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THE NEW NEW
COMPETITION
Marshall Van Alstyne | Sangeet Paul Choudary | Geoffrey G Parker
How digital platforms
transform c...
Based on the book
Platform Revolution
platformrevolution.com
TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution
NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform
ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform
DI...
The new competitor looks 

nothing like the old one
platformrevolution.com
Marriotts
Airbnb Intercontinental Group
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
Houghton Miffin Harcourt
Amazon McGraw Hill
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
NBC Network
Netflix ABC Network
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
Lexis
Google & Legalzoom West law
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
Whirlpool
Nest Siemens
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
Facebook
Instagram, WhatsApp
& Snapchat
MySpace
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution...
Competition is
changing dramatically
platformrevolution.com
The WHO of competition
is changing
The new
competitor
the old
competitorlooks nothing like
platformrevolution.com
But the HOW of competition is
changing even more dramatically
?
platformrevolution.com
Firms are
competing and
achieving global
dominance
much faster
platformrevolution.com
American businesses in
steel and heavy machinery
took decades to overtake
once-dominant rivals in
Britain and Germany
plat...
After World War Two, Japanese
upstarts required three decades
to seize leadership roles in auto
making and electronics fro...
In contrast, Uber,
a little over 5 years old,
competes around the world
platformrevolution.com
Alibaba, relatively unknown in
the US before its IPO, may
pose significant threat to
Ebay and Amazon globally
platformrevo...
We’ve understood traditional competition well so far
platformrevolution.com
But the new competition
works on different rules
platformrevolution.com
This deck is about
the new rules!
platformrevolution.com
Too busy to get all the details?
Download this deck
platformrevolution.com
Better still,
click here to get the whole book.
All pre-orders unlock access to exclusive bonus frameworks. Details here.
TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution
NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform
ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform
DI...
Let’s
dig deeper
platformrevolution.com
To understand the new
competition, let’s start by
revisiting the old
platformrevolution.com
Strategy in the twentieth
century: a capsule history
platformrevolution.com
The simplest and most compelling representation 

of competitive strategy as we’ve known it
platformrevolution.com
The goal of strategy: control these five forces in such a way as to build 

a moat around the business and thereby render ...
Firms win through
creation of moats
A particularly effective
barrier to entry is control
of an indispensable and
inimitable resource
platformrevolution.com
DeBeers’ control of a diamond
cartel enabled it to maintain a near-
monopoly over the diamond
industry for the entire 20th...
But these control-driven
rules of competition are
changing today
platformrevolution.com
Nimble firms are using new technologies
to navigate the moats established by
control of scarce resources
Today, flexibility
provides the crucial
competitive edge,
competition is
perpetual motion,
and advantage is
evanescent
pla...
▪ The purpose of strategy is to avoid competition
The Porter View
platformrevolution.com
▪ The purpose of business is 

“to create and keep a customer”.
The Drucker View
platformrevolution.com
In a world where
sustainable advantage is 

an illusion, the Drucker
view trumps the Porter view
platformrevolution.com
Or as Peter Thiel would put it
▪ “Competition is for losers”
platformrevolution.com
“A company’s relationships
with its users are its only
lasting source of value.”
- Denning
platformrevolution.com
So how does this
change competition?
platformrevolution.com
Enter
platforms
platformrevolution.com
Two new realities are shaking
up the world of strategy
platformrevolution.com
Firms are using network effects
to create and remake markets,
not just respond to them
platformrevolution.com
Uber creates a
new market for
transportation
from scratch
instead of playing
within the
boundaries of the
existing one
pla...
Network effects
build the new moats
platformrevolution.com
In the world of platforms,
competition is no longer
a zero-sum game
platformrevolution.com
Traditional firms
re-divide a pie
platformrevolution.com
Platform businesses
often grow the pie
platformrevolution.com
Amazon grew the
publishing pie instead
of competing for
author control
platformrevolution.com
Platforms bake
a new pie
platformrevolution.com
Airbnb unlocks new
supply that never existed
platformrevolution.com
Platforms turn
businesses
inside out
platformrevolution.com
Competitive
strategy involves
factors in the
ecosystem and
beyond the firm’s
internal control
platformrevolution.com
▪ Platform against platform,
▪ Platform against partner,
▪ Partner against partner
Competition today emerges
at three diff...
Platform competition
is a lot like 3D chess
platformrevolution.com
Competitors
can hit you
from any side
platformrevolution.com
TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution
NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform
ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform
DI...
Level 1: 

