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Atomic structure and Electronic Configuration

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Atomic structure and Electronic Configuration

  1. 1. By Vishwajeet Sunday, 29 January, 2023
  2. 2. The atomic structure of an element refers to the constitution of its nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons around it. Primarily, the atomic structure of matter is made up of protons, electrons and neutrons. 2
  3. 3. 3 John Dalton
  4. 4. PODTULATES AND CAUSES OF FALIURE POSTULATES All matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. All atoms of a specific element are identical in mass, size, and other properties. However, atoms of different element exhibit different properties and vary in mass and size. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed. Furthermore, atoms cannot be divided into smaller particles. Atoms of different elements can combine with each other in fixed whole-number ratios in order to form compounds. Atoms can be rearranged, combined, or separated in chemical reactions. It does not account for subatomic particles. It does not account for isotopes. It does not account for Isobars. Elements need not combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds. It does not account for alltropes. 4 CAUSES OF FALIURE
  5. 5. 10% 90% Success 90%FAILURE 10%SUCCESS 5
  6. 6. 6 J.J. Thompson
  7. 7. PODTULATES AND CAUSES OF FALIURE POSTULATES An atom consists of a positively charged sphere and the electrons are embedded in it. The negative and positive charges are equal in magnitude. From the above two one can say that the atom as a whole is electrically neutral. Thomson model of an atom could not explain the stability of an atom, i.e., how a positive charge in the atom holds the negatively charged electrons. It could not explain the position of the nucleus in an atom and the scattering of alpha particles. 7 CAUSES OF FALIURE
  8. 8. 30% 70% Success 70%FAILURE 30%SUCCESS 8
  9. 9. 9 Ernest Rutherford
  10. 10. PODTULATES AND CAUSES OF FALIURE POSTULATES The mass of an atom is concentrated in a small space called the nucleus. Atoms majorly consist of positively charged particles. Negatively charged electrons revolve around atoms in circular paths called orbits at very high speed. An atom is electrically neutral i.e. has no net charge. According to him, charged electrons revolve around atom in circular paths so it should experience acceleration due to which it should lose energy continuously in the form of electromagnetic radiations and then eventually fall into the nucleus there by making the atom unstable.Rutherford’s model of an atom could not explain as to how the electrons are arranged in the orbits around the nucleus. CAUSES OF FALIURE
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  12. 12. 12 Neil Bohr
  13. 13. PODTULATES AND CAUSES OF FALIURE POSTULATES • In an atom, electrons (negatively charged) revolve around the positively charged nucleus in a definite circular path called orbits or shells. • Each orbit or shell has a fixed energy and these circular orbits are known as orbital shells. • The energy levels are represented by an integer (n=1, 2, 3…) known as the quantum number. This range of quantum number starts from nucleus side with n=1 having the lowest energy level. The orbits n=1, 2, 3, 4… are assigned as K, L, M, N…. shells and when an electron attains the lowest energy level, it is said to be in the ground state. • The electrons in an atom move from a lower energy level to a higher energy level by gaining the required energy and an electron moves from a higher energy level to lower energy level by losing energy. • Bohr’s model of an atom failed to explain the Zeeman Effect (effect of magnetic field on the spectra of atoms). • It also failed to explain the Stark effect (effect of electric field on the spectra of atoms). • It violates the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. • It could not explain the spectra obtained from larger atoms 13 CAUSES OF FALIURE
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  15. 15. 15 Erwin Schrödinger
  16. 16. POSTULATES • The energy of an electron is quantized i.e. an electron can only have certain specific values of energy. • The quantized energy of an electron is the allowed solution of the Schrödinger wave equation and it is the result of wave like properties of electron. • As per Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle, the exact position and momentum of an electron cannot be determined. So the only probability of finding an electron at a position can be determined and it is |ψ|2 at that point where ψ represents the wave-function of that electron. • An atomic orbital is the wave-function (ψ) of an electron in an atom. Whenever an electron is described by a wave-function, it occupies atomic orbital. As an electron can have many wave-functions, there are many atomic orbitals for the electron. Every wave-function or atomic orbital have some shape and energy associated with it. All the information about the electron in an atom is stored in its orbital wave function ψ and quantum mechanics makes it possible to extract this information out of ψ. • The probability of finding an electron at a point within an atom is proportional to the square of the orbital wave function i.e., | ψ |2 at that point. | ψ |2 is known as probability density and is always positive. 16
  17. 17. 100% 0% Success 0% FAILURE 100%SUCCESS 17
  18. 18. 18 Electron configurations describe where electrons are located around the nucleus of an atom. Ex: The electron configuration of lithium, 1s²2s¹, tells us that lithium has two electrons in the 1s subshell and one electron in the 2s subshell.
