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EPITHELIAL TISSUE , CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DR JYOTI PRAKASH PANI
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ANATOMY
MGMCRI, PONDICHERRY,PILLAIRKUPPAM,...
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Definition-: The tissue which lines the outer surface of the
body and the luminal surface of cavities wi...
EPITHELIAL TISSUE FIGURE
EPITHELIUM
DEFINITION-:Covering of the outer surface of the body and
the luminal surface of cavities. Also lines the duct ...
EPITHELIUM FIGURE
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIUM
 UNILAYERED(SIMPLE)-:Consist of one layer of cell.
 MULTILAYERED(STRATIFIED)-:Consist of mu...
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIUM
TYPES OF SIMPLE EPITHELIUM
 SQUAMOUS-: Cells are flat, height of the cell is very little as
compared to the width.
 CUBO...
TYPES OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
 1i)Stratified squamous-: Multilayer, cell towards deeper layer are
columnar but proceedin...
TYPES OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
BASEMENT MEMBRANE
 Is the membrane on which epithelium rests.
BASEMENT MEMBRANE FIGURE
SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
 Cytoplasm of cells in this kind of epithelium forms only a thin
layer.
 Nuclei produce bulging of t...
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM FIGURE
COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 In vertical section the cells of this epithelium are rectangular and
elongated shape.
 On surface v...
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHLIUM
 Cell surface has no particular specialization .
CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 Cell surface bears cilia.
STRIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 Surface is covered with microvilli visible with EM with the light
microscope the region of ...
STRIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM FIGURE
BRUSH BORDER
 Microvilli’s are placed irregularly.
FUNCTION
 Secretion by apical part of cytoplasm contain secretory
vacuoles.
 Example-: Present over mucous membrane of s...
CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 Function-: Expulsion of the foreign body.
 Example-: Most of the respiratory tract, uterus...
GOBLET CELL
 They are secretory columnar cell scattered in the mucosa of
stomach and intestines.
 Present in apical part...
CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
 Similar to columnar epithelium.
 Height of the cell is about the same as their width.
 Nuclei are ...
CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM FIGURE
PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
 Nuclei appear to arrange in two or more layer.
 Epithelium is more than one cell ...
PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM FIGURE
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
 Made up of several layers of cells.
 Cell of the deepest or basal layer rest on the base...
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM FIGURE
NON KERATINIZED
 Surface epithelium remains moist.
 Most superficial cells are living
 Nuclei can be seen in them.
 Ex...
KERATINIZED
 Contrast to non keratinized epithelium.
 Epithelial surface is dry.
 Most superficial cells die.
 Nuclei ...
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM(UROTHELIUM)
 Multi layered.4 to 6 cell thick . Cell at the surface are not
squamous .
 Differs f...
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM FIGURE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 Definition-: The tissue which fills the interstices between more
specialized elements; and serves to h...
BASIC COMPONENTS OF GENERAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 1)Ground substance
 2)Fibres
 3)Cells
 1)Ground Substance-:Many tissues...
DIFFERENT FORM OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Loose connective tissue-: When we
examine a small quantity of superficial
fascia unde...
FIBROUS TISSUE
 In this fibre bundles are much more conspicuous and form a
dense mass. This kind of tissue is referred to...
REGULAR FIBROUS TISSUE
 In some situation
the bundle of
collagen fibres are
arranged parallel
to one another in
a very or...
EXAMPLE OF REGULAR FIBROUS TISSUE
 Apo neuroses 
 Intermuscular
septum
Ligaments Sheets of
deep fascia
ELASTIC TISSUE
 The bulk of connective tissue is
formed by elastic fibres; this is
called connective tissue.
 Yellow in ...
RETICULAR TISSUE
 Made up of reticular fibres.
 In many situations(e.g.
lymph nodes, glands)
these fibres form
supportin...
FIBRES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 COLLAGEN FIBRES-: Seen in
bundles, straight or wavy. The
bundle are made up of collection
of...
RETICULAR FIBRES
 These are a variety of collagen
fibres.(typeIII),much thinner,
uneven in thickness, they form
network o...
ELASTIC FIBRES
 In areolar tissue fibres are much
fewer.
 They run singly not in bundles.
 Branch and anastomose with
o...
CELLS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 3) Cells-: a) Cells that are intrinsic component .( fibroblast,
undifferentiated mesenchymal ...
FIBROBLAST(CELLS OF INTRINSIC COMPONENT)
 These are most numerous in
cells of connective tissue
called fibroblast.
 It c...
UNDIFFERENTIATED MESENCHYMAL CELL
 It is called embryonic
connective tissue is called
mesenchyme.
 It is made up of smal...
