types of soil by home laundering with
common detergents, including removal
of both oil- and water borne stains.
Finish should not affect dyes and result in
colour change during use and care.
Read labels carefully to determine if a soil-
release finish might be present.
WATER REPELLENT AND
WATER PROOFING FINISH
Dyeing and printing is not the ultimate steps
Something is required to make the fabric more
suitable for end-use
Quality of the fabric in terms of appearance,
handle, functionally enhanced by some physical
means or by chemicals
Therefore, ultimate value addition is done to the
fabric by finishing
Certain end use of textiles such as umbrella cloth,
swim suit, sportswear, rain coat, tarpaulin etc.
need water repellency or water proofing.
Water repellent is a coating added to fabrics at
the factory to make them water resistant (or
Water repellent finish is different from water
What is Water Repellent?
When a uniform coating of suitable substances such as rubber is
produced on the surface of the fabric, the inter stitches between the
warp and weft yarns are blocked by the continuous film of that
substances and water will not pass through the. fabric. This
phenomena is known as water repellent or water proof finishes.
However, the rubber treated fabric becomes impermeable to air as
well as moisture, when a treated fabric is impermeable to water
and air then this type of finishes is called water proof finish.
When the protection from water is desired as in apparel purpose,
the treated fabric should be permeable to air but not in water. This
type of finish is called water repellent finish.
WHAT IS FINISHING?
Finishing is a final process given to a textile
Give a good appearance
Impart certain durable properties
Wash and wear finish
Water repelling finish
To impart some desired functional properties.
Mechanisms of repellency
Repellent finishes achieve their properties by
free energy at fiber surfaces.
If the adhesive interactions between a fiber
and a drop of liquid placed on the fiber are
greater than the internal cohesive
interactions within the liquid, the
drop will spread.
If the adhesive interactions between the
fiber and the liquid are
less than the internal cohesive
interactions within the liquid, the
drop will not spread.
WATER REPELLENT FINISHWATER
WATER REPELLENT FINISH
Water repellent are chemical finish.
Resist the penetration of water into or through the
Permits the passage of moisture or air through the
The yarns are coated with water repellent material
The water repellent do not permit the water drop to
spread and penetrate.
Could be of durable and non-durable types.
A water-proof fabric, unlike a water
repellent fabric, is completely moisture
The fabric is coated or laminated with a film
of natural or synthetic rubber or plastic,
such as vinyl or polyurethane .
Water proof fabrics are not necessarily
more desirable than water-repellent fabrics.
Water proof fabrics are uncomfortable .
Water proof fabric possesses a rather firm,
WATER PROOF FINISH
PRINCIPLES OF WATER
Water repellent fabric is coated with a
finish that is resistant but not impervious
to penetration by water.
In this finish, there are some micro hole,
which is smaller than water, but bigger
than vapors. So water can not passed
by this fabric, but vapor can pass.
WHICH FIBER ARE USED FOR
WATER REPELLENT ???????
Synthetic fiber are used.
5%-10% natural fiber are used.
(Hydrophobic fiber are used)
Polymer with property of elasticity.
Extremely high elongations.
Recovers fully and rapidly.
Various elastomeric fibers are rubber
(natural and synthetic), spandex,
anidex and the side-by-side bi-
constituent of nylon and spandex
Thick, gummy liquid obtained
from tress of Heavea species.
Charles Goodyear discovered
Growth of synthetic rubber
after World War II
High tensile strength
Very high elongation (up to 7 times)
Impermeable to water and air
Resistant to electricity
Resistant to alkalis and weak acids
Certain properties however can cause
Deterioration by sunlight and smog
Loss of strength and elasticity through aging.
Damage from body oils and other solvents
Uncured rubber for cements, adhesive,
Vehicle tires, Conveyer belts, piping,
rollers for printing presses etc.
Air hoses, balloons, balls and cushions
Rainwear, diving gear, chemical and
medical tubing, lining for storage tanks
Protective gloves, shoes and blankets
Indian rubber balls
Latex products such as surgeon’s
gloves, condoms etc.
Anagram of the word ‘expands’.
Stretchable segments of polyurethane
DuPont Company created spandex under the
trademark ‘lycra’ in 1959.
Stretches about 5-7 times and returns
immediately to the relaxed state.
Not a good conductor of heat
Unaffected by seawater
Doesn’t shrink easily
Excessive exposure to heat causes damage.
No serious damage due to light
Excellent resistance to mildew and insects
Gradually gets affected by alkalis.
Discoloration occurs upon reaction with acids
High resistance to body oils, lotions etc.
Athletic, aerobic and exercise apparel
Belts, bra straps and side panels,
Swimwear, wetsuits, bathing suits
Cycling jerseys and shorts
Gloves, ski pants, socks,
Leggings, jeggings, skinny jeans, slacks
The invention of nomex goes to Dr.
Wilfred Sweeny(1926-2011). A Scottish
born scientist. Working at world
famous DuPont laboratory. nomex
was introduced in 1967.
Best used as barrier to fire and
It is strong having high elongation
and good elastic recovery ,low
Kevlar was developed by
Stephanie kwolek at DuPont in 1965.
this high strength material was first
commercially used in the early
It is used in variety of specialized
It is an organic fiber.
Care of Kevlar is similar to nomex