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The heritage food habits and consumers behaviour in Malaysia

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Chef Federico Michieletto share the knowledge and the research on the heritage food habits and consumer behaviour in Malaysia, want to engage Chef Federico for f&b presentation? Email him at federico.kl@gmail.com

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The heritage food habits and consumers behaviour in Malaysia

  1. 1. THE HERITAGE FOOD HABITS AND CONSUME BEHAVIOUR IN MALAYSIA copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  2. 2. Malaysian Food Habit • 4 meals a day • Rice (carbo), vegetables (fibre), meat (protein) • Older generations cook traditional way • Younger generations prefers quick & simple way • High demand for food packaging & food preparation for a longer storage life. • Outside cheap food – mamak and coffee shop, 24 hours a day • Local food: beef rendang, laksa, char kway teow, mee goreng, roti canai copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  3. 3. Malaysian Food Behaviours copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  4. 4. Malay Cuisine • Masak Lemak ―the richness of a coconut-based cooking style. For example, nasi lemak • Masak Pedas ― sambal or hot chillies-based style. For example, beef rendang is a dry spiced coconut beef dish that is popular throughout the country. • Masak Assam ―assam translates as sour and refers to a tamarind-based style. For example, assam laksa is a tangy fish noodle soup. • Masak Merah ―a tomato-based sauce style. For example, ayam masak merah is similar to chicken cacciatore, however, what sets it apart is its hotness derived from the spicy tomato sauce in which the chicken is cooked. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  5. 5. Malay Cuisine • Masak Hitam ―dark and sweet soy sauce based style. For example, daging masak hitam is a sweet and slightly sour beef dish made by blending dark soy sauce, tamarind juice, ginger, lemongrass, and turmeric into a sauce in which beef strips are cooked. • Masak assam pedas - spicy and sour flavoured tamarind and sambal or hot chillies-based style. For example, sambal sotong, a spicy dish consisting of squids cooked in a blend of chillies, shallots, garlic, stewed tomatoes, tamarind paste, and belacan, a dried shrimp paste made from tiny brine shrimp that have been processed by sun-drying and aging, then formed into a block or cake. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  6. 6. Malay Cuisine copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  7. 7. Chinese Cuisine • Cantonese- the most popular style of Chinese cooking, is most known for its quick stir-fry method and the importance of Yin (cooling elements such as vegetables, most fruits, and clear soup) and Yang (heat elements such as starchy foods and meat) in dishes. For example, dimsum, for example : Siu Mai (steamed pork and shrimp dumplings); Char Siu (roasted pork); and Chee Chong Fun (rice sheet rolls). • Szechuan- spiciest in Chinese cuisines, such as Ma Po Tofu, a chilli tofu dish, and Hot and Sour Soup. • Beijing- famous for its Peking Duck, is typically served with steamed buns or pancakes, as rice is not readily grown in the north of China. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  8. 8. Chinese Cuisine • Hainan- is more common in Malaysia as most Malaysian- Chinese are from the southern regions of China. Some particular dishes from the region include: Hainanese Chicken Rice, and Steamboat. • Hokkien- usually perceived as being at the lower end of the Chinese food culinary scale, this style of cooking is famous for various dishes that are found throughout Malaysia. Some famous hokkien food are such as: Bak Kut The and Popiah. • Teochew- is a delicate yet robust cuisine style. One of its more noted dishes is Char Kway Teow. • Hakka-a style of cuisine most often sold at hawker stalls. One of the well-known dishes is Yong Tau Foo. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  9. 9. Chinese Cuisine copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  10. 10. Indian Cuisine • Spices are the main component of Indian cooking - coriander, cumin, turmeric, fennel, mustard, fenugreek, cardamom, clove, cinnamon, and star anise. • Indian cuisine in Malaysia can be separated into two different groups, north and south. • North Indian meals are mainly comprised of wheat breads such chapati or roti (unleavened bread) or paratha (fried unleavened bread), and a form of curry – vegetable (vegetarian) or meat-based. These curries are not extremely spicy and have a creamy texture because of the use of yoghurt or ghee (clarified butter). This creamier curry version is a form of cuisine called Mughlai cuisine, from the ancient Moghul Emperors of India. • South Indian meals differ as they tend to be served with lighter breads such as dosa or thosai (thin rice pancakes), vada (a flat patty made of fermented rice and dhal), appam (rice pancake),and idli (steamed rice cake), as well as fish or vegetable-based dishes.. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  11. 11. Indian Cuisine • Nasi Biryani- a dish with a base of basmati rice sautéed in ghee, cooked with saffron, and served with pieces of spiced lamb, mutton, or chicken, slivered almonds and raisins. This dish is considered a delicacy as it uses saffron, the world‘s most expensive spice. • Fish Head Curry- like its name indicates, a curry in which the head of a fish (usually a large grouper, cod, salmon, or red snapper) is cooked in fish curry powder with spices, chillies, tamarind, and coconut milk. • Mee Rebus - a yellow egg noodle dish served with a sweet potato gravy and bean sprouts, and garnished with cooked squid, prawn fritters, boiled egg, fried shallots, and a squeeze of a local calamansi lime. • Roti Canai - (pronounced Chan-nai), a flaky pancake that is fried and served with a side of curry for dipping. A popular drink is Teh Tarik, which means ―pulled tea‖. This is a sweet milky tea that is prepared by pouring the hot tea from one mug to another several times to make it frothy. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  12. 12. Indian cuisine copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  13. 13. Nyonya Cuisine • Nyonya, or Peranakan (descendant) - The word “nyonya” is a respectful Indonesian/Malay term for a lady, and “baba” refers to the male. They are actually born of Hokkien Chinese . • Nyonya food here has distinct Thai influences. Much use is made of strong flavours like chillies, coconut, tamarind, herbs and spices, including the “aromatic” ubiquitous belacan (pronounced belachan), a fermented prawn paste. Apart from noodle dishes, most are eaten with plain boiled rice to do justice to the delicious flavours. • Gulai Assam Tumis (Fish in a Spicy Sour Curry) - This is a popular gulai (curry) made with a rempah (paste) of finely-minced onions, garlic, lemon grass, belacan and chilli which is then fried in oil (tumis) until fragrant. A light solution of tamarind and water is mixed in, then fish, the most popular being mackerel, stingray, or black pomfret. Vegetables like Ladies’ Fingers, tomatoes and brinjal (aubergine) can also be included. A local herb with small aromatic leaves called Daun Kesom, also known as Vietnamese Coriander, adds a gorgeous fragrance, and it is usually served adorned with fresh mint. Locals love it and so will you especially if you like sour-based curries like Tom Yam. • Kari Kapitan (Captain’s Curry) - The name apparently came about because of a European captain’s love of curries for his tiffin (lunch). Every day his amah (maid) used to ask him, “Curry, Kapitan?” There are many versions of this, but two main schools of thought: one advocates the use of coconut milk in it, the other doesn’t. The rempah (paste) is basically chillies, onions, garlic, lemongrass, lengkuas (galangal) and buah keras (candlenut). Usually made with chicken, it’s a delicious curry, perfect for those who don’t like it too hot or spicy. This differs from the spicier more commonly-found Chicken Curry which is usually made with curry powder and coconut milk. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  14. 14. Nyonya Cuisine • Purut Ikan (Spicy Sour Vegetable Curry) - Literally translated to “Fish Stomach” because it is traditionally made with pickled fish intestines, Purut Ikan is a true conglomeration of local vegetables: finely julienned brinjals, pineapple, long beans, cabbage and at least ten different herbs cooked in a spicy tamarind-based soup. The small amount of pickled intestines add a fishy taste, but this is beautifully counteracted by the myriad of flavours that the mix of unusual herbs imparts. Some versions have added santan (coconut milk). • Otak Otak (Spicy Fish Packets) - Like the previous dish, the name might be slightly off-putting as it means “brains” and indeed the dish did use fish brain but nowadays the primary ingredients are prawns and fish meat. Sliced fish is mixed into a fairly stiff spicy rempah, santan (coconut milk) and egg mixture, piled onto banana leaves which are then folded up to form a “packet”. This is steamed till cooked, setting into a soft curry custard which is delicious cold or hot. One of the most important ingredients is the aromatic leaf of the Daun Kaduk, a leafy climber which grows wild locally. • Jiu Hoo Char (Fried