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Time was up for the Ming. Someone opened the gates for the marauding Manchu rebels and the the Chongzhen Emperor hung himself rather than face them.
The 268-year duration of the Qing dynasty was dominated by the rule of two monarchs: the Kangxi Emperor, who reigned from 1662 to 1722, and his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, who reigned from 1736 to 1796. These two emperors, each of whom reigned for about 60 years, would set the course of Qing history and in large part create the political, economic, and cultural legacy inherited by modern China. THE KANGXI EMPEROR For the Manchus, who were a foreign, conquering dynasty, a major task on the road to effective rule in China was that of enlisting the help of the Chinese populace -- in particular the elite scholarly class. The man most responsible for accomplishing this was the Kangxi Emperor.The Kangxi Emperor came to the throne in 1662, when he was only 8 years old. After achieving his independence from several powerful regents, the Kangxi Emperor immediately began to recruit scholars from the Yangzi River delta area, which is called "the South" in China and includes the city of Suzhou. The Kangxi Emperor brought these men into his court to support his cause of transforming the Manchu way of rulership into a truly Confucian establishment based very much on Ming dynasty prototypes. Through this maneuver, the Kangxi Emperor was able to win over the scholarly elite and, more importantly, the Chinese populace at large. The first half of the Kangxi Emperor's rule was devoted to the stabilization of the empire: gaining control over the Manchu hierarchy and suppressing armed rebellions. It was only in the second half of his rule that he would begin to turn his attention to economic prosperity and the patronage of art and culture. The commission of the Southern Inspection Tours (Nanxuntu), a set of twelve mammoth scrolls depicting the emperor's tour route from Beijing to the cultural and economic centers of the South, was one of the Kangxi Emperor's first acts of artistic patronage.The Kangxi Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, two scrolls of which are featured in this unit, documents his second tour of the South and celebrates his success in winning over the Chinese populace and becoming a true monarch of all China. The imperial inspection tours of the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors were unique in Chinese history. Other emperors in other eras had from time to time completed a single inspection tour of the empire or made the epic journey to Mount Tai to worship Heaven, but the Qing emperors were the first to undertake multiple tours of inspection to all corners of the empire. In fact, these personal inspection tours were part of a strategy for extending and solidifying Manchu rule throughout the empire. In all the Kangxi Emperor completed six southern inspection tours during his 60-year reign; the Kangxi Emperor's grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, followed his example and also completed six southern tours. Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese, they realized that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way and so they retained many of the institutions of the Ming and earlier dynasties. Ever suspicious of Han Chinese, the Qing rulers put into effect measures aimed at preventing the absorption of the Manchu into the dominant Han Chinese population. Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland, and Manchu were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor. Intermarriage between groups was forbidden. The Qing regime was determined to protect itself not only from internal rebellion but also from foreign invasion.Back to Chinese Dynasty Maps - Page 2 The Manchu conquered Mongolia in the late seventeenth century and Tibet in the eighteenth century. The chief threat to China did not come overland, however, but by sea. Western traders, missionaries, and soldiers of fortune began to arrive in large numbers. The empire's inability to evaluate correctly the nature of the new challenge or to respond flexibly to it, resulted in the demise of the Qing and the collapse of the entire millennia-old framework of dynastic rule.
The Qianlong Emperor as a "Universal Ruler" The Qianlong Emperor was the first Manchu ruler to not only feel completely at ease with both his Manchu and his Chinese identities, but also to begin to conceive of himself as a "universal ruler." Qianlong deliberately represented himself differently to each of the various constituents that formed his extensive, multiethnic empire. To the Tibetans, for example, Qianlong portrayed himself as a reincarnation of one of the most important bodhisattvas of Tibetan Buddhism, Manjusri; for the Mongols he took on the role of a steppe prince who understood their steppe traditions; and to the Han Chinese he portrayed himself as a scholar and great patron of Chinese learning and art. Interestingly, Qianlong saw himself as the emperor of not only the Han Chinese, the Manchus, and all the other ethnic groups in his empire, but also all beyond the empire. Thus, the contingent of Jesuit missionaries who had come to China during the Kangxi Emperor's reign and still resided in Beijing were often incorporated into the activities of the Qianlong Emperor's court and deemed to be proper subjects of the "Universal Monarch."