Platform vs. Platform
platformrevolution.com
Strategic advantage
is based on the
power of entire
ecosystems
platformrevolution.com
Uber,
a little over 5 years old,
competes around the world
platformrevolution.com
The Sony PlayStation
Portable was a
stronger gaming
device than the iPhone
platformrevolution.com
But the iPhone
ecosystem vastly
out-stripped that
of the PSP
platformrevolution.com
Ecosystems are the new
competitive advantage
platformrevolution.com
Level 2: 

Platform vs. Partners
platformrevolution.com
Microsoft
appropriated partner
innovations like
browsers,
multithreading,
streaming media, and
instant messaging
into its ...
Amazon 

is notorious for
competing with
partner merchants
that perform well
platformrevolution.com
Level 3:
Competition between
ecosystem partners
platformrevolution.com
How is platform
competition different?
?
platformrevolution.com
The resource-based view
▪ A firm must own/control the inimitable resource
platformrevolution.com
On platforms,
the inimitable
resource shifts
from physical
assets to
access to
community
interactions
platformrevolution.c...
How platforms win
platformrevolution.com
Let’s
dig deeper
platformrevolution.com
Model 1: 

Own the ecosystem
platformrevolution.com
Platforms win by seeking exclusive
access to their ecosystem
platformrevolution.com
Uber vs. Lyft
▪ No clear winner yet because they do not have
exclusive access to the ecosystem
platformrevolution.com
Both drivers and riders may
participate simultaneously on
both platforms
platformrevolution.com
Model 2: 

Monitor ecosystem activity and
own the most important
resources that emerge
platformrevolution.com
Alibaba owns the search
functionality on its platform,
refusing to partner with Baidu
platformrevolution.com
Twitter acquired Periscope
and closed access for Meerkat
▪ It realized the value of live streaming
on the platform
platfor...
The best way to
identify what’s
important is to
foster greater
innovation
within the
ecosystem
platformrevolution.com
Meerkat and
Periscope were
outcomes of
innovation
outside of
Twitter, the
company
Watch out for new
features or apps that
appear on the platform
platformrevolution.com
Model 3: 

Leverage the value of data
platformrevolution.com
Data is the new oil
▪ A cliche but certainly true on platforms
platformrevolution.com
Platforms use data analysis
to detect spurious activity
among users
platformrevolution.com
They also use data to
identify ways to grow faster
and stay competitive
platformrevolution.com
Platforms may
also win through
ownership of
superior data
platformrevolution.com
Monster has long reigned on
the online recruitment market
▪ But LinkedIn captured a much
richer data set
platformrevolutio...
LinkedIn knows more about
the profiles of professionals
▪ More importantly, LinkedIn helps recruiters
access professionals...
Model 4: 

The new M&A
platformrevolution.com
Buy someone who’s already
built on your platform
platformrevolution.com
Increasingly,
incumbents are
opening their data
encouraging startups
to build on their
platform
platformrevolution.com
Model 5: 

Monitor adjacent and
indirect competition
platformrevolution.com
Competitors who look
different but serve the
same user base
platformrevolution.com
Instagram vs. Facebook
▪ Started out as a photo sharing app
platformrevolution.com
Whatsapp vs. Facebook
▪ Started out as an alternate to SMS
platformrevolution.com
Model 6: 

Superior technological design
platformrevolution.com
Vimeo coexists
with YouTube…
… by providing a superior
offering for discerning producers.
platformrevolution.com
Airbnb competed
with Craigslist
…through a superior management
of the end-to-end interaction
platformrevolution.com
Better trust
mechanisms,
transaction
capabilities and
superior governance
of the ecosystem
encouraged
interactions on
Airb...
Winner take all markets
A final note on platform competition
platformrevolution.com
“Being second is to be
the first of the ones
who lose.”
- Ayrton Senna
platformrevolution.com
A winner-take-all market
▪ A market in which specific forces conspire to
encourage users to gravitate toward one
platform ...
Traditional
industries created
winner-take-all
through supply
side economies
of scale
platformrevolution.com
Platforms create winner take
all through demand side
economies of scale
platformrevolution.com
Understanding the
dynamics of
platform competition
will be important for
those pursuing a
platform strategy as
well as tho...
Want to understand
this better?
platformrevolution.com
Better still,
click here to get the whole book.
All pre-orders unlock access to exclusive bonus frameworks. Details here.
Get your copy of the slides
Download this deck
platformrevolution.com
TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution
NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform
ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform
DI...
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The new new competition - How digital platforms change competitive strategy