PIGMENT CELL
 Easily distinguished as
they contain brown
pigment called melanin in
their cytoplasm.
 Most abundant in
co...
FAT CELLS
 Are called adipocytes.
 Some amount of fat may
be present in cytoplasm.
 Also called lipocytes.
 Some cell ...
MACROPHAGE(CELLS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM)
 Large series of cell
present in the body.
 Collectively called
mononuclear phagocyte...
MAST CELL
 Small, rounded, oval cell
also called mastocytes or
histaminocytes.
 Nucleus is small centrally
placed irregu...
LYMPHOCYTES
 Represents a variety of leucocytes white
blood cell present in blood.
 Large aggregation of lymphocytes are...
EOSINOPHILS AND PLASMA CELLS
 EOSINOPHILS-:So called
because of presence of
eosinophilic granules in the
cytoplasm.
 Inc...
ADIPOSE TISSUE
 Basically an aggregation of fat cells. Also
called adipocytes. Each fat cell contains a
large droplet of ...
FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 Acts as a packing material.
 Provides supporting matrix for
many highly organised struct...
ELEMENTS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 Fibrous elements.
 A)Elastin fibres.
 B) Reticulin fibres.
 C) Collagen fibres.
 Non f...
SKIN
 Definition-: Is the general
covering of the entire
external surface of the body
including the external
auditory mea...
PIGMENTATION
 Colour of the skin is
determined by at least five
pigments present at different
levels.
 A) Melanin-: Brow...
THICKNESS
 Varies from 0.5 to3mm.
STRUCTURE
 Composed of 2 distinct layers,
epidermis and dermis.
 Epidermis-: a) Superficial b)
Avascular c) Stratified s...
DERMIS
 Deep vascular layer of the
skin.
 Derived from mesoderm.
 Constituent-: Connective
tissue,
bloodvessels,lymphat...
SURFACE IRREGULARITIES
 The skin is marked by 3 types
of surface irregularities.
 A) Tension lines-: Form a
network of l...
APPENDAGES OF SKIN
 NAIL
 HAIR
 SWEAT GLAND
 SEBACEOUS GLAND
NAIL
 Synonyms-: Onych,Ungues
 Definition-: Nails are hardened
keratin plates( cornified zone) on
the dorsal surface of ...
PARTS OF NAIL
 The skin( germinative zone
+corium) beneath the root
and body of the nail is called
nail bed. The germinat...
CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE NAIL
 Anaemia(Nails are pale and white)
 Koilonychias-: In iron deficiency anaemia nails are thi...
HAIR
 Hair are keratinous
filaments derived from
invaginations of the
germinative layer of
epidermis into the dermis.
 H...
PARTS OF HAIR
 Hair has a implanted part called root
and a projected part called shaft.
 The root is surrounded by a hai...
CLINICAL ANATOMY OF HAIR
 Hair exhibit alterations in certain diseases. In malnutrition hairs
become thin, dry and sparse...
SWEAT GLAND
 Sudoriferous or eccrine
glands or sweat gland are
distributed all over the
skin.
 Except lips,glans penis
a...
PARTS OF ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND
 Much abundant are distributed in almost
every part of skin.
 Each gland is a single tube ,...
PARTS OF APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND
 Confined to axilla,
eyelids(Moll’s glands , nipple
and areola of the
breast,perineal regio...
SEBACEOUS GLAND
 Producing an oily secretion are
widely distributed all over the
dermis of the skin except for
palm and s...
FUNCTION OF SEBACEOUS GLAND
 Holocrine in nature
 Secretion is under hormonal control, especially the androgens.
 The o...
FUNCTION OF THE SKIN
 1)Protection-: Skin protects the body from mechanical injuries,
bacterial infection, heat and cold,...
FASCIA
 Definition-: Is a general
coating of the body.
 Types-:1) Superficial
fascia
 2)Deep fascia.
SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
 Definition-: Is a general coating of the body beneath the skin made up
of loose areolar tissue with v...
DEEP FASCIA
 Definition-: Is a fibrous sheet which invests the body beneath
the superficial fascia. It is devoid of fat, ...
IMPORTANT FEATURES
 1) Extensions(prolongations)
of the deep fascia form:
 a) The inter muscular septa
which divide the ...
FUNCTION OF DEEP FASCIA
 1) Keep the underlying structures in position.
 2) Preserves the characteristic contour of the ...
