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Wicked problems in design thinking

  1. WICKED PROBLEMS IN DESIGN THINKING Richard Buchanan ID 501 Advanced Product Development in Industrial Design Alev Sönmez METU Department of Industrial Design
  2. Keywords •Design thinking •Wicked problems •Liberal arts •Analysis •Synthesis •Placements •Categories •Determinacy •Underternined •Indeterminacy •Technologia
  3. Richard Buchanan Currently a Professor at Case Western University’s Weatherhead School of Management, Richard Buchanan is one of the world’s leading design theorists. Former head of Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Design, Buchanan joined Weatherhead’s faculty in 2008. He is also co-editor of Design Issues, a premier design journal published by MIT Press. “the effort of people to make the products that serve us in our everyday lives”. Design...
  4. “It’s a very ambiguous term that’s gotten out of hand. For some people it’s a cognitive process, for others it’s a set of skills and habits, for some it’s a business slogan. And I’m afraid it’s deteriorated into that in many ways, particularly at a company like IDEO. They have a formula that they regard as “design thinking’.” Design thinking...
  5. “Designers see things in different ways than people in other fields, and their way of seeing allows them to think of new possibilities for making.” Rejects the idea of reducing design to a simple formula
  6. “No single definition of design or professional branches , adequately covers the diversity of ideas and methods gathered tohgether under the label.” Despite the effort to discover foundations of design it is still flexible and expanding in its meanings and connections.
  7. Trade activity Segmented profession Field for technical research Now should be recognized as a... New liberal art of technological culture Trend of design thinking in 20th century
  8. Liberal arts... 19th century, •Encyclopedic education with different fields of subjects •The n the circle of learning is divided into particular subject matters and own methods. • Integradet uderstanding of human experiences • Further divided (patchwork of specializations)
  9. Today, Fragmentation of advanced knowledge Search for new integrative diciplines to to complement art and sciences
  10. Today, Fragmentation of advanced knowledge Search for new integrative diciplines to to complement art and sciences Serving to purpose of enriching human life Design
  11. Today, Fragmentation of advanced knowledge Search for new integrative diciplines to to complement art and sciences Emergence of Design Thinking Concrete integrations of Knowkedge which combine the therary and practise to for new productive purposes Serving to purpose of enriching human life Design
  12. Is design necessary to be a profession, rather than being a method of thinking Without the engineering it is not possible to have a working product, what about designer? If the engineer is capable of designing a more user- friendly product, then would the profession of design be needed? ? ? ?
  13. New centre of universe, Indifinite interactions taking place within a course of nature Not fixed and complete but capable of directions to new and different results . John Dewey Old Liberal Arts Specialization in the facts of a subject manner Knowing Knowledge is achieved by direct confirmity of ideas Analysis New Liberal Arts The use of new diciplines of integrative thinking Involving Knowledge is achieved by orders of change Synthesis
  14. 1st Science 2nd Art John Dewey Science as an art “Because of technologies, a circular relationship with science and art has been established” Technology Knowledge of how to make and use artifacts/artifacts itself Particular type of product/hardware Art of experimental thinking, providing basis of creating other types of product
  15. Design in contemporary life... •Significant factor in shaping human experience •Employed to cultivate the subject matters that are the focus of scientific curosity “T he challenge is to gain a deeper understanding of design thinking so that more cooperation and mutual benefit is possible between those who apply design thinking to remarkably different problems and subject matter.”
  16. Persisting Problem •Little room for the reflection of the discussion between scientists and designers •Confusion and breakdown of communication
  17. Herbert Simon "the proper study of mankind is the science of design, not only as the professional component of a technical education but as a core discipline for every liberally educated man.
  18. How design affects contemporary life 4 areas that which is explored by professionals and also others 1.Design of symbloic and visual communication •Traditional work of graphic designer •Now evolving to exploring problems of communicating (informations,ideas , arguments.) ------------ SIGNS 2. Design of material objects •Traditional work of industrial designer •Now evolving to exploring problems of construction in which form as a deeper argument that unites aspects of other diciplines informations,ideas , arguments. (arts, engineering, sciences) ------------ THINGS
  19. 3.Design of activities and organizational services •Traditional management •Now evolving to exploring of better connections and consequences through design thinking •Better communications in everday experience ------------ ACTIONS 4.Design of complex systems or environments •Traditional system engineering, architecture etc. •Now evolving to exploring role of design in sustaining, integrating human beings into ecological and socal environment •Better communications in everday experience ------------ THOUGHTS
  20. Signs, materials , actions and thoughts are • interconnected •İnterpenetrated •Consequences for innovation “their primary concern begins in one area, but innovation comes when the initial selection is repositioned at another point in the framework, raising new questions and ideas”
  21. Design thinking patterns is found not in a set of categories but in a rich, diverse, and changing set of placements, such as those identified by signs, things, actions, and thoughts. CATEGORIE S PLACEMENT S •Fixed meanings •Accepted by theory •Basis of analyzing what have already exist. •Have boundaries to shape meaning, not fixed, giving context to think •Sources of new ideas and possibilities. •Generates new perceptions Inventiveness of designer – ability to return placements and apply them into new situations,seeing possibilities through conceptual placemants Liberal Art
  22. Wicked Problems in Design Thinking Scientists Central probem of the communication of designers and scientist While sharing a liberal art of design thinking ,they are masters of specialized subject matters Problems adressed by the designers seldom fall solely within the boundaries of scientists from divided diciplines Wicked Problems a form of social or cultural problem that is difficult to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements.
  23. Linear Model of Design Process 1. Problem Identification (analytic) 2. Problem Solution (synthetic)
  24. Linear Model of Design Process •Based on determined problems •İn defined situations 1. Problem Identification (analytic) 2. Problem Solution (synthetic) Wicked Problem Approach by Rittel •Process is not linear •Indeterminacy •No definitive conditions or limits for design problems •Social reality rather than theory of design
  25. Design Problems are indetermined and wicked, because design has no subject matter of its own apart from what a designer conceives Designer discover or invent a subject matter out of a problem Is it true? Do designers really not move on determined subject matters or categories? ? Designers also have categorized subject matters? OR Are they placements? ? Use placements Establish principle of relevance for knowledge
  26. Design and Technology Technoloy Machines and products Discipline of sysnthetic thinking Technologia Systematic discipline Design has a technologia Discipline of practical reasoning, argumentation Power of design lies in overcoming limitations of verbal and symbolic argument.
  27. Persistent confusion about different modes or agumnetation in different professions using design thinking Industrial Design Engineering Marketing Seems opponents because of their model differences approaching design problems This contributes to a new awareness of design being liberal art Synthesis of 3 lines of reasoning •Ideas of designers/maufacturers etc.. •Internal logic of products •Desire of user to use the product in EDL