Giuseppe Castiglione and Court Art in Qianlong's Reign of Qing Dynasty The period of Emperor Qianlong was the most prosperous time in Qing Dynasty in Chinese history, and the art also came to its peak, especially those royal gardens, which was called "Five Royal Gardens" as Yuanming Palace, Changchun Palace, Qingyi Palace, Jingming Palace, Jingyi Palace, was very beautiful, and was more than ten times bigger than the Forbidden City. At that time, One of the most talented and renowned artists in China, was Giuseppe Castiglione, a missionary from Italian. He was born in Milan in 1668 , and received systematic and standard training of painting. As a missionary, he worked in Genoa, Lisbon and Macao. In 1715, at his 27, Giuseppe Castiglione was sent to China by European Catholic Church , and then worked in the imperial court. The Emperor Kangxi was very fond of Castiglione's oil paintings, and this fact kept him in the court till the end of his life. Lot of paintings by Castiglione were based on the true incidents. They have great historical value nowadays. Castiglione was died in 1766 , was buried in European Missionary Graveyard in Fucheng Men in Beijing. The talents of Castiglione were revealed in three aspects: oil paintings ,Chinese water-ink paintings with the techniques of foreshortened figure and chiaroscuro, new style of a combination of Chinese brush work and western three-dimensional concept. In 1723 when Qing Emperor Yongzheng came to the throne, he ordered Yuanmingyuan (Garden of Gardens) to be built and its construction lasted over a period of 150 years. Castiglione's designing in this huge project with his deep understanding of chinese and western art, revealed on those castles of Rococo style ,now still can been seen at the remains in Yuanmingyuan.
Qianlong portrayed himself as a reincarnation of one of the most important bodhisattvas of Tibetan Buddhism
Chinese vs. Western Conceptions of Space: Traditional Western depictions of space are organized based on a receding vanishing point; the artist is in control of what the viewer sees. This type of organization is concerned with reproducing what the eye would see from a fixed vantage point. The viewer is at a single point outside the space. We cannot see over walls, under arches or into private spaces; we are in a sense, outside looking in from a specific viewpoint. One Point Perspective System Gentile Bellini’s “Procession in Piazza San Marco” shows angles converging on single vanishing point. The figures depicted in the Bellini painting, logically decrease in scale as they are fixed into their spatial positions as dictated by linear perspective. This system, (combined with Chiaroscuro to give the illusion of form), allowed Western artists to accurately depict the illusion of form and space within the fixed edges of the frame. Compositionally, these images are meant to truthfully depict what is perceived by the human eye from a single, fixed viewpoint.
The traditional Chinese method of depicting space employs shifting viewpoints which allow the viewer’s eye to wander in and through the space. Perspective lines do not merge. This technique of ordering space allows the viewer to see into homes, over walls, and around corners. These images are not concerned with reproducing what the eye sees, rather they are meant to express what an individual might discover and experience as they journey through the landscape. We are meant to get a full sense of what is happening in the scene as we become an active participant in the world depicted.
A Hand Scroll Project What is a Hand Scroll? The hand scroll format is an art form, which finds its origins in ancient Chinese culture. Unlike a traditional Western painting which is meant to hang on a wall, viewed much like a framed window looking out into the world; the imagery depicted in a hand scroll is to be gradually revealed to the viewer as they unroll the scroll upon the table in front of them. While the scrolls are commonly long, (2’x70’ or more), these images are never meant to be exhibited fully unrolled. The edges of hand scrolls are not fixed; they are controlled by the viewer who can move their view back and forth. This viewing experience is very intimate as the Hand scroll format allows only two or three people to examine a scroll at once, revealing maybe 3 or 4 feet as it unrolls. Chinese artists have often exploited this format by manipulating their depiction of space in an effort to allow the viewer to embark on a journey into and through the environment of the scroll. How space is organized is perhaps the most significant difference between traditional Chinese and Western imagery. This lesson hopes to allow students the opportunity to examine the differences between these two spatial constructs and understand how these affect the viewing experience.