THANK YOU
Eithelial tissue,connective tissue by Dr Jyoti Prakash Pani Associate Professor Anatomy MGMCRI Pondicherry Pillaiarkuppam
Eithelial tissue,connective tissue by Dr Jyoti Prakash Pani Associate Professor Anatomy MGMCRI Pondicherry Pillaiarkuppam
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Eithelial tissue,connective tissue by Dr Jyoti Prakash Pani Associate Professor Anatomy MGMCRI Pondicherry Pillaiarkuppam

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Eithelial tissue,connective tissue by Dr Jyoti Prakash Pani Associate Professor Anatomy MGMCRI Pondicherry Pillaiarkuppam

  1. 1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE , CONNECTIVE TISSUE DR JYOTI PRAKASH PANI ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ANATOMY MGMCRI, PONDICHERRY,PILLAIRKUPPAM,TAMILNADU, 607402
  2. 2. EPITHELIAL TISSUE
  3. 3. EPITHELIAL TISSUE Definition-: The tissue which lines the outer surface of the body and the luminal surface of cavities within the body. Also lines the duct and secretory elements of glands.
  4. 4. EPITHELIAL TISSUE FIGURE
  5. 5. EPITHELIUM DEFINITION-:Covering of the outer surface of the body and the luminal surface of cavities. Also lines the duct and secretory elements of gland.
  6. 6. EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIUM  UNILAYERED(SIMPLE)-:Consist of one layer of cell.  MULTILAYERED(STRATIFIED)-:Consist of multi layer of cell.
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIUM
  9. 9. TYPES OF SIMPLE EPITHELIUM  SQUAMOUS-: Cells are flat, height of the cell is very little as compared to the width.  CUBOIDAL-: Cells are cube shape, height and width of the cell are more or less equal.  COLUMNAR-: Cells are rectangle shape, height is distinctly greater than the width.
  10. 10. TYPES OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM  1i)Stratified squamous-: Multilayer, cell towards deeper layer are columnar but proceeding towards surface of the epithelium the cells become increasingly flattened(squamous)  1ii)Stratified cuboidal-: Made up of 2 or more layer of cuboidal cell.  1iii) Stratified columnar-: Made up of 2 or more layer of columnar cell. 2) Transitional epithelium( Urothelium )-: Multilayered,cuboidal,polygonal or rounded ,umbrella shape cell,Confined to the urinary tract.  Pseudo stratified columnar epithelium-: Really single layer of columnar epithelial cell but give false appearance of stratification.
  11. 11. TYPES OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
  12. 12. BASEMENT MEMBRANE  Is the membrane on which epithelium rests.
  13. 13. BASEMENT MEMBRANE FIGURE
  14. 14. SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM  Cytoplasm of cells in this kind of epithelium forms only a thin layer.  Nuclei produce bulging of the cell surface.  Cells shows polygonal outline(Surface view) interlock with those of adjoining cells.  EM-:Marked occluding junction between cells. Tightly sealed.  Example-: Alveoli of lungs, Free surface of serous pericardium , free surface of pleura, free surface of peritoneum called mesothelium , lines the inside of the heart called endocardium , lines the inside of blood vessels and lymphatic's called endothelium, lines some part of renal tubule and some part of internal ear.
  15. 15. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  16. 16. COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  In vertical section the cells of this epithelium are rectangular and elongated shape.  On surface view cells look polygonal.  Frequently elongated nuclei present and lie in a row towards the base of the cell.  Surface view or transverse section shows polygonal shape.  Classified according to the nature of the free surface of the cell. a)Simple columnar  b) Stratified columnar c)Ciliated columnar with striated border and brush border.
  17. 17. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
  18. 18. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHLIUM  Cell surface has no particular specialization .
  19. 19. CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  Cell surface bears cilia.
  20. 20. STRIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  Surface is covered with microvilli visible with EM with the light microscope the region of the microvilli is seen as striated border.(Microvilli’s are arranged regularly)
  21. 21. STRIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  22. 22. BRUSH BORDER  Microvilli’s are placed irregularly.
  23. 23. FUNCTION  Secretion by apical part of cytoplasm contain secretory vacuoles.  Example-: Present over mucous membrane of stomach and the large intestine.(Simple columnar without cilia or microvilli).  Example-: Columnar epithelium with striated border(Small intestine).  Example-: Columnar epithelium with brush border(Gall bladder).
  24. 24. CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  Function-: Expulsion of the foreign body.  Example-: Most of the respiratory tract, uterus, uterine tubes, efferent ductules of the testis , part of the middle ear, auditory tube, ependyma lining the central canal of the spinal cord, ventricles of the brain.  Move mucous accumulating in the bronchi.  Trapped dust particle towards larynx and pharynx.  When excessive this mucous is brought out as sputum during coughing.  Passage of ova towards uterus.(Uterine tube).
  25. 25. GOBLET CELL  They are secretory columnar cell scattered in the mucosa of stomach and intestines.  Present in apical part of cell.  Secrete mucous.  Lightly stained.  Acquire a characteristic shape.  Some columnar cell secrete enzyme.
