The internal environment includes conditions that the organization has established for the project work, including: Policies and procedures, compensation, benefits, standards, access and use of technology, norms, values, politics and the general organizational culture.
The external environment is made of the conditions that the project has little or no influence to change, including: donor and government requirements, international or local regulations, local infrastructure, limited availability of skills or a competitive labor market .
Process - The policies and procedures and the roles and responsibilities required in managing development projects. Processes determine how the work needs to be accomplished. People - The skills and capabilities of the people in charge of managing the project, and whether or not they follow the processes and procedures to ensure quality of the services provided by the organization. Tools - The techniques and devices selected by the organization with the purpose to facilitate the management of the project.
Scope , the boundaries of the project Schedule , the time to complete the project activities Budget , the funding available to cover all expenses of the project Quality , achieving the expectations of the stakeholders
Scope , is what the project is trying to achieve, it entails all the work involved in delivering the project outcomes and the processes used to produce them. Scope is the boundary of a project, it is what the beneficiaries, and the donors expect from the project.
Schedule , is defined as the time required to complete the project. It is an approximation of the duration of all activities in the project. Schedule constraints include specific dates to deliver an activity or complete the project.
Budget , are the funds approved for the project, they include all the required expenses needed in order to deliver the project within scope and schedule. A number of constraints, financial, political, and organizational, may dictate the methods by which resources such as personnel, equipment, services and materials are acquired.
Quality , is the fourth constraint and it is defined as delivering the project outcomes according to the stated or implied needs and expectations of the project beneficiaries and the donor agency. Quality is also defined as the conformance to requirements or fitness for use.
The monitoring phase is input for changes and modifications at the implementation and planning phases until there are no additional changes and all project deliverables have been completed.
Scope is the way to describe the boundaries of the project. It defines what the project will deliver and it also defines what it will not deliver. This process ensures that the project has identified the goals and objectives and those have been documented and that each objective has a well defined set of indicators to monitor their progress.
Define the Scope, define what needs to be done, the objectives to be achieved and what will not be part of the project, includes the creation of a work breakdown structure Assign Work, assignment of work to the project team, consultants and partners Verify the Scope , ensuring that the work is done according to plans Adapt the Scope , making the necessary changes that occur from changes in the environment and changes in priorities
A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a project management technique for defining and organizing the total scope of a project, using a hierarchical tree structure. The first two levels of the WBS define a set of planned outcomes that collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the project scope. At each subsequent level, the children of a parent node collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the scope of their parent node.
Define the Schedule : Using the WBS the schedule is developed with help from key stakeholders, this will determine the total duration of the project Publish the Schedule : Distributing the schedule to key stakeholders Monitor the Schedule : Monitor events that will impact the schedule and come up with alternative solutions Update the Schedule : Update the schedule to reflect decisions potentially affecting the time variable and the implementation of activities
Defining the Budget , the development of all the costs that the project will incur and the approach to manage the budget Executing the Budget , authorizing expenditures Controlling the Budget , monitoring budget performance according to plans Updating the Budget , making necessary changes to the budget following clauses set by the contract or grant
Quality Definition, determining the quality standards for the project Quality Assurance, ensuring that quality is built into every element of the project Quality Control, monitoring and auditing quality Quality Improvements, making improvements to the project that will increase quality levels
Team identification , the process of identifying the skills and competencies required for carrying out the project activities. Team building , organizing the team and building their capacity to perform in the project, assigning roles and responsibilities. Team evaluation , evaluating the performance of the team and dealing with conflict and people issues. Team improvement , improving team performance, and using motivational techniques.
Stakeholder Mapping , the process of mapping and analysis of stakeholders and develop stakeholder management strategies. Stakeholder relationship building , implementing the strategies through communications and relationship building. Stakeholder evaluation , evaluating the results of stakeholder management strategies. Stakeholder management improvement , improving stakeholder management strategies to increase support to the project.
Information Planning , the process of defining the information needs and plans to manage project information Information Management , the process of collecting, analyzing and reporting project information Information Evaluation , evaluating the results of information management plans Information Improvement , improving information management processes
Risk Planning , involves the identification and quantification of all risks and the development of a response plan. Risks Monitoring and Response, includes the activities to monitor risks and respond to risk events. Risk Evaluation , involves the evaluation of the risk management plan and response to actions taken by the project. Risk Plan Improvement , the actions to improve the risk plan and response mechanisms as well as an update on the risk levels.
Develop the proposals , which include: sending a proposal to the donor, sending a request for procurement of goods and services needed by the project. Contract award , includes: identifying the steps for approval and negotiation of the donor contract or grant, selecting the vendors. Review performance and monitor application of clauses and obligations under the contracts, grants and sub-grants Update the contract as needed to reflect authorized changes or modifications.
Programmatic Based Project Organization Advantages: There are usually clear lines of authority There is not need to negotiate with other program units for resources Team members are usually familiar with each other, since they all work in the same area. Disadvantages: Program area may not have all of the specialists needed to work on a project with varied technical needs Current program area members may have other responsibilities in the unit
Matrix Based Project Organization Advantages: Efficient allocation of all resources Flexible when dealing with changing program needs and priorities Allows team members to share information more readily across the unit boundaries Disadvantages: Reporting relationships are complex Requires good communication and cooperation between multiple programmatic units
Project Based Organization Advantages: Personnel are specifically assigned to the project and report directly to the project manager Complete line of authority over project efforts affords the project manager strong project controls and centralized lines of communication Project teams develop a strong sense of project identification and ownership Disadvantages: Limited opportunities exist for knowledge sharing between projects Team members concerning the lack of career continuity and opportunities for professional growth Duplication of resources