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16 zoonoses [zoʊ'ɒnəsɪs] pathogens

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16 zoonoses [zoʊ'ɒnəsɪs] pathogens

  1. 1. Zoonoses [zo ' nəs s] pathogensʊ ɒ ɪ
  2. 2. A zoonosis or zoonose is any infectious disease that can be transmitted between species (in some instances, by a vector) from animals to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis). In a study of 1415 pathogens known to affect humans, 61% were zoonotic [ zo ə'no t k].ˌ ʊ ʊ ɪ Overview Zoonosis
  3. 3. History Interactions between animals and humans have occurred since the beginning of time. As animals became domesticated and a close bonds developed between animals and humans, the occurrence of zoonotic diseases increased.
  4. 4. Significant Zoonitic Pandemics 1700s, Mongols ['m ŋ lz]ɒ ɡ 蒙古人 invaded Europe Mongols carried plague with them This lead to “black death” or plague pandemic Killed 1/3 of European [ j r 'pi n]ˌ ʊ ə ːə population
  5. 5. Significant Zoonitic Pandemics Early 1900’s “Spanish flu” transmitted from pigs to humans Decimated ['des me t] 20 millionɪ ɪ people worldwide Continues to pose a threat to humans
  6. 6. Today’s threat involving zoonotic diseases is considered to be partly due to human involvement in which the artificial multiplication of these pathogens can be used as biological terrorism. Contemporary Threats
  7. 7. Prevalence  Largely Unknown  Both serological studies and anecdotal [ æn k'do tl]ˌ ɪ ʊ 轶事的 discussion have been used to generate estimates  1997 a study trying to assess [ 'ses]ə the prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana 昆塔纳 was done at a veterinary conference. The results indicated that 7.1% of the veterinary population had antibodies which was no different from the general population studies at an earlier time.
  8. 8. Types of Pathogens  Viruses  Bacteria  Fungi  Others  Rickettsia  Protozoa [ pr t 'z ]ˌ əʊ ə əʊə  Parasites Always assume every animal is shedding pathogens
  9. 9. How Diseases Spread Fecal-oral Fecal contamination is not always obvious Many pathogens may survive for long periods of time in the environment. Parvovirus['p vo va r s]ɑː ʊˌ ɪ ə 细小病毒 , ringworm and some worm eggs can survive for years
  10. 10. How Diseases Spread By air (aerosol) Upper respiratory infection (URI- cats) Kennel ( Ken nel )狗舍 cough (dogs)
  11. 11. How Diseases Spread  Aerosol  Aerosols travel only 3-4 feet, so dividers [d 'va d z]ə ɪ ə 分隔物 between cages help  12-15 fresh “air exchanges” per hour minimum is recommended  “Air change” is also good  Open windows or fan brings outside air in  After moving through the room, another fan blows air back outside  Fans blowing directly on animals can spread disease by creating aerosols
  12. 12. How Diseases Spread Animal bites or saliva Feline ['fi la n]ː ɪ 猫科 动物 leukemia FIV ( Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ) Rabies Bacteria that can cause bite wound abscesses
  13. 13. How Diseases Spread Animal bites or saliva Saliva spread (FeLV , Feline Leukemia Virus): Grooming each other Sharing food and water bowls FIV and Rabies require bites, not just friendly casual contact
  14. 14. How Diseases Spread Through direct contact Ringworm Scabies ['ske bi z]ɪ ː 疥疮 Ear mites Hookworm larvae
  15. 15. How Diseases Spread  By insect “vectors”  Mosquitoes spread heartworms and encephalitis  Fleas spread tapeworms, cat scratch fever, plague, typhus, etc.  Ticks spread Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and more  Vectors must be controlled in the shelter  Eliminate standing water (mosquitos)  Treat fleas on animals and in environment  Keep grass cut to limit ticks
  16. 16. How Diseases Spread By infected objects (fomites) Ringworm spread by spores on pet hair Cage walls, toys, and bedding Peoples’ hands – including staff!
  17. 17. 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases  Stay current on appropriate vaccinations (tetanus, rabies)  Wash hands frequently with antibacterial soap  before eating or smoking  After handling each animal or cage  Wear long pants and sturdy ['st rdi]ɜː 坚固的 shoes or boots  Use gloves  Wear safety glasses and mask when spray cleaning  Disinfect scratches and bite wounds thoroughly, then cover them.
  18. 18. 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases  Don’t allow animals to lick your face or any open wounds  Learn safe & humane animal-handling techniques, and user proper equipment  Seek assistance when handling questionable animals  Report any bites or injuries to supervisor  Tell your physician where you work  Consider other work if you are immunosuppressed.