  26. 26. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM  Similar to columnar epithelium.  Height of the cell is about the same as their width.  Nuclei are usually rounded.  Example-: Follicle of the thyroid gland, ducts of many gland, surface of the ovary called germinal epithelium, choroid plexus, inner surface of the lens, pigment cell layer of the retina.  Lines the secretory elements of many glands  Cuboidal epithelium with prominent brush border is seen in proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys.
  27. 27. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  28. 28. PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  Nuclei appear to arrange in two or more layer.  Epithelium is more than one cell thick.  Actually one layer of cell.  But some cells are broader near the base and other near the apex.  Nuclei lie in the broader part of each cell and are therefore not in one layer.  Not true stratified.
  29. 29. PSEUDO STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  30. 30. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM  Made up of several layers of cells.  Cell of the deepest or basal layer rest on the basement membrane. They are usually columnar in shape.  Lying over the columnar cells they are poly hedral or cuboidal cells.  As they pass towards the surface of the epithelium these cells become progressively flat.  Types-:a) Non keratinized b) Keratinized
  31. 31. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  32. 32. NON KERATINIZED  Surface epithelium remains moist.  Most superficial cells are living  Nuclei can be seen in them.  Example-: Found over the body surface that subject to friction.  Seen in, mouth,tongue,pharynx,oesophagus,vagina,cornea
  33. 33. KERATINIZED  Contrast to non keratinized epithelium.  Epithelial surface is dry.  Most superficial cells die.  Nuclei is lossed.  The cells contain a substance called keratin.  Example-: Skin surface of the whole body.  Shows frequent mitosis.
  34. 34. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM(UROTHELIUM)  Multi layered.4 to 6 cell thick . Cell at the surface are not squamous .  Differs from stratified squamous epithelium.  Deepest are columnar or cuboidal.  Middle layers are made up of poly hedral or pear shaped cell.  Cell of the surface layer are large and often shape like umbrella.  Example-: Renal pelvis and calyces, ureter, urinary bladder.  Nature-:Stretchable.( cells become flattened and rounded)
  35. 35. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM FIGURE
  36. 36. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  37. 37. CONNECTIVE TISSUE  Definition-: The tissue which fills the interstices between more specialized elements; and serves to hold them together and support them. It is otherwise called support tissue.  Example-: Superficial fascia.(When an area of skin is lifted off from underlying tissues (during dissection) the two are seen to be connected by a delicate network of fibres. It provides support to the delicate epithelial tissue.  In the section across a salivary gland some epithelium lined acini and one duct are seen. Filling the interstices between these elements there is connective tissue.  In oesophagus an epithelial lined mucosa separated by an short distance from thick layer of muscle. The interval between the two is filled by connective tissue. Over all these are called general connective tissue.
  38. 38. BASIC COMPONENTS OF GENERAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE  1)Ground substance  2)Fibres  3)Cells  1)Ground Substance-:Many tissues and organs of the body are made up mainly of aggregations of closely packed cells. e.g. epithelia and solid organs like liver. In contrast cells are relatively few in connective tissue. And are widely separated by a prominent intercellular substance. The intercellular substance is in form of ground substance. Within which there are numerous fibres.  2) Fibres ( embedded in amorphous ground substances or matrix)-:  a) Collagen fibres  b) Reticular fibres  c) Elastic fibres  3) Cells-: a) Cells that are intrinsic component .( fibroblast, undifferentiated mesenchymal cell, pigment cells, fat cells)  b) Cells belongs to immune system(Macrophage or histiocytes, mast cell, lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes, eosinophils)
  39. 39. DIFFERENT FORM OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE Loose connective tissue-: When we examine a small quantity of superficial fascia under a microscope at low magnification it is seen to be made up mainly of bundles of loosely arranged fibres that appear to enclose large space. This is loose connective tissue. Spaces are also called areola, and such tissue is also referred to as areolar tissue.
  40. 40. FIBROUS TISSUE  In this fibre bundles are much more conspicuous and form a dense mass. This kind of tissue is referred to as fibrous tissue. It appears white in colour and is sometimes called white fibrous tissue.
  41. 41. REGULAR FIBROUS TISSUE  In some situation the bundle of collagen fibres are arranged parallel to one another in a very orderly manner. This kind of tissue is called regular fibrous tissue or regular connective tissue.