More concerned with experience of journey rather than drawing to scale.
In Kangxi Scroll 7, Wang Hui utilizes shifting vantage points which allow the viewer to see the structures from both the left and right sides. Through the use of these shifting vantage points, the viewer remains in control of the viewing experience and can decide where the visual journey may lead them. These shifting viewpoints can also serve as an area of spatial transitions between changing scenes.
Transition Points: Effecting the Viewer’s Sense of Time, Space, and Distance Traveled
Wang Hui, working with the traditional Chinese conceptions of shifting space has employed a creative means of transitioning from one space to the next. This technique is also impressed upon the viewer as to enhance the perception of the passing of time. In Kangxi Scroll 7, we can see how Wang Hui utilizes a thick fog to fade out from one scene to the next. (Beginning of Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 7) This creative transition technique allows the artist to shift perspectives; and allows the viewer to become lost in a journey through time and space. Elements of the landscape and architecture are subtly revealed as they peak out of the mist, allowing the viewer to gain a sense of traveling over a great distance. As the mist ultimately disappears, we then find ourselves in the next town.
The Pine, Hawk and Glossy Ganoderma, 1723—35, by Lang Shining (Giuseppe Castiglione).
Influence of Western Perspective on Qianlong Scrolls The depictions in the Qianlong scrolls created by artist Xu Yang are very different than that of the Kangxi scrolls. Influenced by the presence of Giuseppe Castiglione and other Jesuit Monks at the Chinese court, these scrolls show a space that is starting to recede in a traditional Western fashion. In the Qianlong Scroll Number 4, one can see how the lines are converging on a single vanishing point. This system of order limits the how the artist can depict space and restricts the traditional, fluid, spatial viewing experience. Lost are the changing viewpoints as seen in the Kangxi scrolls, as is the viewer’s ability to explore in and around corners, down alley ways, and through the landscape. In the Qianlong Scroll Number 4, Xu Yang utilizes fixed vanishing points. The figures depicted in the Qianlong scroll, are rendered in full Chiaroscuro , and follow the dictates of the perspective system, they decrease in scale and are fixed in space much like the Bellini painting. This traditionally Western way of depicting space places the viewer in a fixed position outside the scroll looking in. Rather than being an active participant in the journey, moving in and through the scroll, the viewer is now made to follow along a predetermined path from right to left, limiting the traditional viewing experience. These factors also combine to restrict what the artist can reveal to the viewer as he works to maintain these limited vantage points throughout the duration of the scroll.
According to the “Recording the Grandeur of the Qing” website: “ A comparison of the two artists' approaches to the representation of space in the tour scrolls reveals the limitations of translating the European style to the Chinese scroll format. Influenced by the Western technique of linear perspective, Xu Yang strives in the sixth Qianlong scroll to maintain a consistent vantage point in his representations of the Grand Canal and the route of the Qianlong Emperor into Suzhou….Though the European style added a certain kind of illusionary realism to the depiction of Qianlong's southern inspection tour, it could be argued that it also detracted from one of the most important functions of these scrolls as historical documents, which was to highlight the significance of the emperor's visit to important sites such as Tiger Hill and the Grand Canal”. http://www.learn.columbia.edu/nanxuntu/html/art/index.html#space
Scroll 6 depicts the Kangxi Emperor's journey along the Grand Canal from the town of Benniu Zhen to the of Changzhou in 1689 AD. Wang Hui grew up in the relatively poor village of Yushan, near Changshu, Jiangsu Province His home village was only 15 miles away from Changzhou! This might explain why he dedicated so much space and detail in his scroll to this relatively small section of the Grand Canal.