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Based on the book PLATFORM REVOLUTION.

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The new new competition - How digital platforms change competitive strategy

  1. 1. THE NEW NEW COMPETITION Marshall Van Alstyne | Sangeet Paul Choudary | Geoffrey G Parker How digital platforms transform competitive strategy platformrevolution.com
  2. 2. Based on the book Platform Revolution platformrevolution.com
  3. 3. TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform DISRUPTION: How platforms conquer industries LAUNCH: Launching a successful platform MONETIZATION: Capturing the value OPENNESS: Defining user and partner rights GOVERNANCE: Policies to manage value creation METRICS: Measuring what really matters STRATEGY: How platforms change competition POLICY: Regulating platforms TOMORROW: The future of the platform revolution A comprehensive and practical guide to the new platform economy CLICK TO PRE- ORDER All pre-orders unlock access to exclusive bonus frameworks. Details here.
  4. 4. The new competitor looks 
 nothing like the old one platformrevolution.com
  5. 5. Marriotts Airbnb Intercontinental Group The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  6. 6. Houghton Miffin Harcourt Amazon McGraw Hill The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  7. 7. NBC Network Netflix ABC Network The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  8. 8. Lexis Google & Legalzoom West law The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  9. 9. Whirlpool Nest Siemens The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  10. 10. Facebook Instagram, WhatsApp & Snapchat MySpace The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  11. 11. Competition is changing dramatically platformrevolution.com
  12. 12. The WHO of competition is changing The new competitor the old competitorlooks nothing like platformrevolution.com
  13. 13. But the HOW of competition is changing even more dramatically ? platformrevolution.com
  14. 14. Firms are competing and achieving global dominance much faster platformrevolution.com
  15. 15. American businesses in steel and heavy machinery took decades to overtake once-dominant rivals in Britain and Germany platformrevolution.com
  16. 16. After World War Two, Japanese upstarts required three decades to seize leadership roles in auto making and electronics from industry leaders in the U.S. platformrevolution.com
  17. 17. In contrast, Uber, a little over 5 years old, competes around the world platformrevolution.com
  18. 18. Alibaba, relatively unknown in the US before its IPO, may pose significant threat to Ebay and Amazon globally platformrevolution.com
  19. 19. We’ve understood traditional competition well so far platformrevolution.com
  20. 20. But the new competition works on different rules platformrevolution.com
  21. 21. This deck is about the new rules! platformrevolution.com
  22. 22. Too busy to get all the details? Download this deck platformrevolution.com
  23. 23. Better still, click here to get the whole book. All pre-orders unlock access to exclusive bonus frameworks. Details here.
  24. 24. TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform DISRUPTION: How platforms conquer industries LAUNCH: Launching a successful platform MONETIZATION: Capturing the value OPENNESS: Defining user and partner rights GOVERNANCE: Policies to manage value creation METRICS: Measuring what really matters STRATEGY: How platforms change competition POLICY: Regulating platforms TOMORROW: The future of the platform revolution Learn about all aspects of the Platform Revolution CLICK TO PRE- ORDER
  25. 25. Let’s dig deeper platformrevolution.com
  26. 26. To understand the new competition, let’s start by revisiting the old platformrevolution.com
  27. 27. Strategy in the twentieth century: a capsule history platformrevolution.com
  28. 28. The simplest and most compelling representation 
 of competitive strategy as we’ve known it platformrevolution.com
  29. 29. The goal of strategy: control these five forces in such a way as to build 
 a moat around the business and thereby render it unassailable.
  30. 30. Firms win through creation of moats
  31. 31. A particularly effective barrier to entry is control of an indispensable and inimitable resource platformrevolution.com
  32. 32. DeBeers’ control of a diamond cartel enabled it to maintain a near- monopoly over the diamond industry for the entire 20th century platformrevolution.com