  42. 42. EXAMPLE OF REGULAR FIBROUS TISSUE  Apo neuroses   Intermuscular septum Ligaments Sheets of deep fascia
  43. 43. ELASTIC TISSUE  The bulk of connective tissue is formed by elastic fibres; this is called connective tissue.  Yellow in colour.  Example: Ligamentum nuchae.( Back of the neck.  Ligamentum flava( Connect lamina of adjoining vertebra).  The vocal ligament of the larynx.  Deep layer of superficial fascia covering the anterior abdominal wall.  Fuse with each other to form sheet usually fenestrated. Such sheet support wall of large arteries.  They form internal elastic lamina in smaller arteries.
  44. 44. RETICULAR TISSUE  Made up of reticular fibres.  In many situations(e.g. lymph nodes, glands) these fibres form supporting networks for the cells.  In some situations(bone marrow,spleen,lymph nodes) the reticular network is closely associated with reticular cells. Many of these cells are fibroblasts, but some may be macrophages.
  45. 45. FIBRES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  COLLAGEN FIBRES-: Seen in bundles, straight or wavy. The bundle are made up of collection of individual collagen fibres. Bundle branch or anastomose with adjacent bundle but individual fibre do not branch.EM shows fibrils 20-200nm diameters.  Types-: I,II,III,IV  Types I-: Connective tissue,tendons,ligaments,fasciae, aponeuroses,dermis of skin,meninges.  TypeII-: 20-100nm diameter, Striations are less prominent, form fibrous basis of hyaline cartilage, present in vitreous body.  TypeIII-: Form reticular fibres.  TypeIV-: Short filament that form sheet, basal lamina of basement membrane, lens capsule.
  46. 46. RETICULAR FIBRES  These are a variety of collagen fibres.(typeIII),much thinner, uneven in thickness, they form network or reticulum by branching and by anastomosing with each other. They do not run in bundles, easily stained by silver impregnation, which renders them black, easily distinguish from type 1 collagen fibres which are stain brown, because of their affinity to silver salt are called argentophil fibres, contain more carbohydrates, provide supporting network,Ex. Spleen,lymphnode,bone marrow,gland,liver,kidney,essent ial component of all basement membrane, smooth muscle, nerve fibres.
  47. 47. ELASTIC FIBRES  In areolar tissue fibres are much fewer.  They run singly not in bundles.  Branch and anastomose with other fibres.  Thinner than collagen fibres.(0.1-0.2µm)  Periodic striation not present.  In some situation they are thick  E.g. Ligamenta flava.  Wall of large arteries they form fenestrated membrane.  EM view shows central amorphous core and a outer layer of fibrils made up of glycoprotein's called fibrillin.
  48. 48. CELLS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  3) Cells-: a) Cells that are intrinsic component .( fibroblast, undifferentiated mesenchymal cell, pigment cells, fat cells)  b) Cells belongs to immune system(Macrophage or histiocytes, mast cell, lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes, eosinophils)
  49. 49. FIBROBLAST(CELLS OF INTRINSIC COMPONENT)  These are most numerous in cells of connective tissue called fibroblast.  It concerned with the production and lay down of collagen fibres.  They are fixed cell in tissue section these cell appear spindle shape, flat nucleus, surface view shows branching processes.  Nucleus is large euchromatic and has prominent nucleoli. The amount of cytoplasm and of organelle varies depending upon activity. In inactive fibroblast the cytoplasm becomes scanty and the nucleus is heterochromatic. Often called fibrocytes.  Function-:Protein synthesis.
  50. 50. UNDIFFERENTIATED MESENCHYMAL CELL  It is called embryonic connective tissue is called mesenchyme.  It is made up of small cells with slender branching processes.  That joins to form a fine network.
  51. 51. PIGMENT CELL  Easily distinguished as they contain brown pigment called melanin in their cytoplasm.  Most abundant in connective tissue of the skin, choroid and iris of the eyeball.  It varies in different races and different individuals.  Contain pigment in their cytoplasm actually synthesizing melanin called melanocytes are of neural crest origin.
  52. 52. FAT CELLS  Are called adipocytes.  Some amount of fat may be present in cytoplasm.  Also called lipocytes.  Some cell stores fat in large amount and become distended with it.  Aggregation of fat cell constitute adipose tissue.
  53. 53. MACROPHAGE(CELLS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM)  Large series of cell present in the body.  Collectively called mononuclear phagocyte system.  Macrophage cells of connective tissue are also called histiocytes or clasmatocytes.  They have the ability to eat up or phagocytose unwanted cells includes bacteria.  Such material is usually organic.
  54. 54. MAST CELL  Small, rounded, oval cell also called mastocytes or histaminocytes.  Nucleus is small centrally placed irregular microvilli or filipodia are present on the cell surface.  Distinguish feature is numerous granules are present in cytoplasm demonstrated with PAS stain.  Metachromatic staining.
