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Interactive E-Books

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These slides were shown on the Eduhub Webinar on 11 Dec. 2014. The presentation covers the origins of e-books, a categorisation of interaction types for e-books, and an outlook for integrating e-books into education.

Veröffentlicht in: Mobil

Interactive E-Books

  1. 1. Interactive E-books Christian Glahn
  2. 2. For swiss academics Interactive E-books = Enhanced digital book publications
  3. 3. 1. The Web, mobiles, and e-books 2. Modes of interactivity 3. Interactivity and managed learning
  4. 4. Once upon a time … the WWW and PDF were new (1993/4) PDF HTML
  5. 5. … but then computers went mobile • 1st popular smart device (1996) • Low resolution screen (160x160px) • Monochrome graphics • Sync-by-wire • 1st “e-book” readers (ereaders) • MobiPocket* • Documents2Go • Acrobat for PalmOS “Re spo nsive Desig n” appears around 10yrs later!
  6. 6. E-books reach out to domains where the WWW and PDF fail(ed) to meet the user-requirements. • Offline capability • Re-floatable content
  7. 7. E-books are “mobile first” resources by design! Web-technologies became (much) later part of the game. “Web-only e-books” are a b i g N o - N o !
  8. 8. PDFs are no e-books?? What is an E-Book?
  9. 9. E-books are content-packaging formats for distributing publications to a wide range of digital displaying technologies The content will adapt to the displaying capabilities of the “ereader”.
  10. 10. For co mpariso n … PDF is a content format for the lossless distribution of layouted documents to a wide range of printing and displaying devices. The content looks the same on every “ereader”.
  11. 11. E-books are content-packaging formats for distributing publications to a wide range of digital displaying technologies
  12. 12. E-books are content-packaging formats for distributing publications to a wide range of digital displaying technologies
  13. 13. EPUB version 2 uses XHTML + CSS2 for formatting. • Mostly text and images • Basic interaction EPUB version 3 uses HTML5 for formatting and interaction. (HTML+CSS3+Javascript) • Multi-media documents • Complex interaction (sometimes possible)
  14. 14. E-books are no longer limited to text and images. But many "ereaders" already have problems with handling images correctly
  15. 15. EPUB introduces “fixed-layout” documents as alternative to “reflowable” documents. Kiss Mar r y Avo i d X
  16. 16. EPUB3 introduces scripting for interactive content "Progressive enhancement” for mos t accessible content!
  17. 17. EPUB3 defines ereaders as runtime environments for interactive content. Can we publish apps as e-books?!
  18. 18. The Line Between Apps, Web-apps, and E-books Native Apps Web-Apps E-books Full Device Capabilities Online Business Logic Business Logic Complexity Interactive Content
  19. 19. E-books support different interactions • Annotations • References (Links) • Interactive graphics • Quizzes • Interactive storylines Ease of authoring Interoperability
  20. 20. Annotations • Audience-based document enrichment • All ereaders provide basic annotation. • Highlights • Notes • Many ereaders offer also collaborative annotations. • New Specifications for sharable annotations • Open Annotation • EPUB Content Fragment Identifier (epubcfi) Collaborative annotations in Kindle http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/ Annotation tools in iBooks http://www.idpf.org/epub/linking/cfi/epub-cfi.html
  21. 21. Footnotes and Links • HTML anchors and links help to move between chapters and sections • “epub:type” links allow to create pop-ups • Footnotes • Glossaries • Bibliographies (Some readers require back-references)
  22. 22. Interactive Graphics • SVG or HTML5 Canvas graphics preferred • Works well for diagrams • PNG or JPEG if photos are required • A lot of Javascript is necessary! Many authors and ereaders fail here Example taken from Sanders Kleinfeld: HTML5 for publishers; O'Reilly
  23. 23. Quizzes • HTML form elements and form-like interactions • Some Javascript necessary! Most authors and ereaders will fail here
