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Making the Web Searchable Peter Mika  Researcher, Data Architect Yahoo! Research
Yahoo! Research (research.yahoo.com)
Yahoo! Research Barcelona ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yahoo! by numbers  (April, 2007) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Agenda ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Motivation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intro to the Semantic Web
Basic RDF ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDF models  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Graphical and textual notation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],my:Joe “ Joe A.” name foaf:Person type
Ontologies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advanced topic: Resources vs Literals ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advanced Topic: Informational resources vs. Conceptual resources ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDF is designed for distributed systems ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
URIs implicitly link data together (#joe, #name, “Joe A.”) (#joe, #email, mailto:joe@joe.com) (#mary, name, “Mary B.”) (#mary, gender, “female”) (#joe, #loves, #mary) Joe’s homepage A dating site Mary’s homepage (#name, #type, #Property) (#name, #domain, #Person) Schema doc Linked Data : Following links from one document to another allows to discover the entire graph (data and ontologies)
When put together, they form a single ‘global’ graph “ Joe A.” #joe #name “ joe@joe.com” #email #mary #loves “ Mary B.” “ female” #name #gender
The even larger picture: entire datasets connected
Publishing data on the Web
RDF on the Web II. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Option 1: Standalone RDF documents ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],. . . #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population
Option 1: cntd. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],. Peter Mika was born in Budapest. #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population
Option 2: Metadata inside web pages ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Peter Mika was born in Budapest. Peter Mika was born in Budapest. #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population
Option 3: SPARQL endpoints ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],#PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population
Option 4: feeds ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],. #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population #PeterM #Bud born “ Peter Mika” label “ Budapest” label #Hun capital-of “ 2,000,000” population
Option 5: XSLT ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],<XSLT> xx yy 1 2
Option 6: Automatic markup ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Peter Mika was born in Budapest. <person>Peter Mika</person> was born in <location>Budapest</location>.
Example:  Zemanta ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Metadata in HTML
Brief history of the Annotated Web ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
HTML meta tags ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SHOE example  (Hefflin & Hendler, 1996)  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],<HEAD> <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Instance-Key&quot; CONTENT=&quot;http://www.cs.umd.edu/~george&quot;>  <USE-ONTOLOGY &quot;our-ontology&quot; VERSION=&quot;1.0&quot; PREFIX=&quot;our&quot; URL=&quot;http://ont.org/our-ont.html&quot;>  </HEAD> <BODY> <CATEGORY &quot;our.Person&quot;>  <RELATION &quot;our.marriedTo&quot; TO=&quot;http://www.cs.umd.edu/~helena&quot;>  <RELATION &quot;our.employee&quot;   FROM=&quot;http://www.cs.umd.edu&quot;>   My name is  <ATTRIBUTE &quot;our.firstName&quot;>  George  </ATTRIBUTE> <ATTRIBUTE &quot;our.lastName&quot;> Cook </ATTRIBUTE>  and I live at...
SHOE system
SHOE Text-based query interface
SHOE Graphical Query Interface
Example: Creative Commons ,[object Object],<HTML> <HEAD>… </HEAD> <BODY> … <!–-   <rdf:RDF xmlns=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#&quot; xmlns:dc=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot; xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;> <Work rdf:about=&quot;http://www.yergler.net/averages/&quot;> <dc:title>The Law of Averages</dc:title> <dc:description>...because eventually i&apos;ll be right...</dc:description> <license rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/1.0/&quot; /> </Work> <License rdf:about=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/1.0/&quot;> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://web.resource.org/cc/Notice&quot; /> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://web.resource.org/cc/Reproduction&quot; /> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://web.resource.org/cc/Distribution&quot; /> <prohibits rdf:resource=&quot;http://web.resource.org/cc/CommercialUse&quot; /> </License> </rdf:RDF> -->
Example: Creative Commons ,[object Object],This work is licensed under a <a  rel=&quot;license&quot;  href=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/&quot;>Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License</a>. ,[object Object]
Microformats (μf) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Microformats: limitations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Example: microformats <cite class=&quot; vcard &quot;> <a class=&quot; fn url &quot; rel=&quot;friend colleague met&quot;  href=&quot;http://meyerweb.com/&quot;> Eric Meyer </a> </cite>  wrote a post   ( <cite> <a href=&quot;http://meyerweb.com/eric/thoughts/2005/12/16/tax-relief/&quot;> Tax Relief </a></cite> ) about an unintentionally humorous letter  he received from the   <span class=&quot; vcard &quot;> <a class=&quot; fn org url &quot; href=&quot;http://irs.gov/&quot;> Internal Revenue Service </a> </span>.  <div class=&quot; vcard &quot;>  <a class=&quot; email fn &quot; href=&quot;mailto:jfriday@host.com&quot;> Joe Friday </a>  <div class=&quot; tel &quot;> +1-919-555-7878 </div>  <div class=&quot; title &quot;> Area Administrator, Assistant </div>  </div>
Microformats vs. RDFa ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Keep an eye on HTML5 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Microdata example <div item> <p>My name is <span itemprop=&quot; name &quot;> Neil </span>.</p> <p>My band is called  <span itemprop=&quot; band &quot;> Four Parts Water </span>. I was born on  <time itemprop=&quot; birthday &quot; datetime=&quot; 2009-05-10 &quot;>May 10th 2009</time>. <img itemprop=&quot; image &quot; src=” me.png &quot; alt=”me”> </p> </div
Slides courtesy of Mark Birbeck Introduction to RDFa
What does RDFa look like? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
HTML's metadata features (1) ,[object Object],[object Object]