Between England and the Ming Dynasty (1638 - 1644) 27 June 1637 First direct contact between British and Chinese. Four heavily-armed ships under Captain John Wendell , arrive at Macao in an attempt to open trade between England and China. They are not backed by the East India Company , but rather by a private group led by Sir William Courteen , including King Charles I 's personal interest of £10,000. They are opposed by the Portuguese authorities in Macao (as their agreements with China require) and quickly infuriate the Ming authorities. Later in the summer they easily capture one of the Bogue forts, and spend several weeks engaged in low-level fighting and smuggling. After being forced to seek Portuguese help in the release of three hostages, they leave the Pearl River on 27 December. It is unclear whether they returned home. 
For the first time, Silver started pouring OUT of China. 1810, China enjoyed a favorable trade balance with $26 million silver dollars coming into China. 20 years later in 1830, $34 million silver dollars were flooding out of China for opium!
The End of the MINGTime was up for the Ming. Corruption, natural disasters and popular uprisingstook their toll on the Ming, but it was the invading Manchu rebellion that didthe Ming Empire in.As the Manchu invaded, someone opened the gates for the marauding rebels.The Chongzhen Emperor hung himself rather than face them.
EmperorQing Dynasty Kangxi is Born The Ming Dynasty fell in 1644 The Manchu then formed the last Dynasty of China, the Qing.
Look for: Chinese and Manchu script in theForbidden City
The Manchus were foreignerswho forced native Han Chinese to wear a pigtail which was forbidden to cut off.
Kangxi Emperor Reigned 1662-1722 The longest serving Emperor of ChinaExpanded borders by invading Tibet.Portrait of the Kangxi Emperor as a Young Man,Anonymous
Kangxi took 6 grand tours of his empire and had them immortalized in a grand set of hand scrolls. No Ming Emperor ever did.The Emperor would love to pose as a noble with servants and mingle to the people.
Qianlong Emperor Reigned 1736-96 • Revered his Grandfather • Retired as Emperor after 61 years to let Kangxi’s long serving record stand. • Expanded borders further • Also went on grand tour andInauguration Portrait of Qianlong (Detail) commissioned set of scrolls.Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining), 1736
Chinese tea Like his Grandfather, Qianlong also enjoyed popping out in commoners’ drinkers say clothing to enjoy life’s simple pleasures without being recognized.‘thank you’ with One day, the Emperor and his companions (guards) went into a their fingers teahouse where, to remain anonymous, he took a turn at pouring tea for everyone on the table as good manners dictate. Rather than give his identity away by kowtowing to the Emperor, the guards used their fingers to represent the bow. Ever since, Chinese tea drinkers have used this gesture as an expression of gratitude to the friend who fills their teacups. For extra dining points while dining, it’s considered ultra-polite to offer to pour the first round.
Qianlong was an avid art collector. Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shih-ning) 1688-1766
Qianlong Emperor as the Bodhisattva Manjusri (Detail), face by Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shining)
“Journey Through Space” What the Kangxi and QianlongSouthern Inspection Tour Scrolls reveal about Chinese and Western Conceptions of SPACE Robert Ponzio Chair, Fine Arts Oak Hall School Gainesville, FL
Traditional Western One Point Perspective System Depictions of Space•Concerned with reproducing how the eye sees• Image has fixed edges•Organized based on receding vanishing points•Artist controls viewer vantage point Gentile Bellini’s “Procession in Piazza San Marco”, 1496
Traditional Chinese Depiction of Space Artist Wang Hui’s hand scrolls utilize traditional Chinese depictions of space.