  24. 24. Interactive storylines • Different levels of interactivity • Content-level scripting • Changes the content in one chapter • Spine-level scripting • Changes the flow of the entire document • Javascript manipulation required Mos t authors and ereaders fail here
  25. 25. Supporting Ereader Capabilities Providing fallback content for non-scriptable ereaders is mandatory! • epub:switch, epub:case, and epub:default • Choose between ereader capabilities at content level. • No scripting required. "Progressive enhancement” means: start f rom the fallback pre sentation!
  26. 26. The Persistency Pitfall Persistency of interaction results does not come for free! Ereaders force reset the scripting engine when • Changing chapters • Changing layouts
  27. 27. The Future: Reducing Complexity for Authors New widget specification for EPUB • Organise interaction logic in (reusable) content blocks. • Separate interaction elements from main content. • Embed via iframe-elements http://www.idpf.org/epub/widgets/ Widget example in iBooks
  28. 28. E-books and Managed Learning
  29. 29. SCORM E-books are content-packaging formats for distributing publications to a wide range of digital displaying technologies
  30. 30. vs. • (X)HTML as the primary data format • Embedded interaction • Sequencing via pagination (and scripts) • No user-interaction handling • No sessions • Undefined back-channels • Mixed data-formats • Interaction objects (SCOs) • Defined sequencing via IMS Simple Sequencing • User-interaction handling • Session aware • Back-channel definition via CMI
  31. 31. Overcoming the Gap for Managed Learning EDUPUB® profile adapts the functionality of the EPUB® 3 format to the unique structural, semantic and behavioural requirements of educational publishing. • Metadata • Additional instructor notes • (Distributable content) • (Scriptable content) • (Assessment via IMS QTITM) • (Analytics via IMS Caliper AnalyticsTM) • (Annotations) Ve r y e ar ly working draft! http://www.idpf.org/epub/profiles/edu/spec
  32. 32. EDUPUB Assessment and Analytics will take some time • EDUPUB will require IMS LTI conformance for back-channels • IMS LTI defines service interactions not content interactions. • “Man in the middle” is built into the design Ve r y early working draft! http://www.imsglobal.org/edupub/EPUB3QTILTICaliper_BestPracticesvd8.pdf
  33. 33. Overcoming the Gap for Managed Learning EPUB and XAPI Integration (IEEE ADB Initiative) • Interactions are stored as experiences • No special content extensions required • Experiences are available throughout the book • Experiences could get exchanged with other systems at content level New, but based on exis ting specifications and techno logies
  34. 34. XAPI lo oks promising, but there are hidden challenges EPUB does not define how to organise back-channels. Not a technical problem!
  35. 35. Who owns the E-book Back-channels? Authors Publishers Readers & Institutions (teachers/learners) Distributors
  36. 36. Who owns the E-book Back-channels? Authors Publishers Readers & Institutions (teachers/learners) Distributors back-channels define The ereader the interaction complexity
  37. 37. X Who owns the E-book Back-channels? XX Authors Publishers Readers & Institutions (teachers/learners) Distributors Amazon Apple Google
  38. 38. Who owns the E-book Back-channels? X Authors Publishers Readers & Institutions (teachers/learners) Distributors Swiss Law XX
  39. 39. Who owns the E-book Back-channels? Authors Readers & Institutions (teachers/learners) Publishers Distributors ?
  40. 40. Summary • E-books are mobile-first resources • E-books are not limited to text and images, but keep the accessibility in mind • Ereaders are runtime environments for interactive e-book content • Interactive e-books require software development skills (for the time being) • E-books are very similar to SCORM Modules (and may replace them in some cases) • Access to interaction back-channels guide the effectiveness of e-books in education (and elsewhere)
  41. 41. Dr. Christian Glahn http://www.isn.ethz.ch @phish108 http://slidesha.re/phish108 http://lo-f.at/glahn