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  22. 22. 22 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 1 H Hydrogen 1s1 2 He Helium 1s2 3 Li Lithium [He] 2s1 4 Be Beryllium [He] 2s2 5 B Boron [He] 2s2 2p1 6 C Carbon [He] 2s2 2p2 7 N Nitrogen [He] 2s2 2p3 8 O Oxygen [He] 2s2 2p4 9 F Fluorine [He] 2s2 2p5 10 Ne Neon [He] 2s2 2p6 11 Na Sodium [Ne] 3s1 12 Mg Magnesium [Ne] 3s2 13 Al Aluminium [Ne] 3s2 3p1 14 Si Silicon [Ne] 3s2 3p2 15 P Phosphorus [Ne] 3s2 3p3
  23. 23. 23 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 16 S Sulfur [Ne] 3s2 3p4 17 Cl Chlorine [Ne] 3s2 3p5 18 Ar Argon [Ne] 3s2 3p6 19 K Potassium [Ar] 4s1 20 Ca Calcium [Ar] 4s2 21 Sc Scandium [Ar] 3d1 4s2 22 Ti Titanium [Ar] 3d2 4s2 23 V Vanadium [Ar] 3d3 4s2 24 Cr Chromium [Ar] 3d5 4s1 25 Mn Manganese [Ar] 3d5 4s2 26 Fe Iron [Ar] 3d6 4s2 27 Co Cobalt [Ar] 3d7 4s2 28 Ni Nickel [Ar] 3d8 4s2 29 Cu Copper [Ar] 3d10 4s1 30 Zn Zinc [Ar] 3d10 4s2
  24. 24. 24 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 31 Ga Gallium [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 32 Ge Germanium [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 33 As Arsenic [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3 34 Se Selenium [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4 35 Br Bromine [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5 36 Kr Krypton [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6 37 Rb Rubidium [Kr] 5s1 38 Sr Strontium [Kr] 5s2 39 Y Yttrium [Kr] 4d1 5s2 40 Zr Zirconium [Kr] 4d2 5s2 41 Nb Niobium [Kr] 4d4 5s1 42 Mo Molybdenum [Kr] 4d5 5s1 43 Tc Technetium [Kr] 4d5 5s2 44 Ru Ruthenium [Kr] 4d7 5s1 45 Rh Rhodium [Kr] 4d8 5s1
  25. 25. 25 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 46 Pd Palladium [Kr] 4d10 47 Ag Silver [Kr] 4d10 5s1 48 Cd Cadmium [Kr] 4d10 5s2 49 In Indium [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 50 Sn Tin [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2 51 Sb Antimony [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3 52 Te Tellurium [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 53 I Iodine [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5 54 Xe Xenon [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6 55 Cs Cesium [Xe] 6s1 56 Ba Barium [Xe] 6s2 57 La Lanthanum [Xe] 5d1 6s2 58 Ce Cerium [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2 59 Pr Praseodymium [Xe] 4f3 6s2 60 Nd Neodymium [Xe] 4f4 6s2
  26. 26. 26 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 61 Pm Promethium [Xe] 4f5 6s2 62 Sm Samarium [Xe] 4f6 6s2 63 Eu Europium [Xe] 4f7 6s2 64 Gd Gadolinium [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2 65 Tb Terbium [Xe] 4f9 6s2 66 Dy Dysprosium [Xe] 4f10 6s2 67 Ho Holmium [Xe] 4f11 6s2 68 Er Erbium [Xe] 4f12 6s2 69 Tm Thulium [Xe] 4f13 6s2 70 Yb Ytterbium [Xe] 4f14 6s2 71 Lu Lutetium [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2 72 Hf Hafnium [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2 73 Ta Tantalum [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2 74 W Tungsten [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2 75 Re Rhenium [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
  27. 27. 27 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 76 Os Osmium [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2 77 Ir Iridium [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2 78 Pt Platinum [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1 79 Au Gold [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 80 Hg Mercury [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 81 Tl Thallium [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1 82 Pb Lead [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 83 Bi Bismuth [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 84 Po Polonium [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 85 At Astatine [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 86 Rn Radon [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 87 Fr Francium [Rn] 7s1 88 Ra Radium [Rn] 7s2 89 Ac Actinium [Rn] 6d1 7s2 90 Th Thorium [Rn] 6d2 7s2
  28. 28. 28 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 91 Pa Protactinium [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2 92 U Uranium [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2 93 Np Neptunium [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 94 Pu Plutonium [Rn] 5f6 7s2 95 Am Americium [Rn] 5f7 7s2 96 Cm Curium [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 97 Bk Berkelium [Rn] 5f9 7s2 98 Cf Californium [Rn] 5f10 7s2 99 Es Einsteinium [Rn] 5f11 7s2 100 Fm Fermium [Rn] 5f12 7s2 101 Md Mendelevium [Rn] 5f13 7s2 102 No Nobelium [Rn] 5f14 7s2 103 Lr Lawrencium [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 104 Rf Rutherfordium [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 105 Db Dubnium [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2
  29. 29. 29 Element Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Element Electron Configuration 106 Sg Seaborgium [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 107 Bh Bohrium [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 108 Hs Hassium [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 109 Mt Meitnerium [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 110 Ds Darmstadtium [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 111 Rg Roentgenium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 112 Cn Copernicium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 113 Nh Nihonium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 114 Fl Flerovium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 115 Mc Moscovium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 116 Lv Livermorium [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 117 Ts Tennessine [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 118 Og Oganesson [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6

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