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Landscape architecture : Natural and Man made

  2. The definition of landscape architecture according to the International Federation of Landscape Architecture (IFLA) is “A profession and academic discipline that employs principles of art and the physical and social sciences to the processes of environmental planning, design and conservation, which serve to ensure the long-lasting improvement, sustainability and harmony of natural and cultural systems or landscape parts thereof, as well as the design of outdoor spaces with consideration of their aesthetic, functional and ecological aspects “ Within this broad definition of landscape architecture there are three areas of activity: landscape planning, landscape Design and landscape management. Aerial view of Central Park New York City
  3. Landscape planning is concerned with the long- term development and preservation of natural and cultural landscapes by implementation of strategic goal-oriented concepts and allocation of types of land use. Landscape design deals with form and meaning and is concerned with the organisation of a physical, functional and aesthetic arrangement of a variety of structural elements to achieve desired social, cultural and ecological outcomes. Landscape management is concerned with the conservation and enhancement of the long-term beneficial use of landscape resources as well as its heterogeneity, character, and beauty. Landmark landscape planning
  15. LONGSHENG RICE TERRACE, CHINA Known as Dragon’s Backbone, these stunning terraced rice fields owe their name to their shape, which resembles the scales on a dragon’s back. Located about 100 kilometres from Guilin, China; these terraced fields are built along the mountain slope, winding from the riverside up to the mountain-top, positioned between 600 metres and 800 metres above sea level. Longsheng Rice Terrace dates back to Yuan and Ming Dynasty and is a testimony to the brilliant farming and engineering efforts of the indigenous Zhuang people.
  16. LAKE POWELL, USA Lake Powell, is a sparkling gem in the desert, with its bright blue waters, and soaring red sandstone cliffs, and towering rock formations. This incredible artificial lake was created by flooding the Colorado River in Glen Canyon during the construction of Glen Canyon Dam. Straddling between the borders of Arizona and Utah, Lake Powell is a popular tourist destination known for adventure tours like helicopter rides, river rafting, jeep or all-terrain vehicle drives. It also offers camping, nature hiking, water sports, bird watching, houseboat experience, etc.
  17. FLY GEYSER, USA Located on a private land in the middle of the Nevada desert, Fly Geyser, also known as Fly Ranch Geyser, is one of the most incredible sights in Nevada. Fly Geyser is not a natural phenomenon, but a man- made landform, which was accidentally created in 1964 as the result of a test drill for water. The brilliant red and green colouring on the mounds comes from thermophilic algae. The gushing water reaches a height of 5 feet in the air, making it one of the striking and accidental manmade landforms in the world.
  18. BIG HOLE, SOUTH AFRICA Kimberley is the home to South Africa’s rich diamond mines and processing industry. It’s also known for its unique manmade landform – The Big Hole. This is the site where the first diamond was discovered in 1869, heralding a diamond mining rush in the country. The Big Hole covers 170,000 square meters and reaches a depth of 240 meters. Now defunct, it yielded three tons of diamonds. This incredible and largest manmade pit in the world was excavated all by human hands and basic digging tools.
  19. BIG HOLE, SOUTH AFRICA Today, this abandoned diamond mine is part of a museum. It has open-air viewing platforms, original houses, offices and shops, mock diamond diggings, interactive displays, several reconstructions of old and iconic businesses and houses.
  20. INDIGO LAKE, USA Located in Summit County, Ohio, the Indigo Lake is part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. This small, colourful, triangular shaped lake is an artificial landform created by flooding the original site of Graystone quarry, a gravel and sand pit. Park service personnel have further ensured constant water supply to this lake by channelling several water springs available in the area.
  21. INDIGO LAKE, USA Swimming is banned in the lake, but recreational fishing is one of the most popular things to do in Indigo Lake. The lake also serves as a training point for the Akron Fire Department to practice under-ice rescue techniques each winter.
  22. LAKE PIVA, MONTENEGRO Lake Piva is the highest elevated artificial reservoir of fresh water in Europe, located in Northern Montenegro. This stunning emerald green lake is one of the famous manmade landforms of Europe, formed after the construction of Mratinje Dam on Piva River.
  23. Spread over 45 kilometres and situated 675 metres above sea level, Piva Lake dominates the heart of the region. Pluzine, a picturesque small town situated on the shore of Piva lake, surrounded by the peaks of Durmitor, Volujak and Ledenica, is the gateway to the lake and the starting point of several cruises. LAKE PIVA, MONTENEGRO
  24. HONGHE HANI RICE TERRACES, CHINA Every photographer’s dream, the stunning Honghe Hani Rice Terraces of Yunnan, China are among the country’s famed landscapes. Covering an area of 1,000,000 acres, the famed rice terraces of Honge Hani look like a painting from above but are actually a man- made landform. The 1,200-year-old rice terraces were created to irrigate farm fields positioned along the side of hills using farming slopes.