  33. 33. But these control-driven rules of competition are changing today platformrevolution.com
  34. 34. Nimble firms are using new technologies to navigate the moats established by control of scarce resources
  35. 35. Today, flexibility provides the crucial competitive edge, competition is perpetual motion, and advantage is evanescent platformrevolution.com
  36. 36. ▪ The purpose of strategy is to avoid competition The Porter View platformrevolution.com
  37. 37. ▪ The purpose of business is 
 “to create and keep a customer”. The Drucker View platformrevolution.com
  38. 38. In a world where sustainable advantage is 
 an illusion, the Drucker view trumps the Porter view platformrevolution.com
  39. 39. Or as Peter Thiel would put it ▪ “Competition is for losers” platformrevolution.com
  40. 40. “A company’s relationships with its users are its only lasting source of value.” - Denning platformrevolution.com
  41. 41. So how does this change competition? platformrevolution.com
  42. 42. Enter platforms platformrevolution.com
  43. 43. Two new realities are shaking up the world of strategy platformrevolution.com
  44. 44. Firms are using network effects to create and remake markets, not just respond to them platformrevolution.com
  45. 45. Uber creates a new market for transportation from scratch instead of playing within the boundaries of the existing one platformrevolution.com
  46. 46. Network effects build the new moats platformrevolution.com
  47. 47. In the world of platforms, competition is no longer a zero-sum game platformrevolution.com
  48. 48. Traditional firms re-divide a pie platformrevolution.com
  49. 49. Platform businesses often grow the pie platformrevolution.com
  50. 50. Amazon grew the publishing pie instead of competing for author control platformrevolution.com
  51. 51. Platforms bake a new pie platformrevolution.com
  52. 52. Airbnb unlocks new supply that never existed platformrevolution.com
  53. 53. Platforms turn businesses inside out platformrevolution.com
  54. 54. Competitive strategy involves factors in the ecosystem and beyond the firm’s internal control platformrevolution.com
  55. 55. ▪ Platform against platform, ▪ Platform against partner, ▪ Partner against partner Competition today emerges at three different levels: platformrevolution.com
  56. 56. Platform competition is a lot like 3D chess platformrevolution.com
  57. 57. Competitors can hit you from any side platformrevolution.com
  58. 58. TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform DISRUPTION: How platforms conquer industries LAUNCH: Launching a successful platform MONETIZATION: Capturing the value OPENNESS: Defining user and partner rights GOVERNANCE: Policies to manage value creation METRICS: Measuring what really matters STRATEGY: How platforms change competition POLICY: Regulating platforms TOMORROW: The future of the platform revolution Platforms change more than just competitive strategy CLICK TO PRE- ORDER
  59. 59. Level 1: 
 Platform vs. Platform platformrevolution.com
  60. 60. Strategic advantage is based on the power of entire ecosystems platformrevolution.com
  61. 61. Uber, a little over 5 years old, competes around the world platformrevolution.com
  62. 62. The Sony PlayStation Portable was a stronger gaming device than the iPhone platformrevolution.com
  63. 63. But the iPhone ecosystem vastly out-stripped that of the PSP platformrevolution.com
  64. 64. Ecosystems are the new competitive advantage platformrevolution.com
  65. 65. Level 2: 
 Platform vs. Partners platformrevolution.com
  66. 66. Microsoft appropriated partner innovations like browsers, multithreading, streaming media, and instant messaging into its operating system platformrevolution.com
  67. 67. Amazon 
 is notorious for competing with partner merchants that perform well platformrevolution.com
  68. 68. Level 3: Competition between ecosystem partners platformrevolution.com
  69. 69. How is platform competition different? ? platformrevolution.com
  70. 70. The resource-based view ▪ A firm must own/control the inimitable resource platformrevolution.com
  71. 71. On platforms, the inimitable resource shifts from physical assets to access to community interactions platformrevolution.com
  72. 72. How platforms win platformrevolution.com
  73. 73. Let’s dig deeper platformrevolution.com
  74. 74. Model 1: 
 Own the ecosystem platformrevolution.com
  75. 75. Platforms win by seeking exclusive access to their ecosystem platformrevolution.com
