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farm mechanization

  3. Company Logo OBJECTIVES 1 To understand the concepts of Farm Mechanization. 2 To examine the problems of Farm Mechanization. 3 To explore some possible strategies for promoting Farm Mechanization.
  4. Company Logo Introduction1 Concept and meaning2 Present scenario3 Government initiatives4 Problems of Farm Mechanization5 Future prospects of Farm Mechanization6 Need of extension in Farm Mechanization7 Case studies8 Conclusion9
  5. INTRODUCTION In India, 69% of total population lives in rural areas.(Census, 2011)  Share of agriculture and allied sectors in the GDP is 14.1% (2011-2012)  More than 70 percent of the operational farm holdings are small and marginal (Census,2011)  70% of net sown area is rain fed subjected to external vagaries.
  6. Average farm power availability is about 1.7 kW/ha. The number of tractors was just 8000 in 1950-51, which steeply went up to 2.64 million in 2000-01 showing a growth rate of 10.3%. Power tiller was introduced in the country in the sixties, but could not gain popularity like tractor due to its limitation in the field and on the road (Singh et al. 1999).
  7. FARM POWER AVAILABILITY AND AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF FOOD GRAINS IN INDIA IN 2001 Sl. No. Name of the State Farm Power Availability (kW/ha) Food grain productivity (Kg/ha) 1. Punjab 3.50 4032 2. Haryana 2.25 3088 3. Uttar Pradesh 1.75 2105 4. Andhra Pradesh 1.60 1995 5. Uttaranchal 1.60 1712 6. West Bengal 1.25 2217 7. Tamil Nadu 0.90 2262 8. Karnataka 0.90 1406 9. Kerala 0.80 2162
  8. Sl. No. Name of the State Farm Power Availability (kW/ha) Food grain productivity (Kg/ha) 10. Assam 0.80 1443 11. Bihar 0.80 1622 12. Gujarat 0.80 1169 13. Madhya Pradesh 0.80 907 14. Himachal Pradesh 0.70 1500 15. Maharashtra 0.70 757 16. Rajasthan 0.65 884 17. Jharkhand 0.60 1095 18. Jammu & Kashmir 0.60 1050 19. Orissa 0.60 799 20. Chhattisgarh All India 0.60 1.35 799 1723 Source:
  9. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 INDIA USA CHINA JAPAN Series1 1.5 6 6.8 14 1.5 KW/ha Country wise farm power Total farm power in different countries PRESENT SCENARIO
  10. Agricultural productivity has a positive correlation with farm power availability Source:  Farm Power Availability and Productivity of Food Grains in India (1951-2011)
  11. What is Farm Mechanization…? The process of developing agricultural machines and substituting this machine power for human and animal power in agricultural production practices is farm mechanization.
  12. MEANING AND CONCEPT Mechanization of farms means the use of machines for conducting agricultural operations, replacing the traditional methods which involve human and animal labour. Farm mechanization implies the use of mechanical technology in the varied farming operations like sowing, harvesting, threshing, levelling, watering, spraying, weeding etc.
  13. PRESENT SCENARIO  As per the findings under the Millennium Study (2004) on State of Indian farmers, agricultural research has not benefited all farmers and regions equally.  Total energy use in production of principal crops in India has increased 4-5 times between 1970 and 2005 during which average productivity increased from 837 to 1583 kg/ha and the average food grain productivity has now reached the level of about 2000 kg/ha.  The average farm power availability in India has increased from about 0.25 kW/ha in 1951 to about 1.35 kW/ha in 2001.
  14. PRESENT SCENARIO India 1.5 KW/haNE 0.67 KW/ha Farm power availability in India and NE  Meghalaya -1.44 kW/ha(max)  Arunachal Pradesh-0.17 kW/ha(min)  Assam -0.80 KW/ha i.e. below the national average of 1.5 kW/ha Source:
  15. 1971-72 2011-12 Series1 7.5 51.08 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Contributionoftractorinpercentage Increasing trend in farm power utilization( Tractor) •The increase in share of farm power has been mainly through introduction of tractors, whose contribution has increased from 7.5 percent in 1971 to 51.08 percent in 2011-12.
  16. This has resulted in increase in total farm power availability from 0.295 kW/ha in 1971-72 to 1.71 kW/ha in 2010-11. Source: 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 NOS.OFSALES YEARS YEAR WISE SALE OF TRACTOR AND POWER TILLERS Tractor Power tiller
  18. MECHANISATION IN ASSAM  The economy of Assam continues to be predominantly agrarian.  Agriculture sector providing employment to more than 50 percent of the rural people.(census, 2011)  The net cultivated area of the State is 28.11 lakh hectare (2009-10).  The contribution of Agriculture sector to the State Domestic Product was nearly 25 percent (census,2011).  Present level of mechanization in the state (0.75 kW/ha) can be categorized into low to medium and it is still below the national average of 1.5 kW/ha (Srivastava 2004).