  55. 55. LYMPHOCYTES  Represents a variety of leucocytes white blood cell present in blood.  Large aggregation of lymphocytes are present in lymphoid tissue.  They reach connective tissue from these sources and are especially numerous when the tissue undergoes inflammation.  Play an important role in defence of the body against invasion by bacteria and other organisms.  They have the ability to recognize substances that are foreign to the host body.  And to destroy these invaders by producing antibodies against them.  Types-: B-Lymphocytes –Pass through blood to reach other tissue and mature into plasma cells.  T-Lymphocytes travel through blood from bone marrow to thymus.
  56. 56. EOSINOPHILS AND PLASMA CELLS  EOSINOPHILS-:So called because of presence of eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm.  Increase in number in allergic condition.  PLASMA CELLS-:  Increase in number in certain types of inflammation.  Small rounded chromatin in its nucleus form 4 to 5 clumps near the periphery of the nucleus. Thus giving the nucleus a resemblance to a cart wheel.  Cytoplasm is basophilic.  Function-:Synthetic activity.  Produce antibodies that may be discharge locally may enter the circulation or may be stored within the cell itself in the form of inclusions called Russell's bodies.
  57. 57. ADIPOSE TISSUE  Basically an aggregation of fat cells. Also called adipocytes. Each fat cell contains a large droplet of fat that almost fills it. As result cell becomes rounded. When several fat cells are closely packed they become polygonal because of mutual pressure.  Cytoplasm is thin just deep to plasma membrane. The nucleus is pushed against the plasma membrane and is flattened.  Distribution-: Superficial fascia. Subcutaneous layer of fat is called panniculus adiposus.  Gives smooth contour to the skin.  Fills several hollow spaces in the body. These include orbit axillae and the ischiorectal fossae.  Present in bone marrow.  Present in many abdominal organs around it. E.g. Kidney-: Perinephric fat.  Considerably stored in greater omentum and in other peritoneal folds.  Function-: 1) Acts as store house of nutrition.  Regarded as insulator against heat loss.
  58. 58. FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  Acts as a packing material.  Provides supporting matrix for many highly organised structures.  Forms restraining mechanism of the body in the form of retinacula, cheque ligament and fibrous pulley.  Preserves the characteristic contour of the limbs.(deep fascia)  Aid circulation in the vein’s and lymphatic's.  Provides surface coating of the body in the form of superficial fascia. Stores fat and conserves body heat.  Connective tissue develops from embryonic mesenchyme. These are capable of transformation into each type of connective tissue.  Provides additional surface for the attachment of muscles in the form of deep fascia, intermuscular septa and interosseous membranes.  Forms fascial planes which provide convenient pathway for blood vessels,lymphatics and nerves.  Facilitates movements between adjacent structures and by forming bursal sacs it minimizes friction and pressure effects.  Helps in repair of injuries where by the fibroblast lay down collagen fibres to form the scar tissue.  Macrophage serves a defensive function against the bacterial invasion.  Plasma cells are capable of producing antibodies.  Pigment cell protect the skin against ultra violate rays.
  59. 59. ELEMENTS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  Fibrous elements.  A)Elastin fibres.  B) Reticulin fibres.  C) Collagen fibres.  Non fibrous elements.  A) Ground substances.  B)Amorphous crystals.
  60. 60. SKIN  Definition-: Is the general covering of the entire external surface of the body including the external auditory meatus and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane.  It is continuous with the mucous membrane at the orifices of the body.
  61. 61. PIGMENTATION  Colour of the skin is determined by at least five pigments present at different levels.  A) Melanin-: Brown in colour present in the germinative zone of the epidermis.  B) Melanoid,resembles melanin ,present diffusely through out the epidermis.  C) Carotene, yellow to orange in colour present in stratum corneum  D) Haemoglobin  E) Oxyhaemoglobin,present in the cutaneous vessels.
  62. 62. THICKNESS  Varies from 0.5 to3mm.
  63. 63. STRUCTURE  Composed of 2 distinct layers, epidermis and dermis.  Epidermis-: a) Superficial b) Avascular c) Stratified squamous epithelium d) Origin ectodermal e) Give rise mainly to appendages of the skin namely hair,nails,sweat glands and sebaceous glands.  Structurally made up of a superficial cornified zone(stratum corneum and stratum luciderm) and deep germinative zone.(stratum germinativum,stratum granulosum)
  64. 64. DERMIS  Deep vascular layer of the skin.  Derived from mesoderm.  Constituent-: Connective tissue, bloodvessels,lymphatics and nerves.  Arranged into superficial papillary layer, a deep reticular layer.  Superficial papillary layer forms conical , blunt projections(dermal papillae)which fit into reciprocal depressions on the under surface of the epidermis.  Deep reticular layer is composed chiefly of the white fibrous tissue arranged mostly in parallel bundles.
