Más contenido relacionado




Positive Psychology 1

  1. Positive Psychology Peter Gowers IT Supervisor, and very amateur positive psychology student
  2. What is Stress? • Stress is any demand that creates tension and requires adaptation or change. • Stress is triggered by the mind based on our perception of events in our environment. • Eustress (good stress): – any venture which is approached with zest, anticipation, or confidence. • Distress (bad stress): – Anguish of the body or mind – Slows us down in the short run – Leads to exhaustion – Harms our physical or emotional health Source - W. J. Talamonti, M.D., MPH Medical Director – PPT for US Lunch and Learn
  3. What is Positive Psychology? • “Scientific Study of optimal human functioning that aims to discover and promote the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive” Martin Seligman, founder of PP • Reaction to Normal Psychology – Long term work to cure mental illness and return to zero – Disease model of people • Positive Psychology looks to help people nurture talent and improve normal lives • A very large collection of loosely coupled positive constructs. Today we’ll look at: – Happiness – Optimism – Strengths – Motivation and Goals
  4. Happiness Happiness is a state of mind or feeling characterized by contentment, love, satisfaction, pleasure, or joy Cambridge Dictionary
  5. Is happiness Just pleasure? Aristotle “True happiness is found by leading a virtuous life and doing what is worth doing. He argued that realising human potential is the ultimate human goal”
  6. More Happiness Perspectives • “I am very happy about how I am doing. The only thing I wanted to prove when I got here was that I was a good player, and I hope I have achieved so” - David Beckham • “I don't believe in happy endings, but I do believe in happy travels, because ultimately, you die at a very young age” George Clooney • “Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony”. Mahatma Gandhi • “We are as happy as we make up our minds to be.” Abraham Lincoln • “The secret of happiness is not in doing what one likes, but in liking what one has to do.” James M. Barrie
  7. How does PP define Happiness • Happiness = Subjective Well Being (SWB) in PP. – Pleasure – “I feel Good” – Satisfaction with life • Additionally there is Eudaimonic Well Being (EWB) – Aristotle – Meaning, being true to yourself – Realising Human Potential
  8. Measuring Happiness • Once you measure you can test it like you would a drug. • Data – Controlled groups – Placebo – Large studies, long time • So we really can know what makes us happy
  9. Measurable! • enter.aspx • PG score 3.38 out of 5. top 72% in post code. Pretty Average in the other categories
  10. What makes us happy Mostly taken from Boniwell (2008)
  11. Are we happier if • We’re more attractive Physically
  12. Are we happier if • We’re Married?
  13. Are we happier if • We have Children?
  14. Are we happier if • We’re healthy? Objective Health – What an expert Says Subjective Health – What we think.
  15. You Win the Lottery? 1 Year on Are we happier if
  16. Some More SWB is related to: SWB is not really related to: Optimism Age (although there are somewhat contradictory findings in this respect) Extraversion In three months, the effects of being fired or promoted lose their impact on happiness level. Social connections, i.e. close friendships Money (once the basic needs are met, the difference between the very rich & alright is negligible) Real income has risen dramatically in the prosperous nations over the last 50 years, but levels of SWB have stayed flat. Watching Soap Operas Gender (women are more often depressed but also more often joyful) Having engaging work Education level Religion or spirituality Having children (see the next page for further clarification) Leisure Moving to a sunnier climate (in fact, moving to Australia will increase your SWB only by 1-2 %) Good sleep & exercise Crime prevention Social class (through lifestyle differences & better coping methods) Housing Adapted from Boniwell (2008)
  17. Nuns • Great Control group – They didn't smoke or drink, had a balanced diet and worked as teachers • One study analysed the application letters of nuns entering convents at the age of 18 for expressions of happiness • Happiness expressed in these letters at the age of 18 predicted life duration • It looks like happiness can buy you an extra 9.4 years of life Source: Boniwell (2008)
  18. Changing your Happiness Source: Boniwell (2008)
  19. Gratitude Visit. • Someone who Affected you positively • 300 Word testimonial • Visit and present them with it as a surprise. • Tested positive for happiness even after significant time Source: Seligman Video (