  19. Source : data provided by the Dept. of Agriculture, Govt. of Assam 2012. Tractor Power tiller Paddy thresher Rotovator Self propelled reaper Small implements 5772 20777 43 111 20 99884 Tractor Power tiller Paddy thresher Rotovator Self propelled reaper Small implements
  20. NEED OF FARM MECHANIZATION  To increase the production and productivity of food grains and to meet the global standards.  For timely operations of agricultural activities.  Efficient utilisation of inputs ,fertilizers, water and other natural resources.  To meet the growing needs of growing population in almost the same amount of cultivable land.  Availability of adequate farm power is very crucial for timely farm operations for increasing production and productivity and handling the crop produce to reduce losses.
  21.  Efficient machinery helps in increasing productivity by about 30% besides, enabling the farmers to raise a second crop making the agriculture attractive. Economic Advantage of Mechanization in per cent, Increase in productivity upto 12-34 Seed-cum-fertilizer drill facilitates  Saving in seeds 20  Saving in fertilizer 15-20 Enhancement in cropping intensity 5 - 22 Increase in gross income of the farmers 29-49 Source: Report of the Sub-Group on Agricultural Implements and Machinery for Formulation of 9th Five Year Plan, Govt. of India.
  22. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ( NO. IN MILLION) Particulars 2012 2020 2030 2040 2050 Country’s population 1222 1323 1432 1520 1612 Total no. of workers 504 566 641 711 787 No. of workers as % of population 41.2 42.8 44.8 46.8 48.8 No. of agricultural workers 240 230 222 211 202 % of agricultural workers to total workers 47.6 40.6 34.6 29.7 25.7 No. of male agricultural workers 132 115 100 84 81 No. of female agricultural workers 108 115 122 127 121 % of female in agricultural work force 45 50 55 60 60 SOURCE: WWW.CIAE.NIC.IN
  23. PROGRAMMES/SCHEMES 1) “Outsourcing of training and demonstrations of newly developed equipments”. Activities in North East India (2012-13 up to 5th March 2013) Sl. no. Activity/ Programme Activity Details Target Achievem ent 1. Outsourcing of training and demonstration of newly developed agricultural equipment including horticultural equipment at farmer’s field. i) Demonstration of newly developed Agricultural Equipment including Horticultural equipment at farmer’s field. ii) Training of farmers through outsourcing by identified institutions of the State Governments Arunachal pradesh-2405 Manipur-2222 Meghalaya- 302 Mizoram- 2350 Nagaland- 50 Arunachal Pradesh- 175 Nagaland- 150 Not reported Not reported
  24. Activity in NE Region: 2) “Post Harvest Technology and Management” SL. No. Activity/ Programme Activity Details Target Achieveme nt 1. Post harvest technology and management i) Demonstrati on of PHT Euipment. ii) Distribution of PHT equipment through subsidies. Manipur- 1750 Nagaland-187 Manipur- 145 Meghalaya- 82 Not released
  25. Sl. no Activity/ Programme Activity Details Target Achieve ment 1. Farm machinery training and testing institute, Bishwanath Chariali (Assam) Imparting training to the farmers and other beneficiary groups on the selection, operation, maintenance, energy conservation and management of Agricultural Equipment Training personnel- 800 Testing machines-18 Nagaland 202 demo conducted. 386 08 3) “Promotion and Strengthening of Agricultural Mechanization through Training, Testing and Demonstration
  26. Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA): A level of 25-50% subsidy on procurement cost is made available under revised “Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)” scheme for different categories of equipment. Gender Friendly Equipment for Women: “Promotion and Strengthening of Agricultural Mechanization through Training, Testing, and Demonstration“ and Outsourcing of Training and Demonstration of Newly Developed Agricultural Equipment, including Horticultural Equipment at Farmers Fields, separate physical targets have been fixed and 30 per cent of the funds have been allocated for women farmers.
  28.  Improved sickle  Cono weeder  Groundnut stripper  Mango harvester
  29. IMPORTANT INSTITUTIONS 1. CFMTTI at Budhni in Madhya Pradesh-will test tractors, power tillers, combine harvesters, and other self-propelled machines. It will also test tractors, power tillers, combine harvesters, agricultural trailers, engines for mass emission of exhaust gasses and other machines for compliance under CMVR. 2. NRFMTTI, Hisar in Haryana- will test Combine harvesters, plant protection equipments, irrigation pumps, diesel engines and other self propelled crop production equipments and machines. It will also test combine harvesters for compliance under CMVR.
  30. IMPORTANT INSTITUTIONS … 3. SRFMTTI, Anantpur in Andhra Pradesh- will test power tillers, self-propelled crop production machines/equipments, including power drawn agricultural machines and equipments. 4. NERFMTTI, Biswanath Chariali in Assam- will test power drawn agricultural machines and equipments including non-self propelled agricultural equipments in order to meet requirements of manufacturers of Eastern and North Eastern Region.