  19. 19. ※ Bacillus anthracis ( 炭疽芽孢杆菌 ) ※ Yersinia pestis ( 鼠疫耶尔森氏杆菌 ) ※ Brucella ( 布鲁氏菌 ) ※ Francisella ( 弗朗西斯氏菌属 ) ※ Coxiella ( 考克斯氏体属 ) ※ Bartonella ( 巴尔通氏体属 ) ……※ Common zoonoses pathogens
  20. 20. Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis Robert Koch’s original micrograhps of the anthrax bacillus
  21. 21. ※ Large (1 - 3 µm in width × 5 – 10 µm in length), G+ rod with a tendency to form very long chains. ※ Facultative anaerobe ※ Glutamyl-polypeptide capsule ※ Nonmotile ※ Forms oval, centrally located endospores and the spore remain viable in soil for decades Biological character
  22. 22. 2. Cultural character On blood agar, nonhemolytic colonies characterized by a rough, uneven surface with multiple curled extensions at the edge resembling a “Medusa[mə'dju sə]head”ː Colonies of Bacillus anthracis on blood agar.
  23. 23. Mucoid colonies of Bacillus anthracis. This culture was probably incubated at an increased CO2 tension (5% CO2) which greatly enhances production of the poly-D- glutamyl capsule and accounts for the mucoid colony type. 2. cultural character
  24. 24. PathogenesisPathogenesis Virulence depends onVirulence depends on 2 factors2 factors ※※ CapsuleCapsule ※※ 3 toxins3 toxins
  25. 25. CapsuleCapsule C=Capsule; S=S-layer; P=Peptidoglycan ※※ Coded by pX02 plasmidCoded by pX02 plasmid ※※ Made up ofMade up of D-glutamic acidD-glutamic acid ※※ Non-toxic on its ownNon-toxic on its own ※※ Only encapsulatedOnly encapsulated B. anthracisB. anthracis virulentvirulent ※※ Most important role duringMost important role during establishment of diseaseestablishment of disease △△ Protects against phagocytosis & lysisProtects against phagocytosis & lysis during vegetative stateduring vegetative state
  26. 26. ToxinsToxins ※ Coded by pX01 plasmid ※ AB model △ Binding △ Activating ※ Protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) & lethal factor (LF) △ Make up 50% of proteins in the organism ※ Heterogeneous protein complex made up of 3 components
  27. 27. ToxinsToxins △ Individually non-toxic △ PA+LF  lethal activity △ EF+PA  edema activity △ EF+LF  inactive △ PA+LF+EF  edema & necrosis; lethal
  28. 28. ※※ Protective antigen (PA, 83kDa)Protective antigen (PA, 83kDa) △△ PagPag genegene △△ Binds to receptor & helps internalize other 2 proteinsBinds to receptor & helps internalize other 2 proteins ※※ Edema factor (EF, 89 kDa)Edema factor (EF, 89 kDa) △△ CyaCya genegene △△ Adenylate cyclase [ə'den le t] ['sa kle s]ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪAdenylate cyclase [ə'den le t] ['sa kle s]ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ △△ Affects all cellsAffects all cells ※※ Lethal factor (LF, 87 kDa)Lethal factor (LF, 87 kDa) △△ LefLef genegene △△ More important virulence factorMore important virulence factor △△ Metalloprotease (Metalloprotease ( 金属蛋白酶 )[met l p'r ti z]ə əʊ əʊ ː △△ Cleaves mitogen ['ma təd ən]activated protein kinase kinase(MAPKKɪ ʒCleaves mitogen ['ma təd ən]activated protein kinase kinase(MAPKKɪ ʒ △△ Affects only macrophagesAffects only macrophages ToxinsToxins
  29. 29. OutcomeOutcome ※※ Do not understand exactly how symptoms occurDo not understand exactly how symptoms occur ※※ EF convertsEF converts ATP to cAMPATP to cAMP △△ Increases cAMP levels over 1,000 foldIncreases cAMP levels over 1,000 fold △△ Impairs neutrophil functionImpairs neutrophil function △△ Alters water homeostasisAlters water homeostasis ■■ EdemaEdema
  30. 30. OutcomeOutcome ※※ LF cleaves MAPKKLF cleaves MAPKK at its N terminusat its N terminus △△ Disrupts pathways involved in cell growth & maturationDisrupts pathways involved in cell growth & maturation △△ Increased synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-Increased synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-αα && interleukin-1interleukin-1ββ △△ Macrophage lysisMacrophage lysis ■■ Septic shock & deathSeptic shock & death ※※ Death probably results from high levels of bacteria secretingDeath probably results from high levels of bacteria secreting LF toxins in bloodLF toxins in blood △△ At death, blood contains as many asAt death, blood contains as many as 101099 bacilli/mlbacilli/ml (depending on the species)(depending on the species)