  20. Optimism What do you think will happen?
  21. Source: Boniwell (2008) Optimistic and pessimistic explanatory style Event Optimist would say: Pessimist would say: Good event (e.g. passing an exam) Internal: I’ve done a great job.Stable: I am talented.Global: This was a good start to the exam season. The other ones should be easy too. External: Don’t know how this happened. It must’ve been luck.Unstable: Every dog has its day.Specific: So what? I can still fail the next one. Bad event (e.g. failing an exam) External: The exam questions were simply terrible. Unstable: No problem, I’ll pass it next time round.Specific: Yesterday was my birthday after all. Internal: It’s all my fault, I haven’t prepared well.Stable: I am never going to pass this exam.Global: This is the end to my dreams, I’ll never become who I want to be. PERSONAL – PERVASIVE – PERMANENT EXTERNAL - SPECIFIC - TEMPORARY
  22. Learned Optimism - Seligman • Origin – Learned helplessness – Can we compare to Companies? • You can Change how Optimistic you are – Disadvantages • Aeroplane Safety Checks/Rising fuel Prices – reality. • Morality not personal responsibility – Big Advantages • Less distress and better coping • More productive • Deal with reality, not denial • Less likely to give up • Health promoting behaviour – Maybe it’s a balance Source: Seligman (2006)
  23. Source: Seligman (2006) Personal Exercise - How • Think of an example at work: – The most difficult thing you encounter – The time when your job gets really discouraging – You feel you’ve hit a brick wall. • Now think what you do when you hit the wall. – Adversity - Objective – Beliefs - Thoughts – Consequences – Feelings and behaviour – Disputation and Distraction – Alternative views, STOP! – Energisation – Over time become optimistic PERSONAL – PERVASIVE – PERMANENT EXTERNAL - SPECIFIC - TEMPORARY
  24. •Activating Event •A major IT Issue in my area •Some people quite grumpy •Beliefs •Things should not go wrong in my area. •People should not be grumpy with me, I am a nice person. •Consequences • Angry, hurt, annoyed, out of control. •Disputation • There is no universal law that things should not go wrong in my area. • Although I would like people to not be grumpy with me, it is illogical to require it. I cannot control other people’s thoughts and behaviours.
  25. Strengths
  26. Exercise • When you are at your best what are you doing? • What are the most energising things that you do? • Where do you gain the most energy from? • What gives you the greatest sense of being who you really are? • Pick 1 or more and discuss with someone or just make your own notes. Source: Linley (2008)
  27. Feedback • How did it feel to focus in just a small way on your strengths? • How often do you do that normally?
  28. Advantages to knowing and following your strengths • Insight and perspective • Generates Optimism • Provides sense of Direction • Helps to Develop Confidence • Generates Sense of Vitality • Fulfillment • Helps achieve Goals! • Buffers pain Source: Boniwell (2008)
  29. Strengths • Conventional Wisdom – Understand and know our weaknesses – Everyone can learn to be competent at almost anything – Greatest potential for growth is your areas of weakness
  30. Strengths • An Alternative way – Know your strengths – Find roles that fit your strengths – Craft your existing role to utilise your strengths – Find ways to apply talent – Try to use your strengths in a new way – Not just Work E.g. Strengths Date
  31. Know Your Strengths • Inventory – many sources. E.g. authentichappiness
  32. What Strengths? • 24 character strengths – Creativity to Spirituality • 6 Virtues – E.g. Wisdom • Signature strengths - universal – Apply to work,relationships, play, parenting.
  33. Motivation and Goals The Art of remembering what you truly want
  34. Life Goals • Feeling Happy and having meaning depends on our ability to choose direction aligned with your Values • Set and think about Goals – Did you do that lately? – More personal than Smart – Feasible, personally meaningful, committed, intrinsic, community, intimacy, growth, congruent, valued, non conflicting
  35. Motivation • The force behind getting up • Extrinsic Motivation – For the sake of something else • Intrinsic Motivation – For the sake of itself
  36. Intrinsic Motivation • Why do we fail? – Forcing, cajoling or rewarding are not as successful – What we’re trying to do is less important to us than other things – Fear of failure, so we don’t try. “What would I do if I wasn’t Afraid?” – Spencer Johnson (1999) • Awakening Intrinsic Motivation – Give yourself and those you work with the chance to make as many choices as you can – When Delegating – provide meaningful rationale – Acknowledge your feelings Source: Boniwell (2008)
  37. The End • Happiness • Strengths • Optimism • Goals and Motivation Any Questions?
  38. References • Positive Psychology in a Nutshell: A Balanced Introduction to the Science of Optimal Functioning (second edition) (Paperback) by Ilona Boniwell (Author) PWBC; 2nd edition edition (15 May 2008) ISBN-13: 978-0954838782 • Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Human Strengths (Paperback) by Alan Carr Routledge; 1 edition (4 Dec 2003) ISBN-13: 978-1583919910 • Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realise Your Potential for Lasting Fulfilment (Paperback) by Martin E.P. Seligman Nicholas Brealey Publishing (6 Mar 2003) ISBN-13: 978-1857883299 • Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life (Paperback) by Martin E. P Seligman Publisher: Vintage Books USA; Reprint edition (14 Mar 2006) ISBN-13: 978- 1400078394 • Average to A+: Realising Strengths in Yourself and Others (Paperback) by Alex Linley Publisher: CAPP Press (29 Feb 2008) ISBN-13: 978-1906366032 • • • Who Moved My Cheese?: An Amazing Way to Deal with Change in Your Work and in Your Life (Paperback) by Spencer JohnsonPublisher: Vermilion; Reprinted Ed edition (4 Mar 1999) ISBN-13: 978-0091816971 •