  76. 76. Uber vs. Lyft ▪ No clear winner yet because they do not have exclusive access to the ecosystem platformrevolution.com
  77. 77. Both drivers and riders may participate simultaneously on both platforms platformrevolution.com
  78. 78. Model 2: 
 Monitor ecosystem activity and own the most important resources that emerge platformrevolution.com
  79. 79. Alibaba owns the search functionality on its platform, refusing to partner with Baidu platformrevolution.com
  80. 80. Twitter acquired Periscope and closed access for Meerkat ▪ It realized the value of live streaming on the platform platformrevolution.com
  81. 81. The best way to identify what’s important is to foster greater innovation within the ecosystem platformrevolution.com
  82. 82. Meerkat and Periscope were outcomes of innovation outside of Twitter, the company
  83. 83. Watch out for new features or apps that appear on the platform platformrevolution.com
  84. 84. Model 3: 
 Leverage the value of data platformrevolution.com
  85. 85. Data is the new oil ▪ A cliche but certainly true on platforms platformrevolution.com
  86. 86. Platforms use data analysis to detect spurious activity among users platformrevolution.com
  87. 87. They also use data to identify ways to grow faster and stay competitive platformrevolution.com
  88. 88. Platforms may also win through ownership of superior data platformrevolution.com
  89. 89. Monster has long reigned on the online recruitment market ▪ But LinkedIn captured a much richer data set platformrevolution.com
  90. 90. LinkedIn knows more about the profiles of professionals ▪ More importantly, LinkedIn helps recruiters access professionals not actively looking for a job platformrevolution.com
  91. 91. Model 4: 
 The new M&A platformrevolution.com
  92. 92. Buy someone who’s already built on your platform platformrevolution.com
  93. 93. Increasingly, incumbents are opening their data encouraging startups to build on their platform platformrevolution.com
  94. 94. Model 5: 
 Monitor adjacent and indirect competition platformrevolution.com
  95. 95. Competitors who look different but serve the same user base platformrevolution.com
  96. 96. Instagram vs. Facebook ▪ Started out as a photo sharing app platformrevolution.com
  97. 97. Whatsapp vs. Facebook ▪ Started out as an alternate to SMS platformrevolution.com
  98. 98. Model 6: 
 Superior technological design platformrevolution.com
  99. 99. Vimeo coexists with YouTube… … by providing a superior offering for discerning producers. platformrevolution.com
  100. 100. Airbnb competed with Craigslist …through a superior management of the end-to-end interaction platformrevolution.com
  101. 101. Better trust mechanisms, transaction capabilities and superior governance of the ecosystem encouraged interactions on Airbnb platformrevolution.com
  102. 102. Winner take all markets A final note on platform competition platformrevolution.com
  103. 103. “Being second is to be the first of the ones who lose.” - Ayrton Senna platformrevolution.com
  104. 104. A winner-take-all market ▪ A market in which specific forces conspire to encourage users to gravitate toward one platform and to abandon others platformrevolution.com
  105. 105. Traditional industries created winner-take-all through supply side economies of scale platformrevolution.com
  106. 106. Platforms create winner take all through demand side economies of scale platformrevolution.com
  107. 107. Understanding the dynamics of platform competition will be important for those pursuing a platform strategy as well as those participating in a platform’s ecosystem platformrevolution.com
  108. 108. Want to understand this better? platformrevolution.com
  109. 109. Better still, click here to get the whole book. All pre-orders unlock access to exclusive bonus frameworks. Details here.
  110. 110. Get your copy of the slides Download this deck platformrevolution.com
  111. 111. TODAY: Welcome to the platform revolution NETWORK EFFECTS: The power of the platform ARCHITECTURE: Designing a platform DISRUPTION: How platforms conquer industries LAUNCH: Launching a successful platform MONETIZATION: Capturing the value OPENNESS: Defining user and partner rights GOVERNANCE: Policies to manage value creation METRICS: Measuring what really matters STRATEGY: How platforms change competition POLICY: Regulating platforms TOMORROW: The future of the platform revolution Learn about all aspects of the Platform Revolution CLICK TO PRE- ORDER

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