  31. Year of establishment: 1990. Administrative Ministry: Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Deptt. of Agriculture and Coop., Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi Aim: Appropriate mechanization and technology through training , testing and demonstration. Thrust area:  Competent based skill oriented human resource development in all North Eastern States, West Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand.  Providing good quality Farm Machinery and Equipment to the unlimited users by conducting tests as per BIS norms.  Mechanised farming activities for supporting the Training and Testing services in terms of field operations, demonstrations and crop production. North eastern region farm machinery training and testing institute , Bishwanath Chariali, Assam
  32. GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES: Training of Farmers, entrepreneurs and scientists through Outsourcing Farm Mechanization Programmes under Macro Management of Agriculture schemes. Agro Industries Corporations (SAICs), 1964 A FMTTI has been established at Biswanath Chariali in the Sonitpur district of Assam. The Scheme on “Post Harvest Technology and Management”. Gender Friendly Equipment for Women.
  33. PROBLEMS RELATING TO FARMERS IN FARM MECHANIZATION 1. Small size and scattered land holdings 2. Financial inability of the small farmers 3. Lack of proper knowledge about farm machineries 4. Lack of repair and replacement facilities especially in the remote rural areas. 5. Limited availability of sale outlets. 6. Lack of accessibility for procurement, repair and maintenance.
  34. PROBLEMS RELATING TO IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES The farm machinery have large turning radius and thus require comparatively larger farm for economical use. There is great shortage of diesel in the country as a whole. Thus, to use so extensive oil based farm machinery is not desirable. Quality and reliability of farm machinery being manufactured and supplied by various agencies and scale of manufacturers are yet to gain the confidence of common farmers.
  35. NATIONAL MISSION ON FARM MECHANIZATION  Increasing the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low.  Offsetting adverse ‘economies of scale’ and ‘higher cost of ownership’ of high value farm equipment by promoting ‘ Custom Hiring Centre’ for agricultural machinery.  Promoting farm mechanization by creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities.  Ensuring quality control of new developed agricultural machinery and equipment through performance evaluation and certifying them at designated testing centers located all over the country.
  36.  Sub – mission on Agricultural Mechanization during 12th Five Year Plan. Sl. No Components 1. Promotion and strengthening of agricultural mechanization through training, testing and demonstration. 2. Post harvest technology management. 3. Financial assistance or procurement subsidy for selected machinery and equipment. 4. Enhancing farm productivity at village level by introducing appropriate farm mechanization in selected villages. 5. Establishing hi-tech and high product equipment hub for custom hiring. 6. Promotion of Farm Machinery and Equipment in North Eastern Region.
  37. STRATEGY Development/ adoption of manually guided power operated equipment for hilly terrains. Farm machinery management for efficient and optimum utilization of available agricultural machinery. Streamlining of testing procedure, and training of engineers and pretesting of machineries Development of package of farm equipment for major cropping systems for different states.
  38. Establishment of farm machinery bank for easy supply to farmers. Increasing average power supply to agriculture from 1.5 kW/ha in 2010 to 2.5 kW/ha by 2025. Mechanization of all farmers in all regions of the country especially the rain fed areas. Increase interaction among farmers, R and D workers, departments of agriculture and industry
  39. FUTURE PROSPECTS IN FARM MECHANIZATION WITH EXTENSION INTERVENTION  Active involvement of farmers through user groups/ associations extension methods, including farmer-to- farmer extension..  The coverage and scope of Farmer Field School-the approach may significantly improve farmers' knowledge on new technological options.  Increasing use of media and information technology, including cyber kiosks.  Building gender concerns into the system.  Selective mechanization.
  40. • Appropriate technology requirement • Source Identify • Domestic and Global • Evaluate adaption • Indiginize for cost competitiveness Adapt • Performance validation • Propagate for adoption Validate THE WAY FORWARD FOR INDIA …
  42. CASE STUDIES-IMPACT OF SHALLOW TUBE WELL IRRIGATION ON CROP PRODUCTION IN ASSAM  Implemented under the financial assistance of NABARD(Smriddha Krishak Yojana, SKY) Scheme.  Objectives:- yield rate- cropping pattern- problems with STW- effect of STW.  Fertilizer consumption increased from 13.0 kg/ha in 1996 to 29.3 kg/ha in 2000.
  43.  1,38,255 shallow tube- wells were installed upto October, 2001(41086 under ARIASP and 9816.9 under SKY)  Double cropping- Boro paddy as first crop and Sali as 2nd crop and jute with rotation with winter paddy.  Aggregate yield in beneficiary farms found to be higher by 10.98% over the non-beneficiary.  Cropping intensity in irrigated holdings-182% and 143% in unirrigated holdings.  Irrigated holdings cropping intensity- Nagaon district- 193% Sunitpur district- 190% Jorhat district- 168%
  44. CONCLUSION 1. The distribution of tractors from area to area should be normalized so that the custom hiring is increased. 2. Technical know-how should be provided to the farmers with respect to appropriateness of farm machinery for the situation and for its proper use. 3. A standardization and quality-marking centres of farm equipment should be established in potential areas of the country.
  45. CONCLUSION… 4. The farm machinery suitable for different types of soil and operations for important crops should be developed and manufactured. 5. The useful farm equipment should be identified and imported to cut down time and expenditure on research. 6. Training relating to farm machinery and equipment should be imparted to the farmers and artisans. 7. Service units should be encouraged and mobile service units should be started. Adequate and soft loans for such purposes should be provided.