Yam Bean with dried Octopus) - A Hokkien delicacy of fried julienned bangkuang (yam bean) and dried octopus strips, this is a local salad usually eaten at feast time, particularly Chinese New Year. A tablespoon is wrapped in a fresh lettuce leaf, topped with a dollop of the ubiquitous sambal belacan then popped into the mouth whole. It’s sweet, savoury, spicy and fishy at the same time. • Tau Eu Bak (Chicken or Pork Stewed in Soya Sauce) - This is similar to Adobo, and there are various versions of it. Generally cooked with pork, garlic, a pinch of sugar and five-spice powder and two types of soya sauce (light and dark), it’s one of the mainstays of nyonya home cooking as the resulting gravy thickens into a scrumptious almost gel-like sauce which goes beautifully with white rice. Often tau kua (firm bean curd), Chinese mushrooms and hard-boiled eggs are added. Tu Ka Chor is a sweet variation which includes black vinegar. It’s absolutely delish with a dollop of sambal belacan. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  15. 15. Nyonya cuisine copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  16. 16. East Malaysia – Sabah • A rich variety of traditional food has been developed by Borneo's many tribes and indigenous groups over the centuries; much of it is healthy food, consisting of foraged (now increasingly cultivated due to modernisation) and fermented foods. Because much of the region was once under the Brunei Sultanate's ruling, the Bruneian Malay people have left a lasting culinary influence, particularly on the cookery of the coastal Muslim communities of East Malaysia. Sabah’s unique cultural traditional food: • Pinasakan sada, otherwise simply known as Pinasakan, is a traditional Kadazandusun dish of braised basung fish mixed with takob akob (a tangy wild fruit mainly harvested for its skin), fresh turmeric, salt and slices of Bambangan (optional). Pinasakan is another type of preserved food and is good to be eaten sans heating for days at a time. Pinasakan goes well with white rice or ambuyat and a dash of sambal. • Ambuyat is a traditional Bruneian dish that is derived from the interior trunk of the sago palm. On its own, the Ambuyat is simply a bland starchy blob which is similar to the tapioca starch, but it goes well when eaten with tangy, spicy or salty accompanying dish such as the Pinasakan and Bambangan. Ambuyat is prepared by mixing the sago starch powder into boiling water. As the sago starts to coagulate, use a pair of bamboo fork or wooden chopsticks to roll the starch around the prongs, dip into accompanying dish and munch. Be sure to have a glass of water handy! copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  17. 17. East Malaysia – Sabah • Hinava is most probably the most well known traditional dish in Sabah. Popularized by the Kadazandusun community, Hinava is made of fresh raw tenggiri (mackerel fish), which is filleted and thinly sliced; mixed with sliced chili, ginger, diced red onions, grated Bambangan seed, salt and set with a few squirts of lime juice. Either with rice or on its own as a salad. • Tuhau - Most people, even locals, would have a love-hate relationship with the Tuhau due to its distinct pungent smell, which is not unlike that of a stink bug. However, once you’ve tried it, you may easily overlook its unpleasant smell. Originating from the interior parts of Sabah (Tambunan, Keningau and Ranau), Tuhau is made of a type of wild ginger that is thinly diced, mixed with diced chili and diced scallion, and pickled using salt and vinegar. • Nonsom / Bosou - Another popular traditional Kadazandusun preserved dish that is made using raw fresh water fish mixed together with rice and pickled using salt and pangi (a type of local herb). After the mixing, the mixture is stored in a glass jar and marinated for two weeks. Like most preserved traditional food, the Nonsom / Bosou is salty and tangy in flavour. It goes well with white rice or even fried beehoon. For a nicer aroma, sauté the Nonsom / Bosou together with diced garlic, a dash of pepper and olive oil. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  18. 18. Sabahan Food copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  19. 19. East Malaysia - Sarawak • Sarawak is rich in its diversity: whether it is the traditional cuisine of the indigenous Dayak, Melanau and Orang Ulu peoples, or the food cultures of the ethnic Chinese as well as local Malays of Bruneian ancestry, most of these ethnic cuisines are now well represented in Sarawak's urban eateries and restaurants, particularly as public awareness and interest in Sarawak's cultural diversity has increased in recent years. • In general, Sarawakian is quite distinct from the regional cuisines of the Peninsular. Iban comprise the largest Dayak subgroup . The traditional cookery of the Iban is called pansoh or pansuh, which is the preparation and cooking of food in bamboo tubes. Ingredients like poultry, fish, pork, vegetables or rice are mixed with fragrant herbs like lemongrass, tapioca leaves and bungkang leaves (a species of myrtle from the Eugenia genus), then sealed within the bamboo tubes and placed directly over an open fire. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  20. 20. East Malaysia - Sarawak • Sarawak Laksa - The Sarawak Laksa is essentially vermicelli rice noodles (bee hoon), cooked in a shrimp-based broth that is made to thicken with coconut milk. This dish is served with generous amounts of crunchy bean sprouts, a few boiled prawns and garnished with shredded chicken and slivers of egg omelette. For added spice, there's the thick sambal paste at the side or you can squeeze some lime juice (limau kasturi) into your dish as well. • Kolo Mee - This light yellow egg noodle consists of lard, char siew (barbecued pork) sauce and black vinegar. A common enough dish found in Sarawak. • Kompia - Guang Bing (Kom Pia) initially served as dry food for Chinese hero Ji Guang's soldiers to carry during the anti-Japanese occupation war in China. Ji Guang is credited with creating this popular Foochow food. While resembling the French bread in taste, the Guang Bing also has a little extra in the form of sesame seeds sprinkled generously on top of the bread. • Umai - The umai is traditionally a standard lunch meal for the Melanau fisherman. Thin slivers of raw fresh fish, usually iced but not frozen, combined with thinly sliced onions, chili, salt and juice from sour fruits like lime or assam go into preparing this dish. The dish is usually accompanied by a bowl of toasted sago pearls and is so simple that fishermen prepare it easily on their boats. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  21. 21. Sarawak Food copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  22. 22. Food Consumer Behaviour • Consumers' decision-making processes can be different according to different cultural backgrounds. Some of the most important components of culture include consumption habits of food and patterns of consumption, which make a significant contribution to decisions consumers make concerning food consumption. • An individual’s cultural background shapes what he or she eats, the manner in which the food is consumed, when it is appropriate to eat, and the significance of the food being. Thus, behavioral patterns in ethnic restaurants comprise an important area of study for those interested in conducting research in the field of consumer behavior. • There is not only a great variety in people’s food consumption, but an infinite amount of variety. The reasons that consumers choose to eat at a particular restaurant are many, and determined by individual consumer’s preferences, tastes, and perspectives. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  23. 23. Food Consumer Behaviour Top 3 things liked most by consumers: Food quality, service, and pleasant atmosphere/ environment copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  24. 24. Food Consumer Behaviour Top 3 things disliked most by consumers: lack of variety, boisterous (noisy) customers, and dirty restrooms copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  25. 25. Food Consumer Behaviours - Studies • There is a growing demand for food away from home because of higher incomes, changes in consumption patterns, changes in household composition, and the time pressures created by dual-working families. • Male mostly search for the high quality of food and the large quantity of food, female searches for culture based food. • Customers towards Chinese food cultural knowledge and awareness are related to their ages, the older and the more educated ones are the more knowledgeable, the more education one has the more knowledgeable. • Customers’ ethnicity would play an important role in terms of cultural awareness and knowledge. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  26. 26. Customer satisfaction • Customer satisfaction is to measure how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. • Customer satisfaction ratings can have powerful effects. They focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers' expectations. • When a brand has loyal customers, it gains positive word-of- mouth marketing, which is both free and highly effective. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  27. 