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It’s Use in education
In most countries, students use calculators for schoolwork.
There was some initial resistance to the idea out of fear
that basic arithmetic skills would suffer.
There remains disagreement about the importance of the
ability to perform calculations "in the head", with some
curricula restricting calculator use until a certain level of
proficiency has been obtained, while others concentrate
more on teaching estimation techniques and problem-
Research suggests that inadequate guidance in the use of
calculating tools can restrict the kind of mathematical
thinking that students engage in.
July 28, 201310
Where did calculator came from?
July 28, 201311
The abacus also
called a counting
frame, is a
used primarily in
parts of Asia for
the Sumerian, Ancie
Egypt, Persians, Gre
July 28, 201312
July 28, 201313
dates to the 2nd
n Japanese, the
called soroban impor
ted from China
July 28, 201314
The first calculator
Today it is still debated whether the
Babylonians or the Chinese invented it.
Used before written numeral system
Constructed from a wooden frame with
beads sliding on wires.
Still used by some merchants, fishermen
and clerks in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere.
July 28, 201315
c1600 - Napier's
An abacus created
by John Napier for
Invented in 1614.
Used for multiplication and division.
"Napier's bones" invented by John Napier
for multiplication, based on the ancient
numerical scheme known as the Arabian
July 28, 201316
1622 - Slide rule.
July 28, 201317
William Gunter developed a logarithmic rule for
multiplication and division using dividers, which
was the forerunner of the slide rule.
Invented in 1622 by William Oughtred.
Allows multiplication and division operations to be
carried out significantly faster.
People who sent the space shuttle Apollo to the
moon used the
slide rule for
which was in
1623 Calculating Clock
Invented in 1623 by
Known as the first
The calculator was
made from cogs and
gears which were
normally used for clocks.
It was the size of a typewriter.
It could add, subtract, multiply, and divide to up
to six-digit numbers.
July 28, 201318
1642 - the Pascaline
o Capable of addition,
subtraction was performed
addition, and multiplication
was performed by repeated
additions and subtractions.
Invented by Blaise Pascal
Pascal invented it to reduce his father’s tax work
Used for taxes in France until 1799 July 28, 201319
1820 - Arithmometer
July 28, 2013
Inventor: Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar
The arithmometer was the first commercially successful
calculating machine to complete all four basic operations —
subtraction, multiplication and division — according to IBM.
Like Hahn, Thomas also based his calculator on the stepped
drum mechanism of Leibniz.
The machine featured a second
result display for subtraction and
division as well as a multiplication
W.T. Odhner in Sweden independently develops
the pin-wheel calculator, the first of the long
series of Odhner calculators. Since then, many
calculating machines have used the same
July 28, 201321
1874 - Odhner calculators
Dorr E. Felt invents
the first succesfull
key-driven adding and
calculating machine. In 1886 he joined with
Robert Tarrant to form the Felt & Tarrant
Manufacturing Company which went on to
make thousands of Comptometers
July 28, 201322
1884 - Comptometer
Madas 20BZS, a
gear calculator with
July 28, 201323
1948 - Curta
Curta miniature hand-
One of the few major
in the mid 20th century.
July 28, 201324
The first electronic
desktop calculators. They
use vacuum tubes.
The world's first
announced by the Bell
Co., Uxbridge, England -
theAnita Mk VII for the
market and theAnita Mk
8 for other markets.
These models used cold-
cathode vacuum tubes
and numerical display
("Nixie" type) tubes. July 28, 201325
First commercial all-
EC130 & EC132,
Mathatron, IME 84,
Prices comparable to
that of family cars.
July 28, 201326
First battery powered, hand-
held, electronic calculator.
First calculator using just LSI
(Large Scale Integration)
chips - Sharp QT-8D, with
ICs by Rockwell. Size &
reduced, calculator now
First battery powered, hand-
held calculator - Sharp QT-
Green fluorescent tube
displays introduced .
July 28, 201327
Hand-held calculators take off.
First shirt pocket sized electronic calculator.
All very expensive.
Some of the first hand-held calculators:
Sanyo ICC-0081 ,
Sharp EL-8, but very expensive.
First use of "calculator on a chip" introduced by Mostek
of Dallas - used in Busicom Junior(desk calculator) and
allows the production of the first shirt pocket sized
electronic calculator, the Busicom LE-120A.
First use of LED (Light Emitting Diode) displays used
in Busicom LE-120A. July 28, 201328
First calculator to
Intel 4004 - was
designed for and
used in Busicom
July 28, 201330
Rapid development of electronic calculators, and reduction in
First scientific pocket calculator introduced - Hewlet-Packard
Ultra-thin Sinclair Executive launched.
Many new companies entering the calculator business and prices
LCD (Liquid Crystal Device) displays appear briefly in a version
giving silver-reflective numbers, including:
Lloyds Accumatic 100,
The Sharp EL-801 sees the first use of C-MOS (Complementary
Metal-oxide Semiconductor) integrated circuits in a calculator.July 28, 201331
First Sharp "COS"
(Crystal on Substrate)
calculators, including E
July 28, 201333
Texas Instruments awarded
patent for "miniature
electronic calculator", based
on the "CalTech".
The Hewlett Packard HP65 is
the first hand-held
July 28, 201334
First solar-powered and
first credit card sized
The first solar powered
introduced, the Royal
Solar 1, Teal Photon, and
The Casio Mini Card LC-
78 is the first credit card
sized calculator. July 28, 201335
The Sharp PC1211 /
Tandy TRS80 PC-1 is
the first hand-held
computer; it has a
QWERTY keypad and
runs the BASIC
July 28, 201336
1985: First Graphing
Device Name: Casio fx-7000G
A Brief History: The Casio
fx-7000G was developed with
422 bytes of memory and could
store up to ten programs in 10
program slots, according to the
Computing History website. It offered 82 scientific
functions, and its display could toggle between 8 lines of 16
characters each or a 64x96 dot matrix graphical display.
Interesting Fact: Today’s graphing calculators like the TI-
83 kept the fx-7000G’s display format. July 28, 201337
2003: First Graphing Calculator with Touch
Photo Credit: Gumtree
Device Name: Sharp EL-9650
A Brief History: When most
people think of touch devices, they
think of using their fingers, but Sharp broke the mold by
debuting the first stylus-based graphing calculator, according
to Tech Powered Math. Sharp, unfortunately, didn’t find much
success with the model.
Interesting Fact: The EL-9650 had a slideshow
functionality that allowed teachers to walk through pre-
programmed lessons and formulas on the calculator.
July 28, 201338
2010: First Color Graphing Calculator
Device Name: Casio PRIZM
A Brief History: While the world
of mobile devices quickly moved to
full-color screens in the early 2000s,
it took a while for graphing calculators
to catch up. Casio’s PRIZM calculator,
with its advanced, 216x384 resolution,
full-color display, debuted in late 2010.
Texas Instruments soon followed with its own color
calculator, the TI-NSpire Cx, in early 2011. Students could finally
bid good-bye to the monochrome, low-pixel displays of years past.
Interesting Fact: The PRIZM allows students to create graphs
over images, which helps them understand the real-world
applications of the work they’re doing on their graphing
calculators. July 28, 201339