HTML's metadata features (2) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa extends @rel/@href to images ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa extends meta/@content to body ,[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa extends meta/@content to body ,[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa extends meta/@content to body ,[object Object],[object Object]
Vocabularies use CURIEs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
CURIEs, or Compact URIs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Properties can also apply to images ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Properties can also apply to images ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Relationships and properties on anything ,[object Object],[object Object]
Relationships and properties on anything ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Relationships and properties on anything ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Relationships and properties on anything ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Relationships and properties on anything ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
@about sets context ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
@about sets context ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Basics of RDFa ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advanced RDFa ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The process of annotating with RDFa  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa pitfalls ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
More pitfalls: precedence rules ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
More pitfalls: the typeof attribute ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
HTML markup pitfalls ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
More pitfalls: breaking up descriptions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tips ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Choosing a vocabulary ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Advanced topic: creating a vocabulary ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Semantic Web in Use
Microsearch ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Example: ivan herman Related pages based on metadata Events from personal calendar, Conferences, and  bio from LinkedIn Geolocation Rich abstract
Example: peter site:flickr.com Flickr users named “Peter” by geography
Example: san francisco conference Conferences in San Francisco by date
Example: greater st. peter Save to  address book Call phone number (other actions)
Lessons ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Applications ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],SearchMonkey
Before After an open platform for using structured data to build more useful and relevant search results What is SearchMonkey?
image deep links name/value pairs or abstract Enhanced Result
YAHOO! CONFIDENTIAL |  Infobar
SearchMonkey Acme.com’s database Index RDF/Microformat Markup site owners/publishers share structured data with Yahoo!.  1 consumers customize their search experience with Enhanced Results or Infobars 3 site owners & third-party developers build SearchMonkey apps. 2 DataRSS feed Web Services Page Extraction Acme.com’s  Web Pages
Standard enhanced results Embed markup in your page, get an enhanced results without any programming
Documentation ,[object Object]
DataRSS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
DataRSS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Atom 1.0 XML + RDFa
The data part ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developer tool: create custom presentations
Developer tool
Developer tool
Developer tool
Developer tool
Gallery
Example apps  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Example apps. II. ,[object Object],[object Object]
Google’s Rich Snippets ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
API access to metadata Yahoo BOSS & YQL
BOSS: Build your Own Search Service ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
BOSS API to structured data ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Demo: resume search ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Demo
Yahoo Query Language (YQL) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PHP example : select the last 100 photos from Flickr with the word Austin ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
YQL example  ( source )
That’s all there is to it! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Semantic Search and Navigation
Browsing Linked Data ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Semantic Search Engines ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exercise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Research on Semantic Search
Semantic Search ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hard searches ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Not just search…
In the best of cases… ,[object Object],<adjunct id=&quot;com.yahoo.query.intent&quot; version=&quot;0.5&quot;>  <type typeof=&quot; fb:music.artist foaf:Person &quot;> <meta property=&quot; foaf:name &quot;> Madonna </meta> </type>  </adjunct>  <adjunct id=&quot;com.yahoo.page.hcard&quot; version=&quot;0.5&quot;>  <type typeof=“ foaf:Person &quot;> <meta property=&quot; foaf:name &quot;> Madonna </meta> </type>  </adjunct>  Query: Document metadata: dna_checksum:AF514FE45DD33BB7CD8DCCC89AA dna_checksum:AF514FE45DD33BB7CD8DCCC89AA
Semantics at every step of the IR process bla bla bla? q=“bla” * 3 Document processing bla bla bla Ranking Query processing Result presentation The IR engine The Web bla bla bla bla bla bla “ bla” θ (q,d)
Study: improving text analysis using structured data ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Learning to Tag and Tagging to Learn: A Case Study on Wikipedia  Peter Mika; Massimiliano Ciaramita; Hugo Zaragoza; Jordi Atserias, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2008, 5
Study: processing metadata using cloud computing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Web Semantics in the Clouds  Peter Mika; Giovanni Tummarello, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2008, 5
Study: metadata analysis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Study: Semantic Search Assist ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],apple ipod nano  review  sony plasma tv  review jerry yang  biography  biography  tim berners lee   tim berners lee  blog peter mika  yahoo britney spears  shaves her head
Study: evaluation of semantic search ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Challenges ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Challenges ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contact ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
the monkey is out!