Traditional Chinese Maps:Experience of the journey is more important than Scale
Spatial Transition Point Spatial Transition Point
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 7 Working with the traditional Chinese conceptions of shifting space, Wang Hui utilizes a thick fog to fade out from one scene to the next. This creative means of transitioning impressed upon the viewer the perception of the passing of time.
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 7Elements of the landscape and architecture are subtly revealed as they peak out of the mist, allowing the viewer to gain a sense of traveling over a great distance. As the mist ultimately disappears, we then find ourselves in the next town.
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 3Wang Hui shows travelers disappearing into the mist as they embark upon a long journey…
Mist / Transition- Kangxi Scroll 3…they eventually reappear after an immeasurable passage of time and distance.
The Qianlong Scrolls:Showing Western Influence Giuseppe Castiglione, (Lang Shih-ning), 1688-1766 Introduces The Vanishing Point
Influence of Western Perspective in Qianlong Scrolls Qianlong Scroll Number 4 by Xu Yang
Qianlong Scroll Number 4 by Xu YangMore concerned with reproducing how the eye sees than in Kangxi scrolls. Xu Yang maintains consistent vanishing points throughout duration of scroll.
Qianlong Scroll Number 6 by Xu YangFigures diminish in size and number limiting information available to viewer.
Website studies Qing Dynasty History and Culture by examining Southern Inspection Tour scrolls commissioned by Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong
Janet BakerCollection of Roy and Marilyn PappClaudia Brown Roy Papp Marilyn Papp
Welcome to Changzhou! Wang Hui 1689 A.D.Scroll 6 depicts Kangxi’s journey along the Grand Canal to Changzhou.Wang Hui grew up in the relatively poor village of Yushan, near Changshu, Jiangsu Province…his home village being only 15 miles away from Changzhou!This explains why he dedicated so much scroll space and detail to this relatively small area.
Qing leadership strictly limited trade and contact with the outsideworld. If you wanted to do business with China, you had to follow their rules and literally pay tribute.
The Qingcreated a strict hierarchy for their societywith Manchus at the top.They mandated that international trade only bedone far in the south.This kept all the foreigners controlled and in one place.
MacauMacau, (which they allowedthe Portuguese to control),was the only port opened to foreign trade. The British, wanting toincrease their trade greatly were frustrated by this limitation.
Macau The British wanted to opennew trade ports of their own.They tried desperately to do so, often insulting the Emperor in the process by attempting to create tradeports in other coastal cities often without permission.
The British had no goods to offer in trade that would interest the Qing. They were forced to pay in silver which caused a vast trade imbalance.They desperately needed to find a product they could trade in China to solve this.
With an influx of cheaper opium, demand began to increase in China.
For the first time, Silver started pouring OUT of China. In 1810, China enjoyed a favorable trade balance with $26 million silver dollars coming into China. 20 years later in 1830, $34 million silver dollars
With opium came all the social problems usually associated with drug addiction.
1838, THE QING HAD ENOUGH!They started a plan to rid the opium plague from their country. They began by punishing severely anyone who sold the drug as well as addicts who would not rehabilitate.
They then went after the British stores of the drug… … and then kicked the British out.2.6 Million pounds of Opium were destroyed.
1839The British retreated to a barren, rocky island where hardly a house existed at the time. The island was Hong Kong
The British remembered fighting Napoleonsmodern military of Le Grand Armei. They did not fear what they perceived as an antiquated Qing military. They prepared to go to war.
On March 18 1839, The Opium War BeginsChinese sailing ships proved no match forBritish steam engines.
The Qing thought that on land, they would have a home fieldadvantage… but as it proved, they didn’t.
The Qing had no choice but to sign the hated Treaty of Nanjing, August 29, 1842.These unequal Treaties were a humiliation to China .
80 treaty ports UK: Hong Kong, Guangdong Province. Yangze River Valley FRANCE: Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, and Guangdong Provinces GERMANY: Shandong Province RUSSIA:Liaoning & Shandong Province.Dividing Up China JAPAN: Dongbei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia and Taiwan