  31. 31. Anthrax: transmissionAnthrax: transmission ※※ Anthrax is a major disease threat to herbivorousAnthrax is a major disease threat to herbivorous [h 'b vərəs]animals.ɜː ɪ[h 'b vərəs]animals.ɜː ɪ ※※ People become infected by thePeople become infected by the cutaneouscutaneous route (directroute (direct contact with diseased animals, industrial work with hides,contact with diseased animals, industrial work with hides, wool, brushes, or bone meal), bywool, brushes, or bone meal), by inhalationinhalation (Woolsorter's(Woolsorter's diseasedisease 拣毛工病 ), or by), or by ingestioningestion (meat from diseased(meat from diseased animals).animals). Clinical InformationClinical Information
  32. 32. Three forms of AnthraxThree forms of Anthrax ※※ CutaneousCutaneous anthraxanthrax △△ SkinSkin △△ Most commonMost common △△ Spores enter to skin through small lesionsSpores enter to skin through small lesions ※※ InhalationInhalation anthraxanthrax △△ Spores are inhaledSpores are inhaled ※※ GastrointestinalGastrointestinal (GI)(GI) anthraxanthrax △△ Spores are ingestedSpores are ingested △△ Oral-pharyngeal and abdominal[æb'd m nl]ɑː ɪOral-pharyngeal and abdominal[æb'd m nl]ɑː ɪ
  33. 33. ['pæpju l]ː 丘疹 ['esk ]ɑː 焦痂
  34. 34. [hi m 't d n s]ː ə ɒ ʒɪ ə 造血的
  35. 35. [ sept 'si m k]ˌ ə ː ɪ [ ent 'ra t s]ˌ ə ɪ ə
  36. 36. 肺内炭疽 内炭疽肠 脾内炭疽
  37. 37. Laboratory diagnosis of anthraxLaboratory diagnosis of anthrax ※※ Gram stainGram stain ※※ Culture ofCulture of B. anthracisB. anthracis from the blood, skin lesions,from the blood, skin lesions, vesicular [və's kj lə]fluid, or respiratory secretionsɪ ʊvesicular [və's kj lə]fluid, or respiratory secretionsɪ ʊ ※※ Rapid detection methodsRapid detection methods △△ PCR for detection of nucleic acidPCR for detection of nucleic acid △△ ELISA assay for antigen detectionELISA assay for antigen detection △△ Other immunohistochemical and immunoflourescenceOther immunohistochemical and immunoflourescence examinationsexaminations
  38. 38. Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis in Gram stainin Gram stain Gram Stain AnalysisGram Stain Analysis △△ Useful for cutaneous and inhalationUseful for cutaneous and inhalation anthrax.anthrax. △△ A blood sample or skin lesion isA blood sample or skin lesion is taken from the patient and culturedtaken from the patient and cultured forfor 6 to 24 hours6 to 24 hours.. △△ Identify whether the bacteria comeIdentify whether the bacteria come from the anthrax category.from the anthrax category.
  39. 39. Treatment of anthraxTreatment of anthrax ※※ antibioticsantibiotics ※※ Antibody to the toxin complex is neutralizing andAntibody to the toxin complex is neutralizing and protectiveprotective
  40. 40. Binding of a Neutralizing Antibody to the Protective Antigen Subunit of the B. anthracis toxin Neutralizing Antibodies to B. anthrax toxin
  41. 41. Defense: Protection Against AnthraxDefense: Protection Against Anthrax ※※ VaccinationVaccination Very Effective: 2 dose efficacy against up to 1,000Very Effective: 2 dose efficacy against up to 1,000 LD50 in monkeys (human response believed to be veryLD50 in monkeys (human response believed to be very similar)similar) ※※ Early DetectionEarly Detection Extremely important: eliminate much of danger.Extremely important: eliminate much of danger. Time lag between exposure and symptoms is primaryTime lag between exposure and symptoms is primary reason for the high mortality rate experienced withreason for the high mortality rate experienced with anthrax infectionsanthrax infections
  42. 42. ※※ Contaminated animal, carcass or hide should be burned.Contaminated animal, carcass or hide should be burned. ※※ Pre/Post Exposure Antibiotic TreatmentPre/Post Exposure Antibiotic Treatment ※※ Decontamination of Exposed AreasDecontamination of Exposed Areas ※※ Use of Protective Clothing & EquipmentUse of Protective Clothing & Equipment Defense: Protection Against AnthraxDefense: Protection Against Anthrax
  43. 43. Exercises: 1.Briefly describle the three forms of Anthrax?1.Briefly describle the three forms of Anthrax? 2.Briefly describle the mechanism of anthrax2.Briefly describle the mechanism of anthrax toxintoxin