Application: query intent Paris Hilton is a person!
Application: query intent #2 Hugo is a person!

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Semantic Web Austin Yahoo

  • 1. Making the Web Searchable Peter Mika Researcher, Data Architect Yahoo! Research
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  • 7. Intro to the Semantic Web
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  • 15. URIs implicitly link data together (#joe, #name, “Joe A.”) (#joe, #email, mailto:joe@joe.com) (#mary, name, “Mary B.”) (#mary, gender, “female”) (#joe, #loves, #mary) Joe’s homepage A dating site Mary’s homepage (#name, #type, #Property) (#name, #domain, #Person) Schema doc Linked Data : Following links from one document to another allows to discover the entire graph (data and ontologies)
  • 16. When put together, they form a single ‘global’ graph “ Joe A.” #joe #name “ joe@joe.com” #email #mary #loves “ Mary B.” “ female” #name #gender
  • 17. The even larger picture: entire datasets connected
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  • 34. SHOE Graphical Query Interface
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  • 39. Example: microformats <cite class=&quot; vcard &quot;> <a class=&quot; fn url &quot; rel=&quot;friend colleague met&quot; href=&quot;http://meyerweb.com/&quot;> Eric Meyer </a> </cite> wrote a post ( <cite> <a href=&quot;http://meyerweb.com/eric/thoughts/2005/12/16/tax-relief/&quot;> Tax Relief </a></cite> ) about an unintentionally humorous letter he received from the <span class=&quot; vcard &quot;> <a class=&quot; fn org url &quot; href=&quot;http://irs.gov/&quot;> Internal Revenue Service </a> </span>. <div class=&quot; vcard &quot;> <a class=&quot; email fn &quot; href=&quot;mailto:jfriday@host.com&quot;> Joe Friday </a> <div class=&quot; tel &quot;> +1-919-555-7878 </div> <div class=&quot; title &quot;> Area Administrator, Assistant </div> </div>
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  • 42. Microdata example <div item> <p>My name is <span itemprop=&quot; name &quot;> Neil </span>.</p> <p>My band is called <span itemprop=&quot; band &quot;> Four Parts Water </span>. I was born on <time itemprop=&quot; birthday &quot; datetime=&quot; 2009-05-10 &quot;>May 10th 2009</time>. <img itemprop=&quot; image &quot; src=” me.png &quot; alt=”me”> </p> </div
  • 43. Slides courtesy of Mark Birbeck Introduction to RDFa
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  • 76. Example: ivan herman Related pages based on metadata Events from personal calendar, Conferences, and bio from LinkedIn Geolocation Rich abstract
  • 77. Example: peter site:flickr.com Flickr users named “Peter” by geography
  • 78. Example: san francisco conference Conferences in San Francisco by date
  • 79. Example: greater st. peter Save to address book Call phone number (other actions)
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  • 83. Before After an open platform for using structured data to build more useful and relevant search results What is SearchMonkey?
  • 84. image deep links name/value pairs or abstract Enhanced Result
  • 86. SearchMonkey Acme.com’s database Index RDF/Microformat Markup site owners/publishers share structured data with Yahoo!. 1 consumers customize their search experience with Enhanced Results or Infobars 3 site owners & third-party developers build SearchMonkey apps. 2 DataRSS feed Web Services Page Extraction Acme.com’s Web Pages
  • 87. Standard enhanced results Embed markup in your page, get an enhanced results without any programming
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  • 92. Developer tool: create custom presentations
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  • 101. API access to metadata Yahoo BOSS & YQL
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  • 105. Demo
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  • 108. YQL example ( source )
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  • 110. Semantic Search and Navigation
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  • 119. Semantics at every step of the IR process bla bla bla? q=“bla” * 3 Document processing bla bla bla Ranking Query processing Result presentation The IR engine The Web bla bla bla bla bla bla “ bla” θ (q,d)
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  • 128. the monkey is out!