  65. 65. SURFACE IRREGULARITIES  The skin is marked by 3 types of surface irregularities.  A) Tension lines-: Form a network of linear furrows which divide the surface into polygonal or lozenge shape areas.  B) Flexure lines-: Are certain permanent lines along which the skin folds during habitual movements chiefly flexion of the joints.  C) Papillary ridges-: Are confined to palms and soles and their digits. They form narrow ridges separated by fine parallel grooves.
  66. 66. APPENDAGES OF SKIN  NAIL  HAIR  SWEAT GLAND  SEBACEOUS GLAND
  67. 67. NAIL  Synonyms-: Onych,Ungues  Definition-: Nails are hardened keratin plates( cornified zone) on the dorsal surface of the tip of the fingers and toes ,acting as a rigid support for the digital pads of terminal phalanges.  Parts-:Root-: Proximal hidden part.  Free border-: Is the distal part free from the skin.  Body-: Is the exposed part of the nail which is adherent to the underlying skin.  Lunule-: Proximal part of the body presents a white opaque cresent called.  Each lateral border of the nail body is overlapped by a fold of a skin,termed the nail wall.
  68. 68. PARTS OF NAIL  The skin( germinative zone +corium) beneath the root and body of the nail is called nail bed. The germinative zone of the nail bed beneath the root and lunule is thick and proliferative (germinal matrix) and is responsible for the growth of the nail.  The rest of the nail bed is thin ( sterile matrix) over which the growing nail glides.  Corium is very vascular. This accounts for their pink colour.
  69. 69. CLINICAL ANATOMY OF THE NAIL  Anaemia(Nails are pale and white)  Koilonychias-: In iron deficiency anaemia nails are thin, brittle and spoon shaped.  Clubbing-: Hypertrophy of the nail bed cause in suppurative disease like lung abscess, bronchiectasis,osteomylitis ,severe type of cyanosis (Fallot’s tetrology, chronic congestive cardiac failure).  Disturbance of the nail growth due to acute illness or trauma give rise to transverse grooves in the nail substances.
  70. 70. HAIR  Hair are keratinous filaments derived from invaginations of the germinative layer of epidermis into the dermis.  Help in conservation of body heat.  Distributed all over the body except for the palm and sole, dorsal surface of distal phalanges, umbilicus, glans penis, inner surface of prepuce ect.
  71. 71. PARTS OF HAIR  Hair has a implanted part called root and a projected part called shaft.  The root is surrounded by a hair follicle( a sheath of epidermis and dermis), and is expanded at its proximal end to form the hair bulb.  Each hair bulb is invaginated at its end by the hair papilla( vascular connective tissue) which forms the neurovascular hilum of the hair and its sheath.  Hair grows at the hair bulb by proliferation of its cells capping the papilla.  The arrectores pilorum muscles (smooth muscle supplied by sympathetic nerve) connect the under surface of the follicles to the superficial part of the dermis.  Contraction of this muscle leads to erection of hair, squeezes out the sebum and produces goose skin.  Growth rate-: 1.5-2.2mm/week  Life span-:4month-4years
  72. 72. CLINICAL ANATOMY OF HAIR  Hair exhibit alterations in certain diseases. In malnutrition hairs become thin, dry and sparse ; in hypothyroidism they become coarse and dry.  Excessive growth of hair is called hirsutism occur in adrenogenital syndrome.  Loss of hair is known as alopecia.
  73. 73. SWEAT GLAND  Sudoriferous or eccrine glands or sweat gland are distributed all over the skin.  Except lips,glans penis and nail bed.  Types-:2-: Eccrine and Apocrine.
  74. 74. PARTS OF ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND  Much abundant are distributed in almost every part of skin.  Each gland is a single tube ,the deep part which coiled into a ball.  The coiled part , called the body of the gland, lies in the deeper part of corium or in the subcutaneous tissue.  The straight part, called the duct traverses the dermis and epidermis and opens on the surface of the skin.  The glands are large in the axilla and groin most numerous in palms and sole.  Merocrine in nature.(Produce thin watery secretion without disintegration of the epithelial cell).  Supplied by cholinergic sympathetic nerve.  Function-: 1)Regulation of body temperature by evaporation of sweat.  2)Help in excreting body salt.
  75. 75. PARTS OF APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND  Confined to axilla, eyelids(Moll’s glands , nipple and areola of the breast,perineal region, and the external genitalia.  They are larger than eccrine glands and produce a thicker secretion having a characteristic odour. They develop in close association with hair and their ducts typically open into the distal ends of the hair follicles.  Also merocrine in nature.  Regulated by dual autonomic control.  On average 1 litre of sweat is secreted per day.