  25. The rice terraces incorporate 82 local villages with an elaborate network of farming system, animal husbandry and comprising four counties of Yunnan – Yuanyang, Honghe, Jinpin, and Lvchun. One of China’s UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Honghe Hani Rice Terraces are among the most picturesque manmade landforms in the world. HONGHE HANI RICE TERRACES, CHINA
  26. PROVIDENCE CANYON, GEORGIA Known as the ‘Little Grand Canyon’, the Providence Canyon in the US State of Georgia is a delightful and colourful landscape. Its considered as one of the “Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia” and is completely manmade landf orm. Surprisingly poor farming practices and soil erosion resulted in such dramatic craggy, rugged, and colourful canyon.
  27. Today, you can see gullies as deep as 150 feet and rare Plumleaf Azalea that grows and blooms during July and August. The canyon’s pink, orange, red and purple coloured soil looks like a delightful painting. PROVIDENCE CANYON, GEORGIA
  28. BANAUE RICE TERRACES, PHILIPPINES The sprawling Banaue Rice Terraces of Philippines are one of the key cultural delights of the Southeast Asian country. These manmade rice terraces date back to 2000 – 6000 years and are considered as the “Eighth Wonder of the World”, by the Philippines. Carved into the province of Ifugao in the Cordillera Mountains by ancestors of the local tribe, this site sports a terrific blend of economic, social, cultural, and religious environment.
  29. To conserve this unusual manmade landform, UNESCO has listed it amongst the endangered World Heritage sites. It’s the greatest achievement of the Ifugao people, known for their wood carving and creating terrace farming skills. BANAUE RICE TERRACES, PHILIPPINES
  31. PATIO DE LOS NARANJOS Located within the Mosque of Córdoba (or Mezquita de Córdoba, as it is known in Spanish), southern Spain, the Patio de los Naranjos is thought to be one of the oldest gardens in Europe. It was established at the time of the Great Mosque’s initial construction in 784. Originally containing plants such as pomegranate, cypress, and palm trees, the garden today is comprised of a simple grid of orange trees — 98 to be exact — planted in rows dating back at least to the end of the 18th century.
  32. The Piazza del Campo Siena, Italy’s 700-year-old plaza is one of Europe’s great public spaces. Originally the site of a Roman forum, the square has acted as the cultural heart of the city since the construction of the town hall in the 12th century. “Il Campo”, as the Sienese call it, functions superbly as a civic and social space because of its active edges and affordability toward social gatherings and interaction. Renowned Danish architect and urban designer Jan Gehl lauds.
  33. CHANDIGARH CAPITOL COMPLEX located in the sector-1 of Chandigarh city in India, is a government compound designed by the architect Le Corbusier and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is spread over an area of around 100 acres and is a prime manifestation of Chandigarh's architecture.
  34. It comprises three buildings, three monuments and a lake, including the Palace of Assembly or Legislative Assembly, Secretariat, High Court, Open Hand Monument, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadows. It was added in UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 2016.
  35. ROCK GARDEN, JAPAN The rock garden at Ryōan- ji Temple in Kyoto, Japan, is considered one of the finest surviving examples of kare-sansui, or dry landscape garden. It is not known exactly who designed the Ryōan-ji Garden, nor exactly when. Speculations regarding this date range between the late 15th and 17th centuries. The garden itself is gracefully simple: An encircling wall of earth and clay frames 15 rocks arranged in a rectangle of raked white gravel.
  38. Villa d’Este Akin to many of the world’s other superlative gardens, Villa d’Este in Tivoli, Italy, is the product of an eager owner with a willingness to spend gargantuan sums of money. The garden was designed between 1550 and 1572 by Pirro Ligorio and is famed for apotheosizing the use of water through the inventiveness of 16th- century hydraulic engineers, who utilized gravity and hydraulics to choreograph water through the garden.
  39. Vaux le Vicomte The design for Vaux le Vicomte is today considered the most admired of the French Baroque landscapes and is the first great work of André Le Nôtre. The garden spans more than 1,000 acres and encapsulates the essence of a Baroque-era landscape in the French formal style. French garden design in the 17th century asserted the idea of man controlling and manipulating nature, and together with the enormous price tags that ensued, they imparted an important message of monarchical power and taste.