27. Customer Satisfaction • Current research shows that the most common factors affecting restaurant guests while making this decision are: food quality, service quality and overall restaurant environment. • It is a 2 x 2 x 3 experiment: 2 types of restaurants (full-service and quick service), 2 levels of performance (high and low) and 3 major attributes (food quality, service and ambience). • All restaurant attributes are equally important in consumer decision making. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  28. 28. Customer Satisfaction • The obtained results also indicated that food quality is more important than service and ambience for consumers in upscale restaurants while speed of service is more important than food quality and ambience in quick service restaurants. • Customers in both upscale and quick service restaurants are willing to spend more if the restaurants' resources are focused on attributes that are appropriate for that segment. • In F&B, guest satisfaction matrix is essential and this is to ensure every customer who came to restaurant is satisfied and all staff is to be train how to deliver a good service just to achieve the goals. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  29. 29. Restaurants service etiquette • Dining, always served with a gracious touch – greet customer in front of restaurant. • We will seat guests thoughtfully for maximum comfort and privacy, and offer a choice of seats unless impossible; we will remain at the table until all guests are comfortably seated. • We will speak with guests calmly and discreetly, not interrupting conversations or asking obvious questions; and conversations amongst colleagues will be quiet and minimal. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  30. 30. Restaurants service etiquette • Our service will be attentively and seamlessly paced so that the guest never experiences noticeable delays or must signal for service. • While guests are at our buffet, our dedicated guides will proactively greet guests, expedite traffic, and describe the dishes highlighting local specialties and house specialties. • We will knowledgably and enthusiastically describe our foods and drinks, with special pride in regional specialties and signature dishes; reasonable special requests will be graciously accommodated. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  31. 31. Restaurants service etiquette • Whenever a guest has accepted our recommendation, the colleague giving the recommendation will show sincere interest and return to ask how they enjoyed it. • When wine assistance is requested, we will engage by asking multiple questions to determine guest preferences, make appropriate recommendations accordingly at different price points with helpful descriptions. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  32. 32. Conclusion • With a growing number of Malaysians living in urban areas, it is expected that the sale of convenient and time-saving items will rise. • Young adults who have relocated to the cities for higher-level education and work will continue to lead this trend. • Items of food, it is expected that ready-meals will continue to grow; however, not all segments of ready-meals will be in demand. Frozen and canned or prepared meals will continue to rise as they offer a quick alternative to homemade, or have the flexibility to be used as a time-saving base for more elaborate meals. • Although it is important to speak to the more traditional dishes, when it comes to ready- meals, the window for growth may be small as foodservice outlets such as mamak stalls or kopitiams already provide quick alternatives to home cooked meals. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  33. 33. Conclusion • With increasing international influence, Malaysian consumers seeking a similar lifestyle may look to more Western or health-oriented options in the ready-meals sector. • The demand for premium brands will continue to grow in the younger generations. • Stores that typically served expatriates are now finding that young professional Malaysians are among their customers, as they search to acquire premium and imported goods. A part of this demand is the desire to define their lives through purchasing choices. • Traditional Malaysia cuisine with international influence - However the young and tech- savvy population is increasingly educated with growing income levels, and is shaping consumer demand. It is clear that Malaysians are proud of their varied heritages, and they will continue to blend new international influences with their own values in order to maintain their distinct identity. copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto
  34. 34. Thank You copyright by Chef Federico Michieletto

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