  • 129. Application: query intent Paris Hilton is a person!
  • 130. Application: query intent #2 Hugo is a person!

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Designed for humans first and machines second, microformats are a set of simple, open data formats built upon existing and widely adopted standards. Instead of throwing away what works today, microformats intend to solve simpler problems first by adapting to current behaviors and usage patterns
  2. HTML allows us to place metadata in the head of the document. The metadata can be both properties (as a string) and relationships to other documents.
  3. HTML also allows us to put metadata in the body of the document, using @rel and @rev on anchors.
  4. RDFa extends the @rel/@href technique to allow licenses to be attached to images. Say we have a list of images -- perhaps from a Flickr search -- here we see that we can attach a license to each of them.
  5. HTML allows relationships (the @rel/@href combination) to be used in both the head and the body, but text properties can only be added in the head (via @content on &lt;meta&gt;.
  6. RDFa extends the use of @content to the body. Note a small twist -- we have to use @property instead of @name, since the latter attribute is already used for other stuff. Key thing here is that we&apos;ve moved the machine-readable data closer to its human-readable version, which makes it a lot easier to publish.
  7. Why would we do this? Well, first of all it&apos;s much easier to control the generation of the machine-readable data if it&apos;s close to the human-readable data. But second, once you put it close to the human-readable data, there are many situations where the human-readable version will also suffice for the machine-readable one, and so we can avoid duplication. Note that using @content for the date, illustrates a different point; in that case we preserve the distinction between the human- and machine-readable forms, because the machine-readable version is very precise.
  8. Actually I cheated a little in the last slide. There is no such property as &apos;author&apos; or &apos;created&apos;, they just happen to have been used in &lt;head&gt; over the years by a sort of convention. @rel=&amp;quot;license&apos; does exist, however, and there are a few other relationship values (&apos;next&apos;, &apos;prev&apos;, and so on). But essentially, for other relationship values, and all property values, we need to use CURIEs. The advantage of this is that there are many pre-existing vocabularies that can immediately be used. Also, anyone can create a new vocabulary without having to ask anyone. Commontags was devised a few weeks ago, for example, and they didn&apos;t have to ask anyone&apos;s permission.
  9. Recall that we added the relationship attributes to an image, so that we can specify license information...
  10. ...we can also add properties to the image.
  11. HTML already supported relationships and properties that apply to the document, and we&apos;ve seen how RDFa adds relationships and properties for images. Now lets look at how RDFa lets us add relationships and properties for  anything . Let&apos;s say we have a link to a SlideShare presentation.
  12. We know that if we put the @rel attribute onto the &lt;a&gt; tag as normal, it implies that the current document has a license, and that the presentation itself is the license. So this is no good.
  13. The answer is to firstly create a link to the desired license...
  14. ...and then to indicate that this license is attached to the presentation. We still use @rel, but now we&apos;re using it with the new attribute that RDFa adds -- @about.
  15. And of course, we can also add properties.
  16. Using @about sets the context for any further RDFa, not just on the current element.
  17. Once you are in the new context, then everything works exactly as normal, so compare this to the previous slide; the only difference is that the previous slide uses @about to set the context, whilst this example has the &apos;current document&apos; to set the context.
  18. We&apos;ve gone into a lot of detail on the basics of RDFa to show how it builds upon HTML&apos;s existing semantic features, but there are many more features. The main thing to emphasise is that HTML already had some useful semantic features, but what they meant was never formalised; RDFa did that. RDFa also adds to these features, but does so by applying the same approach.
  19. There is much more we could have said, but suggest that interested readers look at the RDFa Primer, and other tutorials and articles. In passing, would say though that RDFa supports all of RDF&apos;s more advanced features too, such as datatype of literals, rdf:type , bnodes, XML literals, and so on. Advanced RDFa also allows quite elaborate chaining of statements allowing people to be connected to companies, reviews to businesses, and so on.
  20. As Vish discussed, SearchMonkey is all about building richer, more useful search results. Here’s a few examples Enhanced Results.
  21. And it allows the user to add the movie directly to their online movie rental queue
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  29. SW: Representing and reasoning with structured data on the Web Both a relational and graph view on information IR:: Aggregating information at a document-level based on ad-hoc information needs DB: Representing and querying information in a relational model NLP: from text to information
  30. Results are good, but consider the ads: First ad says: Virgins. Looking for virgins? Find exactly what you want today. Ebay.com Second ad: Virgins. …Find cheap tickets for Virgins. Third ad: Adspam… these people buy Yahoo! traffic and sell it to Google.