  76. 76. SEBACEOUS GLAND  Producing an oily secretion are widely distributed all over the dermis of the skin except for palm and sole.  Abundant in scalp , face, aperture of the ear,nose,mouth and anus.  Small sacculated in appearance.  Made up of clusters about 2-5 piriform alveoli.  Their ducts opens into the hair follicles .  With the exception of lips, glans penis,inner surface of prepuce, labia minora, nipple and areola of the breast and tarsal glands of the eyelids where the ducts open on the surface of skin.  Holocrine in nature(Produce their secretion by complete fatty degenaration of the central cells of the alveolus).
  77. 77. FUNCTION OF SEBACEOUS GLAND  Holocrine in nature  Secretion is under hormonal control, especially the androgens.  The oily secretion of the sebaceous glands is called sebum.  Lubricates the skin and protects it from moisture , desiccation, and the harmful sunrays. Sebum also lubricates hair and prevent them from becoming brittle.  Sebum is also bactericidal in action.  Makes the skin water proof.  Water evaporates from the skin but the fats and oils are absorb by it.  CLINIICAL ANATOMY-:1) Excessive oiliness of the skin due to over activity of the sebaceous glands is called seborrhoea.  Acne vulgaris is a common complication of seborrhoea.  Sebaceous cyst is common in scalp. It is due to obstruction of the duct of a sebaceous gland caused either by trauma or infection.
  78. 78. FUNCTION OF THE SKIN  1)Protection-: Skin protects the body from mechanical injuries, bacterial infection, heat and cold, wet and drought, acid and alkali and the actinic rays of the sun.  2)Sensory-: Skin is sensory to touch, pain and temperature.  3) Regulation of body temperature-: Heat is lost through evaporation of the sweat;and heat is conserved by the fat and hair.  4) Absorption-: Oily substances are freely absorbed by the skin.  5) Secretion-: Secrete sweat and sebum.  6)Excretion-: The excess of water, salts and waste products are excreted through the sweat.  7)Regulation of Ph-: A good amount of acid is excreted through the sweat.  8) Synthesis-: In the skin Vit.D is synthesized from ergo sterol by the action of ultra violate rays of the sun.  9)Storage-: Stores chloride.  10) Reparative-: The cuts and wounds of the skin are quickly healed.
  79. 79. FASCIA  Definition-: Is a general coating of the body.  Types-:1) Superficial fascia  2)Deep fascia.
  80. 80. SUPERFICIAL FASCIA  Definition-: Is a general coating of the body beneath the skin made up of loose areolar tissue with varying amounts of fat.  Important features-:1) More distinct in the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall,perinium and the limbs.  2) It is very thin on the dorsal aspect of the hands and feet ,sides of the neck, face and around the anus.  3)Very dense on the scalp , palms and soles.  4)Superficial fascia shows stratification (into 2 layers) in the lower part of anterior abdominal wall,perinium and upper most part of the thighs.  5) It contains-: a) Subcutaneous muscles in the face , neck and scrotum.  b) Mammary gland c) Deeply situated sweat glands d) Localized groups of lymph nodes e) Cutaneous nerves and vessels.  Function->1) Facilitates movements of the skin.  2)Serves as soft medium for passage of vessels and nerves.  3) Conserves body heat because fat is a bad conductor of heat.
  81. 81. DEEP FASCIA  Definition-: Is a fibrous sheet which invests the body beneath the superficial fascia. It is devoid of fat, and is usually inelastic and tough.  Distribution-:1) Best defined in limbs where it forms tough and tight sleeves.  2) Ill defined on the trunk and face.
  82. 82. IMPORTANT FEATURES  1) Extensions(prolongations) of the deep fascia form:  a) The inter muscular septa which divide the limb into compartments.  b) Fibroareolar sheath for the muscles, vessels, nerves.  2) Thickening of the deep fascia form: Retinacula around certain joints like wrist and ankle.  d) Palmar and plantar aponeuroses for the for the protection of nerves and blood vessels.  3) Interruptions in the deep fascia on the subcutaneous bones.
  83. 83. FUNCTION OF DEEP FASCIA  1) Keep the underlying structures in position.  2) Preserves the characteristic contour of the limb and neck.  3) Provides extra surface for muscular attachments.  4) Helps in venous and lymphatic return.  5) Assist muscles in their action by degree of tension and pressure it exerts upon their surfaces.  6) The retinacula acts as a pulley and serve to prevent the loss of power.  7) Synovial sheath of the tendon minimizes the friction.  ************************************************************************ ****************************************  THE END
  84. 84. THANK YOU

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